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Devastating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893460/tgf-%C3%AE-1-modulates-microglial-phenotype-and-promotes-recovery-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
Roslyn A Taylor, Che-Feng Chang, Brittany A Goods, Matthew D Hammond, Brian Mac Grory, Youxi Ai, Arthur F Steinschneider, Stephen C Renfroe, Michael H Askenase, Louise D McCullough, Scott E Kasner, Michael T Mullen, David A Hafler, J Christopher Love, Lauren H Sansing
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke that results from the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, leading to a mass of blood within the brain parenchyma. The injury causes a rapid inflammatory reaction that includes activation of the tissue-resident microglia and recruitment of blood-derived macrophages and other leukocytes. In this work, we investigated the specific responses of microglia following ICH with the aim of identifying pathways that may aid in recovery after brain injury...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858724/the-effect-of-combined-therapies-on-recovery-after-acquired-brain-injury-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies-combining-enriched-environment-exercise-or-task-specific-training-with-other-therapies
#2
Hana Malá, Camilla Pihl Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injuries (ABI) have devastating effects for the affected individual as well as society. Many studies have investigated the effect of different monotherapies. However, functional recovery is typically only partial. One possible strategy to promote a greater degree of recovery is to apply monotherapies in combination with one or more treatments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate if approaches combining enriched environment (EE), exercise, or task-specific training with other monotherapies, further enhance the degree of recovery after ABI...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844291/peptide-pharmacological-approaches-to-treating-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-for-arginine-rich-peptides
#3
REVIEW
Li Shan Chiu, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a devastating effect on victims and their families, and has profound negative societal and economic impacts, a situation that is further compounded by the lack of effective treatments to minimise injury after TBI. The current strategy for managing TBI is partly through preventative measures and partly through surgical and rehabilitative interventions. Secondary brain damage remains the principal focus for the development of a neuroprotective therapeutic. However, the complexity of TBI pathophysiology has meant that single-action pharmacological agents have been largely unsuccessful in combatting the associated brain injury cascades, while combination therapies to date have proved equally ineffective...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843334/targeting-neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Aniello Iacomino, Luca Steardo, Caterina Scuderi
Almost 47 million people suffer from dementia worldwide, with an estimated new case diagnosed every 3.2 seconds. Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for approximately 60%-80% of all dementia cases. Given this evidence, it is clear dementia represents one of the greatest global public health challenges. Currently used drugs alleviate the symptoms of AD but do not treat the underlying causes of dementia. Hence, a worldwide quest is under way to find new treatments to stop, slow, or even prevent AD. Besides the classic targets of the oldest therapies, represented by cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, and tau tangles, new therapeutic approaches have other targets...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833527/intrinsic-axonal-growth-and-the-drive-for-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Kevin J O'Donovan
Following damage to the adult nervous system in conditions like stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, many neurons die and most of the remaining spared neurons fail to regenerate. Injured neurons fail to regrow both because of the inhibitory milieu in which they reside as well as a loss of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons. If we are to develop effective therapeutic interventions that promote functional recovery for the devastating injuries described above, we must not only better understand the molecular mechanisms of developmental axonal growth in hopes of re-activating these pathways in the adult, but at the same time be aware that re-activation of adult axonal growth may proceed via distinct mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820732/a-rare-intramedullary-spinal-cord-metastasis-from-a-retroperitoneal-leiomyosarcoma-presenting-as-a-non-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Andrew Lamberth Parker, Terrence Pugh, Mark A Hirsch
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare but well-recognized malignant soft tissue sarcoma of smooth muscle origin. Metastases commonly occur in the lungs, liver, kidney, brain, and bone. Cases of metastatic osseous lesions or other extradural space-occupying masses secondary to LMS leading to neurologic compromise are relatively commonplace in the literature. Conversely, cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM), an unusual entity as a sequela of any cancer, are exceedingly rare as a consequence of LMS. Only 2 cases of an ISCM from LMS are currently documented in the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, no case is described in the rehabilitation literature...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818801/extrinsic-and-intrinsic-regulation-of-axon-regeneration-by-micrornas-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
REVIEW
Ping Li, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
Spinal cord injury is a devastating disease which disrupts the connections between the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. Most injured neurons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration after injury. MicroRNAs can modulate multiple genes' expression and are tightly controlled during nerve development or the injury process. Evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs and their signaling pathways play important roles in mediating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811363/resveratrol-post-treatment-protects-against-neonatal-brain-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#8
Shulin Pan, Songlin Li, Yingying Hu, Hao Zhang, Yanlong Liu, Huai Jiang, Mingchu Fang, Zhengmao Li, Kebin Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Zhenlang Lin, Jian Xiao
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a devastating disease with limited treatment options. Preventive treatment with resveratrol has indicated to be well tolerated and has lower toxicity in both experimental models and human patients. However, whether resveratrol administration post-hypoxic-ischemic protects against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury is not known. Here we reported that post-treatment with resveratrol significantly reduced brain damage at 7-day after the injury. We found that resveratrol reduced the expression levels of key inflammatory factors at the mRNA and protein levels, and at least partially via inhibiting microglia activation...
November 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789022/end-of-life-practices-in-patients-with-devastating-brain-injury-in-spain-implications-for-organ-donation
#9
B Domínguez-Gil, E Coll, T Pont, M Lebrón, E Miñambres, A Coronil, B Quindós, J E Herrero, C Liébanas, B Marcelo, A M Sanmartín, R Matesanz
OBJECTIVE: To describe end-of-life care practices relevant to organ donation in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain. DESIGN: A multicenter prospective study of a retrospective cohort. PERIOD: 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015. SETTING: Sixty-eight hospitals authorized for organ procurement. PATIENTS: Patients dying from devastating brain injury (possible donors). Age: 1 month-85 years...
October 24, 2016: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782211/von-willebrand-factor-contributes-to-poor-outcome-in-a-mouse-model-of-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#10
Ximin Zhu, Yongliang Cao, Lixiang Wei, Ping Cai, Haochen Xu, Haiyu Luo, Xiaofei Bai, Lu Lu, Jian-Ren Liu, Wenying Fan, Bing-Qiao Zhao
Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating stroke subtype and has no proven treatment. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has recently been demonstrated to promote inflammation processes. The present study investigated the pathophysiological role of VWF after experimental ICH. Functional outcomes, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, cerebral inflammation and levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were measured in a mouse model of ICH induced by autologous blood injection...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774811/the-financial-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-a-single-centre-study
#11
Daniel M Fountain, Angelos G Kolias, Rodney J Laing, Peter J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVES: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a potentially devastating insult to the brain with high rates of fatality and neurological deficits. TBI can result in substantial costs to the centre providing care. We sought to present the experience of a Major Trauma Centre (MTC) and ascertain the financial implications of this healthcare provision, in particular detailed costs, reimbursement and the surplus or deficit accrued by the centre. DESIGN: All cranial non-elective neurosurgical admissions with a TBI over 4...
October 22, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772540/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder, causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming numbers of brain injuries, and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associate with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies, because there is often neuron loss...
October 21, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765741/mri-brain-volume-measurements-in-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#13
E H Baker, S W Levin, Z Zhang, A B Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative storage disease caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 deficiency, which impairs degradation of palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequent lysosomal ceroid accumulation leads to neuronal injury, resulting in rapid neurodegeneration and childhood death. As part of a project studying the treatment benefits of a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetyl cysteine, we made serial measurements of patients' brain volumes with MR imaging...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763820/is-there-hope-is-she-there-how-families-and-clinicians-experience-severe-acute-brain-injury
#14
Rachael E C Schutz, Heather L Coats, Ruth A Engelberg, J Randall Curtis, Claire J Creutzfeldt
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe acute brain injury (SABI) raise important palliative care considerations associated with sudden devastating injury and uncertain prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to explore how family members, nurses, and physicians experience the palliative and supportive care needs of patients with SABI receiving care in the neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU). DESIGN: Semistructured interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755955/rapamycin-protects-against-neuronal-death-and-improves-neurological-function-with-modulation-of-microglia-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#15
D Li, F Liu, T Yang, T Jin, H Zhang, X Luo, M Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) results in a devastating brain disorder with high mortality and poor prognosis and effective therapeutic intervention for the disease remains a challenge at present. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin on ICH-induced brain damage and the possible involvement of activated microglia. ICH was induced in rats by injection of type IV collagenase into striatum. Different dose of rapamycin was systemically administrated by intraperitoneal injection beginning at 1 h after ICH induction...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719625/updates-on-therapeutics-in-clinical-trials-for-spinal-cord-injuries-key-translational-applications-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-derived-neural-progenitors
#16
Habiba Aurang Zeb, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Iqbal Munir, Wafaa Saadeldin Ramadan, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Deema Hussein, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Saleh Al Karim
Injuries to the spinal cord often have devastating physiological impacts due to the organ's vital role in neuro-impulse communications between muscles and the brain. Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) have recently been estimated to affect up to 80,000 individuals per year worldwide, with most occurring following a traumatic event. Unfortunately, effective treatments standardised globally for patients with SCIs have not yet been established. For many years, inadequate understanding of the complexities of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neurogenesis has limited progression towards effective cures...
October 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709870/avoiding-errors-in-the-management-of-pediatric-polytrauma-patients
#17
Kenneth Chin, Joshua M Abzug, Donald S Bae, Bernard D Horn, Martin Herman, Craig P Eberson
Management of pediatric polytrauma patients is one of the most difficult challenges for orthopaedic surgeons. Multisystem injuries frequently include complex orthopaedic surgical problems that require intervention. The physiology and anatomy of children and adolescent trauma patients differ from the physiology and anatomy of an adult trauma patient, which alters the types of injuries sustained and the ideal methods for management. Errors of pediatric polytrauma care are included in two broad categories: missed injuries and inadequate fracture treatment...
February 15, 2016: Instructional Course Lectures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683626/deceased-organ-donation-for-transplantation-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
EDITORIAL
Raffaele Girlanda
Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives every year but the shortage of donors is a major limiting factor to increase transplantation rates. To allow more patients to be transplanted before they die on the wait-list an increase in the number of donors is necessary. Patients with devastating irreversible brain injury, if medically suitable, are potential deceased donors and strategies are needed to successfully convert them into actual donors. Multiple steps in the process of deceased organ donation can be targeted to increase the number of organs suitable for transplant...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679444/development-of-mechanical-and-failure-properties-in-sheep-cerebral-arteries
#19
Kevin S Nye, Matthew I Converse, Mar Janna Dahl, Kurt H Albertine, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating problem for people of all ages, but the nature of the response to such injury is often different in children than in adults. Cerebral vessel damage and dysfunction are common following TBI, but age-dependent, large-deformation vessel response has not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate the mechanical properties of cerebral arteries as a function of development. Sheep middle cerebral arteries from four age groups (fetal, newborn, juvenile, and adult) were subjected to biaxial loading around physiological conditions and then to failure in the axial direction...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652041/clinical-re-evaluation-of-removing-blood-stasis-therapy-in-treating-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-safety-and-efficacy-a-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-multicenter-study-crrich-trial
#20
Liling Zeng, Jianwen Guo, Jing Wang, Qixin Zhang, Haijun Li, Rongming Lin
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) is one of the most devastating forms of stroke. Currently, no specific therapies for HICH except general medical care. However, in China, medicine of promoting blood circulation (PBC) and removing blood stasis (RBS) are widely and efficiently used to treat HICH and become a potentially effective treatment for the secondary effects of HICH to alleviate brain injury, accelerate neuronal recovery, and improve the prognosis. In order to evaluate the safety and effect of PBC and RBS herbal drugs, we design a prospective, randomized, open, double-blind controlled clinical trial on the hematoma enlargement in HICH patients treating with PBC and RBS herbal medicine within 6 h time window from the symptom onset...
2016: SpringerPlus
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