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Devastating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149383/diffusion-mri-in-pediatric-brain-injury
#1
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue around the world and can be especially devastating in children as TBI can derail cognitive and social development. White matter (WM) is particularly vulnerable to disruption post-TBI, as myelination is ongoing during this period. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a versatile modality for identifying and quantifying WM disruption and can detect diffuse axonal injury (DAI or TAI (traumatic axonal injury)). This review covers dMRI studies of pediatric TBI, including mild to severe injuries, and covering all periods post-injury...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134984/evaluation-of-neuroprotective-effect-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-linn-aqueous-extract-against-ischaemic-reperfusion-insult-by-bilateral-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-in-adult-male-rats
#2
Olatunde Owoeye, Micheal Oluwatosin Gabriel
Ischaemic brain injury continues to be devastating, causing social, medical and relationship disruption. Oxidativedamage has been reported to be one of the mechanisms for brain damage following ischaemic stroke. The antioxidant activityof Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was investigated for a possible protective effect against ischaemia-induced brain damage in rats.Adult male Wistar rats (n=35) were divided into five groups of 7 rats per group. Group 1 served as control was given tapwater; Group 2: 500 mg/kg daily of Hibiscus sabdariffa L...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115698/grading-scales-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-many-options-but-do-we-have-a-winner
#3
EDITORIAL
Venkatakrishna Rajajee
Grading the severity of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH) is essential, for several reasons- to provide a reliable prognosis, establish comparability across groups in research studies and quality assessments, follow the progress of an individual patient, and guide decisions on management. The Hunt-Hess and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scales are clinical scales, with a focus on symptoms and signs thought to reflect the extent of primary brain injury and, therefore, functional outcome...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101073/malignant-cerebral-swelling-after-a-cranioplasty-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Liang Shen, Yue Zhou, Jie Xu, Zhongzhou Su
BACKGROUND: Cranioplasty is considered a low-risk operation in the field of neurosurgery following decompression craniectomy (DC). Well-known complications after cranioplasty, such as infection, seizure, and titanium plate exposure, may not threaten the lives of patients. Unfortunately, there are many fatal complications that are under reported. In this study, we report a case and perform a literature review to introduce malignant cerebral swelling, which is regarded as a devastating complication...
October 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067856/challenges-for-intraventricular-hemorrhage-research-and-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#5
Thomas Garton, Ya Hua, Jianming Xiang, Guohua Xi, Richard F Keep
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects both premature infants and adults. In both demographics, it has high mortality and morbidity. There is no FDA approved therapy that improves neurological outcome in either population highlighting the need for additional focus on therapeutic targets and treatments emerging from preclinical studies. Areas covered: IVH induces both initial injury linked to the physical effects of the blood (mass effect) and secondary injury linked to the brain response to the hemorrhage...
October 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064304/introducing-the-model-of-cognitive-communication-competence-a-model-to-guide-evidence-based-communication-interventions-after-brain-injury
#6
Sheila MacDonald
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Communication impairments associated with acquired brain injury (ABI) are devastating in their impact on family, community, social, academic, and vocational participation. Despite international evidence-based guidelines for communication interventions, evidence practice gaps include under identification of communication deficits, infrequent referrals, and inadequate treatment to realize functional communication outcomes. Evidence-informed communication intervention requires synthesis of abundant interdisciplinary research...
October 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049057/the-postpartum-maternal-and-newborn-microbiomes
#7
Abby D Mutic, Sheila Jordan, Sara M Edwards, Erin P Ferranti, Taylor A Thul, Irene Yang
Biological and environmental changes to maternal and newborn microbiomes in the postnatal period can affect health outcomes for the mother-baby dyad. Postpartum sleep deprivation and unmet dietary needs can alter commensal bacteria within the body and disrupt gut-brain communication. Perineal injury and breast infections also change microbial community composition, potentiating an environment favoring pathogen growth. The gut microbiome refers to the collection of microorganisms working in harmony. Disruptions within the gut microbiome and gut-brain communication may lead to postpartum depression, a potentially devastating sequela...
November 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046917/effects-of-an-injectable-functionalized-self-assembling-nanopeptide-hydrogel-on-angiogenesis-and-neurogenesis-for-regeneration-of-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Tzu-Wei Wang, Kai-Chieh Chang, Liang-Hsin Chen, Shih-Yung Liao, Chia-Wei Yeh, Yung-Jen Chuang
Brain injury is a devastating medical condition and represents a major health problem. Tissue and organ reconstruction have been regarded as promising therapeutic strategies. Here, we propose a regenerative methodology focusing on the provision of functionalized nanopeptide scaffolds to facilitate angiogenesis and neurogenesis at the brain injury site. The peptide RADA16-SVVYGLR undergoes self-assembly to construct an interconnected network with intertwining nanofibers, and can be controlled to display various physicochemical properties by the adjustment of microenvironmental factors such as pH and ion concentration...
November 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030124/targeting-nitric-oxide-and-nmda-receptor-associated-pathways-in-treatment-of-high-grade-glial-tumors-hypotheses-for-nitro-memantine-and-nitrones
#9
REVIEW
Meric A Altinoz, İlhan Elmaci
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer with no curative treatment. Targeting Nitric Oxide (NO) and glutamatergic pathways may help as adjunctive treatments in GBM. NO at low doses promotes tumorigenesis, while at higher levels (above 300 nM) triggers apoptosis. Gliomas actively secrete high amounts of glutamate which activates EGR signaling and mediates degradation of peritumoral tissues via excitotoxic injury. Memantine inhibits NMDA-subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and induces autophagic death of glioma cells in vitro and blocks glioma growth in vivo...
October 10, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018327/maternal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-neurological-outcomes-in-adolescent-offspring-with-hypoxic-ischemic-injury
#10
Yik L Chan, Sonia Saad, Rita Machaalani, Brian G Oliver, Bryce Vissel, Carol Pollock, Nicole M Jones, Hui Chen
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy occurs in approximately 6 per 1000 term newborns leading to devastating neurological consequences, such as cerebral palsy and seizures. Maternal smoking is one of the prominent risk factors contributing to HI injury. Mitochondrial integrity plays a critical role in neural injury and repair during HI. We previously showed that maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) can reduce brain mitochondrial fission and autophagosome markers in male offspring. This was accompanied by increased brain cell apoptosis (active caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL staining)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979548/outcomes-of-the-first-full-year-of-implementing-a-devastating-brain-injury-pathway
#11
Alex R Manara, Ian Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979514/a-case-for-stopping-the-early-withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-therapies-in-patients-with-devastating-brain-injuries
#12
Alex R Manara, Ian Thomas, Richard Harding
Early prognostication in patients with a devastating brain injury is not always accurate and can lead to inappropriate decisions. We present case histories to support the recent recommendations of the Neurocritical Care Society that treatment withdrawal decisions should be delayed by up to 72 h in these patients. Development of pathways incorporating these recommendations can improve prognostication, enhance end of life care given to these patients and their families, and increase the opportunities to explore the donation wishes of more patients...
November 2016: J Intensive Care Soc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939695/oxidative-stress-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-in-the-development-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischaemic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Claire Thornton, Ana A Baburamani, Anton Kichev, Henrik Hagberg
Birth asphyxia in term neonates affects 1-2/1000 live births and results in the development of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy with devastating life-long consequences. The majority of neuronal cell death occurs with a delay, providing the potential of a treatment window within which to act. Currently, treatment options are limited to therapeutic hypothermia which is not universally successful. To identify new interventions, we need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the injury. Here, we provide an overview of the contribution of both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of neonatal brain injury and identify current preclinical therapeutic strategies...
October 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933222/altered-hippocampal-neurogenesis-during-the-first-7-days-after-a-fluid-percussion-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Lee A Shapiro
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating disorder causing negative outcomes in millions of people each year. Despite the alarming number of brain injuries and the long-term detrimental outcomes that can be associated with TBI, treatment options are lacking. Extensive investigation is underway, in hopes of identifying effective treatment strategies. Among the most state-of-the-art strategies is cell replacement therapy. TBI is a seemingly good candidate for cell replacement studies because there is often loss of neurons...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933220/elucidation-of-gene-expression-patterns-in-the-brain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Ahreum Baek, Sung-Rae Cho, Sung Hoon Kim
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological disease. The pathophysiological mechanisms of SCI have been reported to be relevant to central nervous system injury such as brain injury. In this study, gene expression of the brain after SCI was elucidated using transcriptome analysis to characterize the temporal changes in global gene expression patterns in a SCI mouse model. Subjects were randomly classified into 3 groups: sham control, acute (3 h post-injury), and subacute (2 wk post-injury) groups...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918695/large-animal-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Jun-Xi Dai, Yan-Bin Ma, Nan-Yang Le, Jun Cao, Yang Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating and common health problem in today's society. Relevant animal models of TBI provide powerful tools to study TBI in a controlled, rigorous and cost-efficient manner. The mostly used animals in TBI studies so far are rodents, however, huge inter-species differences in anatomy, morphology, metabolism, neurobiology, and lifespan between rodents and humans have impeded the translation of research findings from labs to human. Compared with rodents, large animals (eg. swine, rabbit, sheep, ferret) show great advantages in modelling TBI due to the similarity of their brains to human brain...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844451/risk-factors-for-new-onset-depression-after-first-time-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Durga Roy, Vassilis Koliatsos, Sandeep Vaishnavi, Dingfen Han, Vani Rao
BACKGROUND: Major depression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has devastating consequences as it increases the risk of suicide, impairs overall quality of life, and affects interpersonal, occupational, and social functioning. Although the literature has reported factors associated with depression after TBI, very few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates focused on the development of new-onset depression (NOD) after first-time TBI. Our study aimed to identify TBI- and non-TBI-related factors associated with the development of NOD in the first year after TBI...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842638/efficacy-of-laropiprant-in-minimizing-brain-injury-following-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#18
Abdullah Shafique Ahmad, Monique Mendes, Damian Hernandez, Sylvain Doré
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating and disabling forms of stroke, yet effective treatments are still lacking. Prostaglandins and their receptors have been implicated in playing vital roles in ICH outcomes. Recently, laropiprant, a DP1 receptor antagonist, has been used in combination with niacin to abolish the prostaglandin D2-(PGD2)-induced flushing. Here, we test the hypothesis that laropiprant limits bleeding and rescues the brain from ICH. Wildtype (WT) and DP1(-/-) mice were subjected ICH and neurologic deficits and hemorrhagic lesion outcomes were evaluated at 72 hours after the ICH...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841840/can-brain-impermeable-bace1-inhibitors-serve-as-anti-caa-medicine
#19
Jian-Ming Li, Li-Ling Huang, Fei Liu, Bei-Sha Tang, Xiao-Xin Yan
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of ß-amyloid peptides (Aß) in and surrounding the wall of microvasculature in the central nervous system, together with parenchymal amyloid plaques collectively referred to as cerebral amyloidosis, which occurs in the brain commonly among the elderly and more frequently in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). CAA is associated with vascular injury and may cause devastating neurological outcomes. No therapeutic approach is available for this lesion to date...
August 25, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829350/pathophysiology-and-neuroprotective-strategies-in-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#20
EDITORIAL
Bruno P Meloni
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and stroke are closely related and devastating conditions that can affect individuals of all ages.[...].
August 22, 2017: Brain Sciences
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