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Devastating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102287/crotalus-atrox-venom-preconditioning-increases-plasma-fibrinogen-and-reduces-perioperative-hemorrhage-in-a-rat-model-of-surgical-brain-injury
#1
Cherine H Kim, Devin W McBride, Ronak Raval, Prativa Sherchan, Karen L Hay, Eric C K Gren, Wayne Kelln, Tim Lekic, William K Hayes, Brian S Bull, Richard Applegate, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
Perioperative bleeding is a potentially devastating complication in neurosurgical patients, and plasma fibrinogen concentration has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for perioperative bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate preconditioning with Crotalus atrox venom (Cv-PC) as potential preventive therapy for reducing perioperative hemorrhage in the rodent model of surgical brain injury (SBI). C. atrox venom contains snake venom metalloproteinases that cleave fibrinogen into fibrin split products without inducing clotting...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088732/apelin-13-protects-rat-primary-cortical-glia-neuron-co-culture-against-pentylenetetrazole-induced-toxicity
#2
Taj Pari Kalantaripour, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Vahid Sheibani, Hamid Najafipour, Majid Asadi-Shekaari M
In spite of recent advances in the treatment of epilepsy, up to 35% of people living with the condition do not respond to accessible anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and continue to experience regular, devastating and potentially life-threatening seizures. Neuronal death is a significant feature of epilepsy in humans and experimental models. It has been reported that apelin, an endogenous ligand for the angiotensin-1-like receptor (APJ), has anticonvulsive as well as protective effects in some neurodegenerative situations...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#3
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005070/auditory-biological-marker-of-concussion-in-children
#4
Nina Kraus, Elaine C Thompson, Jennifer Krizman, Katherine Cook, Travis White-Schwoch, Cynthia R LaBella
Concussions carry devastating potential for cognitive, neurologic, and socio-emotional disease, but no objective test reliably identifies a concussion and its severity. A variety of neurological insults compromise sound processing, particularly in complex listening environments that place high demands on brain processing. The frequency-following response captures the high computational demands of sound processing with extreme granularity and reliably reveals individual differences. We hypothesize that concussions disrupt these auditory processes, and that the frequency-following response indicates concussion occurrence and severity...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995510/mechanisms-of-global-cerebral-edema-formation-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#5
Erik G Hayman, Aaron Wessell, Volodymyr Gerzanich, Kevin N Sheth, J Marc Simard
A growing body of clinical literature emphasizes the impact of cerebral edema in early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Aneurysm rupture itself initiates global cerebral edema in up to two thirds of cases. Although cerebral edema is not a universal feature of aSAH, it portends a poor clinical course, with quantitative analysis revealing a direct correlation between cerebral edema and poor outcome, including mortality and cognitive deficits. Mechanistically, global cerebral edema has been linked to global ischemia at the time of aneurysm rupture, dysfunction of autoregulation, blood breakdown products, neuroinflammation, and hyponatremia/endocrine abnormalities...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990643/phase-1-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-to-determine-the-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-single-escalating-dose-and-repeated-doses-of-cn-105-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#6
Jeffrey T Guptill, Shruti M Raja, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Robert Noveck, Sarah Ramey, Tian Ming Tu, Daniel T Laskowitz
Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains a devastating stroke subtype, affecting as many as 80,000 people annually in the United States and associated with extremely high mortality. In the absence of any pharmacological interventions demonstrated to improve outcome, care for patients with ICH remains largely supportive. Thus, despite advances in the understanding of ICH and brain injury, there remains an unmet need for interventions that improve neurologic recovery and outcomes. Recent research suggesting inflammation and APOE genotype play a role in modifying neurologic outcome after brain injury has led to the development of an APOE-derived peptide agent (CN-105)...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981499/direct-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-induced-neurons
#7
REVIEW
Na An, Huiming Xu, Wei-Qiang Gao, Hao Yang
The progressive loss and degeneration of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS), as a result of traumas or diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease, stroke, and traumatic injury to the brain and spinal cord, can usually have devastating effects on quality of life. The current strategies available for treatments are described including drug delivery, surgery, electrical stimulation, and cell-based tissue engineering approaches. However, apart from cell-based therapy, other attempts are limited in improving clinical outcomes...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938484/mesenchymal-stem-cells-the-magic-cure-for-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#8
Won Park, So Ahn, Se Sung, Jee-Yin Ahn, Yun Chang
Severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) remains a major cause of mortality and longterm neurologic morbidities in premature infants, despite recent advances in neonatal intensive care medicine. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in attenuating brain injuries resulting from severe IVH. Because there currently exists no effective intervention for severe IVH, the therapeutic potential of MSC transplantation in this intractable and devastating disease are creating excitement in this field...
30, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919862/spinal-cord-injury-assessing-tolerability-and-use-of-combined-rehabilitation-and-neuroaid-saturn-study-protocol-of-an-exploratory-study-in-assessing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-neuroaid-amongst-people-who-sustain-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Ramesh Kumar, Ohnmar Htwe, Azmi Baharudin, Mohammad Hisam Ariffin, Shaharuddin Abdul Rhani, Kamalnizat Ibrahim, Aishah Rustam, Robert Gan
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with limited therapeutic options despite decades of research. Current treatment options include use of steroids, surgery, and rehabilitation. Nevertheless, many patients with SCI remain disabled. MLC601 (NeuroAiD), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries and may have a potential role in improving recovery after SCI. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of NeuroAiD amongst people who sustain SCI in the study setting...
December 5, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917726/mechanism-of-death-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-non-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Kimberley Trickey, Laura Hornby, Sam D Shemie, Jeanne Teitelbaum
Decompressive craniectomy (DC) after devastating brain injury (DBI) may influence the manner in which patients die, having implications for end-of-life care and organ donation. We performed a retrospective review of deaths following a non-traumatic DBI between 2008 and 2012. 160 patients were reviewed; 26 were treated with DC and 134 received standard care. There was no relationship between DC and mechanism of death, (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.44-3.17). Prospective studies are required to confirm these preliminary finding...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916756/-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-for-higher-brain-function-deficits
#11
Yukichi Inoue
The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere...
December 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893460/tgf-%C3%AE-1-modulates-microglial-phenotype-and-promotes-recovery-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
Roslyn A Taylor, Che-Feng Chang, Brittany A Goods, Matthew D Hammond, Brian Mac Grory, Youxi Ai, Arthur F Steinschneider, Stephen C Renfroe, Michael H Askenase, Louise D McCullough, Scott E Kasner, Michael T Mullen, David A Hafler, J Christopher Love, Lauren H Sansing
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke that results from the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, leading to a mass of blood within the brain parenchyma. The injury causes a rapid inflammatory reaction that includes activation of the tissue-resident microglia and recruitment of blood-derived macrophages and other leukocytes. In this work, we investigated the specific responses of microglia following ICH with the aim of identifying pathways that may aid in recovery after brain injury...
3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858724/the-effect-of-combined-therapies-on-recovery-after-acquired-brain-injury-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies-combining-enriched-environment-exercise-or-task-specific-training-with-other-therapies
#13
Hana Malá, Camilla Pihl Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injuries (ABI) have devastating effects for the affected individual as well as society. Many studies have investigated the effect of different monotherapies. However, functional recovery is typically only partial. One possible strategy to promote a greater degree of recovery is to apply monotherapies in combination with one or more treatments. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to investigate if approaches combining enriched environment (EE), exercise, or task-specific training with other monotherapies, further enhance the degree of recovery after ABI...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844291/peptide-pharmacological-approaches-to-treating-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-for-arginine-rich-peptides
#14
REVIEW
Li Shan Chiu, Ryan S Anderton, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has a devastating effect on victims and their families, and has profound negative societal and economic impacts, a situation that is further compounded by the lack of effective treatments to minimise injury after TBI. The current strategy for managing TBI is partly through preventative measures and partly through surgical and rehabilitative interventions. Secondary brain damage remains the principal focus for the development of a neuroprotective therapeutic. However, the complexity of TBI pathophysiology has meant that single-action pharmacological agents have been largely unsuccessful in combatting the associated brain injury cascades, while combination therapies to date have proved equally ineffective...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843334/targeting-neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli, Aniello Iacomino, Luca Steardo, Caterina Scuderi
Almost 47 million people suffer from dementia worldwide, with an estimated new case diagnosed every 3.2 seconds. Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for approximately 60%-80% of all dementia cases. Given this evidence, it is clear dementia represents one of the greatest global public health challenges. Currently used drugs alleviate the symptoms of AD but do not treat the underlying causes of dementia. Hence, a worldwide quest is under way to find new treatments to stop, slow, or even prevent AD. Besides the classic targets of the oldest therapies, represented by cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, and tau tangles, new therapeutic approaches have other targets...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833527/intrinsic-axonal-growth-and-the-drive-for-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Kevin J O'Donovan
Following damage to the adult nervous system in conditions like stroke, spinal cord injury, or traumatic brain injury, many neurons die and most of the remaining spared neurons fail to regenerate. Injured neurons fail to regrow both because of the inhibitory milieu in which they reside as well as a loss of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons. If we are to develop effective therapeutic interventions that promote functional recovery for the devastating injuries described above, we must not only better understand the molecular mechanisms of developmental axonal growth in hopes of re-activating these pathways in the adult, but at the same time be aware that re-activation of adult axonal growth may proceed via distinct mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820732/a-rare-intramedullary-spinal-cord-metastasis-from-a-retroperitoneal-leiomyosarcoma-presenting-as-a-non-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Andrew Lamberth Parker, Terrence Pugh, Mark A Hirsch
Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare but well-recognized malignant soft tissue sarcoma of smooth muscle origin. Metastases commonly occur in the lungs, liver, kidney, brain, and bone. Cases of metastatic osseous lesions or other extradural space-occupying masses secondary to LMS leading to neurologic compromise are relatively commonplace in the literature. Conversely, cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM), an unusual entity as a sequela of any cancer, are exceedingly rare as a consequence of LMS. Only 2 cases of an ISCM from LMS are currently documented in the literature, and to the best of our knowledge, no case is described in the rehabilitation literature...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818801/extrinsic-and-intrinsic-regulation-of-axon-regeneration-by-micrornas-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Ping Li, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
Spinal cord injury is a devastating disease which disrupts the connections between the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in the loss of sensory and motor function below the lesion site. Most injured neurons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to the general failure of axonal regeneration after injury. MicroRNAs can modulate multiple genes' expression and are tightly controlled during nerve development or the injury process. Evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs and their signaling pathways play important roles in mediating axon regeneration and glial scar formation after spinal cord injury...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811363/resveratrol-post-treatment-protects-against-neonatal-brain-injury-after-hypoxia-ischemia
#19
Shulin Pan, Songlin Li, Yingying Hu, Hao Zhang, Yanlong Liu, Huai Jiang, Mingchu Fang, Zhengmao Li, Kebin Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Zhenlang Lin, Jian Xiao
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a devastating disease with limited treatment options. Preventive treatment with resveratrol has indicated to be well tolerated and has lower toxicity in both experimental models and human patients. However, whether resveratrol administration post-hypoxic-ischemic protects against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury is not known. Here we reported that post-treatment with resveratrol significantly reduced brain damage at 7-day after the injury. We found that resveratrol reduced the expression levels of key inflammatory factors at the mRNA and protein levels, and at least partially via inhibiting microglia activation...
November 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789022/end-of-life-practices-in-patients-with-devastating-brain-injury-in-spain-implications-for-organ-donation
#20
B Domínguez-Gil, E Coll, T Pont, M Lebrón, E Miñambres, A Coronil, B Quindós, J E Herrero, C Liébanas, B Marcelo, A M Sanmartín, R Matesanz
OBJECTIVE: To describe end-of-life care practices relevant to organ donation in patients with devastating brain injury in Spain. DESIGN: A multicenter prospective study of a retrospective cohort. PERIOD: 1 November 2014 to 30 April 2015. SETTING: Sixty-eight hospitals authorized for organ procurement. PATIENTS: Patients dying from devastating brain injury (possible donors). Age: 1 month-85 years...
October 24, 2016: Medicina Intensiva
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