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Devastating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714328/neuronal-expression-of-the-mitochondrial-protein-prohibitin-confers-profound-neuroprotection-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Anja Kahl, Corey J Anderson, Liping Qian, Henning Voss, Giovanni Manfredi, Costantino Iadecola, Ping Zhou
The mitochondrial protein prohibitin (PHB) has emerged as an important modulator of neuronal survival in different injury modalities . We previously showed that viral gene transfer of PHB protects CA1 neurons from delayed neurodegeneration following transient forebrain ischemia through mitochondrial mechanisms. However, since PHB is present in all cell types, it is not known if its selective expression in neurons is protective, and if the protection occurs also in acute focal ischemic brain injury, the most common stroke type in humans...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710084/neuroprotective-strategies-following-intraparenchymal-hemorrhage
#2
REVIEW
Robin Moshe Babadjouni, Ryan E Radwanski, Brian P Walcott, Arati Patel, Ramon Durazo, Drew M Hodis, Benjamin A Emanuel, William J Mack
Intracerebral hemorrhage and, more specifically, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, are devastating disease processes with poor clinical outcomes. Primary injury to the brain results from initial hematoma expansion while secondary hemorrhagic injury occurs from blood-derived products such as hemoglobin, heme, iron, and coagulation factors that overwhelm the brains natural defenses. Novel neuroprotective treatments have emerged that target primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. Nonetheless, translational application of neuroprotectants from preclinical to clinical studies has yet to show beneficial clinical outcomes...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695979/withdrawal-of-treatment-after-devastating-brain-injury-post-cardiac-arrest-pathways-lead-in-best-practice
#3
EDITORIAL
A R Manara, D K Menon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674346/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-traumatic-cerebrovascular-injury-pitfalls-in-the-management-of-neurotrauma
#4
Hitoshi Kobata
Traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) is an uncommon clinical entity in traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet it may cause devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and prioritized strategic treatment are of paramount importance. A total of 1966 TBI patients admitted between 1999 and 2015 in our tertiary critical care center were reviewed. Screening of TCVI was based on the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury in Japan. TCVI was confirmed in 33 (1.7%) patients; 29 blunt and 4 penetrating injuries...
June 30, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670576/neonatal-meningitis-overcoming-challenges-in-diagnosis-prognosis-and-treatment-with-omics
#5
REVIEW
Scott M Gordon, Lakshmi Srinivasan, Mary Catherine Harris
Neonatal meningitis is a devastating condition. Prognosis has not improved in decades, despite the advent of improved antimicrobial therapy and heightened index of suspicion among clinicians caring for affected infants. One in ten infants die from meningitis, and up to half of survivors develop significant lifelong complications, including seizures, impaired hearing and vision, and delayed or arrested development of such basic skills as talking and walking. At present, it is not possible to predict which infants will suffer poor outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637049/protecting-oligodendrocytes-by-targeting-non-glutamate-receptors-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-for-ischemic-stroke
#6
Pan Luo, Dong Liu, Lianjun Guo
Ischemic stroke has many devastating effects within the brain. At the cellular level, excitotoxicity has been a popular pharmacological target for therapeutics. To date, many clinical trials have been performed with drugs that target excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, such as NMDA receptor agonists. The results, however, have been lackluster. Most efforts to understand the impacts of excitotoxicity on the brain have focused primarily on neurons, and to a lesser degree, on gliocytes as cellular targets. Recent evidence suggests that oligodendrocytes (OLGs), the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system, are damaged by ischemia in a manner completely different from that in neurons...
June 21, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628542/a-rare-intramedullary-spinal-cord-metastasis-from-a-retroperitoneal-leiomyosarcoma-presenting-as-a-non-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Andrew Lamberth Parker, Terrence Pugh, Mark A Hirsch
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare but well-recognized malignant soft tissue sarcoma of smooth muscle origin. Metastases commonly occur in the lungs, liver, kidney, brain, and bone. Cases of metastatic osseous lesions or other extradural space-occupying masses secondary to LMS leading to neurologic compromise are relatively commonplace in the literature. Conversely, cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM), an unusual entity as a sequela of any cancer, are exceedingly rare as a consequence of LMS. Only 2 cases of an ISCM from LMS are currently documented in the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, no case is described in the rehabilitation literature...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585791/-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-due-to-civil-gunshot-wounds-at-a-general-hospital-in-cali-colombia
#8
L Parrado Sánchez, C Gómez, J A Valderrama Chaparro, L D Beltrán Osorio, M Sierra Ruiz, A Enríquez Marulanda, J Lobato Polo
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to gunshot-wounds (GSW) is a critical situation in the pediatric population. The aim of this study is to characterize TBI in this population since there are few reports that describe it especially in Colombia where its incidence is high, also to determine which were the main mortality predictor within our population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study in which we reviewed pediatric medical records of patients that had consulted at the Fundacion Valle del Lili pediatric Emergency Room between January of 2011 and December of 2015 because of TBI due to GSW...
January 25, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577905/influence-of-rapidly-successive-head-impacts-on-brain-strain-in-the-vicinity-of-bridging-veins
#9
Brooklynn M Knowles, Samantha R MacGillivray, James A Newman, Christopher R Dennison
Acute subdural hematoma due to a bridging vein rupture is a devastating but rare injury. There has to date been no satisfactory biomechanical explanation for this infrequent but costly injury. We surmise that it may be associated with multiple head impacts. Though numerical models have been used to estimate vein strains in single impact events, none to date have examined the influence on localized brain strain of rapidly consecutive impacts. Using the Simulated Injury Monitor, we investigated the hypothesis that such double impacts can increase strain beyond that created by any single impact...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576125/dissection-of-the-internal-carotid-artery-and-stroke-after-mandibular-fractures-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Ingrid Aune Tveita, Martin Ragnar Skjerve Madsen, Erik Waage Nielsen
BACKGROUND: We present a report of a patient with blunt trauma and mandibular fractures who developed a significant cerebral infarction due to an initially unrecognized injury of her left internal carotid artery. We believe that increased knowledge of this association will facilitate early recognition and hence prevention of a devastating outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old ethnic Norwegian woman presented to our Emergency Room after a bicycle accident that had caused a direct blow to her chin...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560719/visual-system-pathology-in-humans-and-animal-models-of-blast-injury
#11
REVIEW
Gloria J DeWalt, William D Eldred
Injury from blast exposure is becoming a more prevalent cause of death and disability worldwide. The devastating neurological impairments that result from blasts are significant and lifelong. Progress in the development of effective therapies to treat injury has been slowed by its heterogeneous pathology and the dearth of information regarding the cellular mechanisms involved. Within the last decade, a number of studies have documented visual dysfunction following injury. This brief review examines damage to the visual system in both humans and animal models of blast injury...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553370/neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-radiological-review
#12
REVIEW
Shahina Bano, Vikas Chaudhary, Umesh Chandra Garga
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating condition that may result in death or severe neurologic deficits in children. Neuroimaging with cranial ultrasound (US), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable tools in the workup of patients with HIE. The pattern of brain injury depends on the severity and duration of hypoxia and degree of brain maturation. Mild to moderate HI injury results in periventricular leukomalacia and germinal matrix bleed in preterm neonates, and parasagittal watershed infarcts in full-term neonates...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544811/differential-protein-expression-in-exosomal-samples-taken-from-trauma-patients
#13
Ron B Moyron, Amber Gonda, Matthew J Selleck, Xian Luo-Owen, Richard D Catalano, Thomas O'Callahan, Carlos Garberoglio, David Turay, Nathan R Wall
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are among the most misdiagnosed and underreported types of head trauma. The potential long-term impact of undiagnosed or incorrectly identified concussions and other head injuries are potentially devastating, as evidenced by the increasing societal burden exhibited by soldiers returning from combat and athletes in contact sports. Concussions and TBI are notoriously difficult to correctly diagnose and prognosis for these injuries is poorly understood. In order to increase the likelihood of successful diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of outcomes, a definitive differential diagnosis will need to be established...
May 25, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512614/postoperative-contralateral-hematoma-in-patient-with-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Myeong-Jin Oh, Je Hoon Jeong, Dong-Seong Shin, Sun-Chul Hwang, Soo Bin Im, Bum-Tae Kim, Won-Han Shin
OBJECTIVE: Head injury is a leading cause of death and disability in subjects who suffer a traumatic accident. Contralateral hematomas after surgery for traumatic brain injury are rare. However, an unrecognized, these hematomas can cause devastating results. We presented our experience of these patients and discussed diagnosis and management. METHODS: This study included 12 traumatic patients with acute traumatic brain injury who developed delayed contralateral hematoma after evacuation of an acute hematoma...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510745/neural-network-imaging-to-characterize-brain-injury-in-cardiac-procedures-the-emerging-utility-of-connectomics
#15
B Indja, J P Fanning, J J Maller, J F Fraser, P G Bannon, M Vallely, S M Grieve
Cognitive dysfunction is a poorly understood but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. Clinically meaningful assessment of cognitive changes after surgery is problematic because of the absence of a means to obtain reproducible, objective, and quantitative measures of the neural disturbances that cause altered brain function. By using both structural and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data to construct a map of the inter-regional connections within the brain, connectomics has the potential to increase the specificity and sensitivity of perioperative neurological assessment, permitting rational individualized assessment and improvement of surgical techniques...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500417/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-memory-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
REVIEW
Rosalia Paterno, Kaitlin A Folweiler, Akiva S Cohen
Memory is fundamental to everyday life, and cognitive impairments resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have devastating effects on TBI survivors. A contributing component to memory impairments caused by TBI is alteration in the neural circuits associated with memory function. In this review, we aim to bring together experimental findings that characterize behavioral memory deficits and the underlying pathophysiology of memory-involved circuits after TBI. While there is little doubt that TBI causes memory and cognitive dysfunction, it is difficult to conclude which memory phase, i...
July 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490277/il-33-promotes-recruitment-of-microglia-macrophages-in-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Grzegorz Wicher, Ulrika Wallenquist, Ying Lei, Mattias Enoksson, Xiaofei Li, Barbara Fuchs, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund, Lars Hillered, Gunnar Nilsson, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition, often leading to life-long consequences for the patients. Even though modern neurointensive care has improved functional and cognitive outcomes, efficient pharmacological therapies are still lacking. Targeting peripherally derived, or resident inflammatory cells that are rapid responders to brain injury is promising, but complex, since the contribution of inflammation to exacerbation versus improved recovery varies with time after injury. The injury-induced inflammatory response is triggered by release of alarmins, and in the present study we asked if Interleukin-33 (IL-33), an injury-associated nuclear alarmin, is involved in TBI...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477436/brain-inflammasomes-in-stroke-and-depressive-disorders-regulation-by-estrogen
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Stefanie Hoffmann, Cordian Beyer
Neuroinflammation is a devastating pathophysiological process which ends up in brain damage and neuronal death. Pathogens, cell fragments and cellular dysfunction trigger inflammatory responses. Irrespective of the cause, inflammasomes are key intracellular multiprotein signaling platforms which sense neuropathological conditions. The activation of inflammasomes leads to the auto-proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1, resulting in the proteolysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)1beta and IL18 into their bioactive forms...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469595/apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-a-possible-risk-factor-of-intracranial-pressure-and-white-matter-perfusion-in-good-grade-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients-at-early-stage
#19
Jian-Hua Peng, Xing-Hu Qin, Jin-Wei Pang, Yue Wu, Jin-Hu Dong, Chang-Ren Huang, Wei-Feng Wan, Xiao-Bo Yang, Xiao-Chuan Sun, Li-Gang Chen, Yong Jiang
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating and complicated disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that genetic susceptibility may play an important role in the outcome of a given individual with aSAH. This study evaluates the potential association in effects of the APOE allele on the early brain injury (EBI) in light of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion disorders in a consecutive series of non-comatose Chinese patients with aSAH...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425051/upregulation-and-phosphorylation-of-hspb1-hsp25-and-hspb5-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-after-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#20
Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Alexander Slowik, Cordian Beyer, Nikola Golenhofen
Ischemic stroke leads to cellular dysfunction, cell death, and devastating clinical outcomes. The cells of the brain react to such a cellular stress by a stress response with an upregulation of heat shock proteins resulting in activation of endogenous neuroprotective capacities. Several members of the family of small heat shock proteins (HspBs) have been shown to be neuroprotective. However, yet no systematic study examined all HspBs during cerebral ischemia. Here, we performed a comprehensive comparative study comprising all HspBs in an animal model of stroke, i...
July 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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