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Devastating brain injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512614/postoperative-contralateral-hematoma-in-patient-with-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Myeong-Jin Oh, Je Hoon Jeong, Dong-Seong Shin, Sun-Chul Hwang, Soo Bin Im, Bum-Tae Kim, Won-Han Shin
OBJECTIVE: Head injury is a leading cause of death and disability in subjects who suffer a traumatic accident. Contralateral hematomas after surgery for traumatic brain injury are rare. However, an unrecognized, these hematomas can cause devastating results. We presented our experience of these patients and discussed diagnosis and management. METHODS: This study included 12 traumatic patients with acute traumatic brain injury who developed delayed contralateral hematoma after evacuation of an acute hematoma...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510745/neural-network-imaging-to-characterize-brain-injury-in-cardiac-procedures-the-emerging-utility-of-connectomics
#2
B Indja, J P Fanning, J J Maller, J F Fraser, P G Bannon, M Vallely, S M Grieve
Cognitive dysfunction is a poorly understood but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. Clinically meaningful assessment of cognitive changes after surgery is problematic because of the absence of a means to obtain reproducible, objective, and quantitative measures of the neural disturbances that cause altered brain function. By using both structural and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging data to construct a map of the inter-regional connections within the brain, connectomics has the potential to increase the specificity and sensitivity of perioperative neurological assessment, permitting rational individualized assessment and improvement of surgical techniques...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500417/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-memory-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Rosalia Paterno, Kaitlin A Folweiler, Akiva S Cohen
Memory is fundamental to everyday life, and cognitive impairments resulting from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have devastating effects on TBI survivors. A contributing component to memory impairments caused by TBI is alteration in the neural circuits associated with memory function. In this review, we aim to bring together experimental findings that characterize behavioral memory deficits and the underlying pathophysiology of memory-involved circuits after TBI. While there is little doubt that TBI causes memory and cognitive dysfunction, it is difficult to conclude which memory phase, i...
July 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490277/il-33-promotes-recruitment-of-microglia-macrophages-in-response-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Grzegorz Wicher, Ulrika Wallenquist, Ying Lei, Mattias Enoksson, Xiaofei Li, Barbara Fuchs, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund, Lars Hillered, Gunnar Nilsson, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition, often leading to life-long consequences for the patients. Even though modern neurointensive care has improved functional and cognitive outcomes, efficient pharmacological therapies are still lacking. Targeting peripherally derived, or resident inflammatory cells that are rapid responders to brain injury is promising, but complex, since the contribution of inflammation to exacerbation versus improved recovery varies with time after injury. The injury-induced inflammatory response is triggered by release of alarmins, and in the present study we asked if Interleukin-33 (IL-33), an injury-associated nuclear alarmin, is involved in TBI...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477436/brain-inflammasomes-in-stroke-and-depressive-disorders-regulation-by-estrogen
#5
REVIEW
Alexander Slowik, Leoni Lammerding, Stefanie Hoffmann, Cordian Beyer
Neuroinflammation is a devastating pathophysiological process which ends up in brain damage and neuronal death. Pathogens, cell fragments and cellular dysfunction trigger inflammatory responses. Irrespective of the cause, inflammasomes are key intracellular multiprotein signaling platforms which sense neuropathological conditions. The activation of inflammasomes leads to the auto-proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1, resulting in the proteolysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)1beta and IL18 into their bioactive forms...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469595/apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-a-possible-risk-factor-of-intracranial-pressure-and-white-matter-perfusion-in-good-grade-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-patients-at-early-stage
#6
Jian-Hua Peng, Xing-Hu Qin, Jin-Wei Pang, Yue Wu, Jin-Hu Dong, Chang-Ren Huang, Wei-Feng Wan, Xiao-Bo Yang, Xiao-Chuan Sun, Li-Gang Chen, Yong Jiang
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating and complicated disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that genetic susceptibility may play an important role in the outcome of a given individual with aSAH. This study evaluates the potential association in effects of the APOE allele on the early brain injury (EBI) in light of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion disorders in a consecutive series of non-comatose Chinese patients with aSAH...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425051/upregulation-and-phosphorylation-of-hspb1-hsp25-and-hspb5-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-after-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#7
Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Alexander Slowik, Cordian Beyer, Nikola Golenhofen
Ischemic stroke leads to cellular dysfunction, cell death, and devastating clinical outcomes. The cells of the brain react to such a cellular stress by a stress response with an upregulation of heat shock proteins resulting in activation of endogenous neuroprotective capacities. Several members of the family of small heat shock proteins (HspBs) have been shown to be neuroprotective. However, yet no systematic study examined all HspBs during cerebral ischemia. Here, we performed a comprehensive comparative study comprising all HspBs in an animal model of stroke, i...
April 20, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416580/a-tspo-ligand-attenuates-brain-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Minshu Li, Honglei Ren, Kevin N Sheth, Fu-Dong Shi, Qiang Liu
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease without effective treatment. After ICH, the immediate infiltration of leukocytes and activation of microglia are accompanied by a rapid up-regulation of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO). TSPO ligands have shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in models of CNS injury. In this study, we determined the impact of a TSPO ligand, etifoxine, on brain injury and inflammation in 2 mouse models of ICH. TSPO was up-regulated in Iba1(+) cells from brains of patients with ICH and in CD11b(+)CD45(int) cells from mice subjected to collagenase-induced ICH...
April 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387139/intracortical-electrophysiological-correlates-of-blood-flow-after-severe-sah-a-multimodality-monitoring-study
#9
Brandon Foreman, David Albers, J Michael Schmidt, Cristina Maria Falo, Angela Velasquez, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating form of stroke. Approximately one in four patients develop progressive neurological deterioration and silent infarction referred to as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). DCI is a complex, multifactorial secondary brain injury pattern and its pathogenesis is not fully understood. We aimed to study the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neuronal activity at both the cortex and in scalp using electroencephalography (EEG) in poor-grade SAH patients undergoing multimodality intracranial neuromonitoring...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382869/the-role-of-autophagy-in-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-an-update
#10
Yuanjian Fang, Sheng Chen, Cesar Reis, Jianmin Zhang
Autophagy is an extensive self-degradation process for the disposition of cytosolic aggregated or misfolded proteins and defective organelles. Due to different cytosolic components, autophagy pathway executes the functions of pro-survival and pro-death to maintain cellular homeostasis. The pathway plays essential roles in several neurological disorders. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating subtype of hemorrhagic stroke with high risk of neurological deficit and high mortality. Early brain injury (EBI) plays a role in the poor clinical course and outcome after SAH...
April 6, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382259/traumatic-tension-pneumocephalus-two-cases-and-comprehensive-review-of-literature
#11
REVIEW
Promod Pillai, Rohit Sharma, Larami MacKenzie, Eugene F Reilly, Paul R Beery, Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw Peter A Stawicki
Although traumatic pneumocephalus is not uncommon, it rarely evolves into tension pneumocephalus (TP). Characterized by the presence of increasing amounts of intracranial air and concurrent appearance or worsening neurological symptoms, TP can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. We present two cases of traumatic TP and a concise review of literature on this topic. Two cases of traumatic TP are presented. In addition, a literature search revealed 20 additional cases, of which 18 had sufficient information for inclusion...
January 2017: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377323/brain-injury-results-in-lower-levels-of-melatonin-receptors-subtypes-mt1-and-mt2
#12
Nicole D Osier, Lan Pham, Bunny J Pugh, Ava Puccio, Dianxu Ren, Yvette P Conley, Sheila Alexander, C Edward Dixon
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating and costly acquired condition that affects individuals of all ages, races, and geographies via a number of mechanisms. The effects of TBI on melatonin receptors remain unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to explore whether endogenous changes in two melatonin receptor subtypes (MT1 and MT2) occur after experimental TBI. SAMPLE: A total of 25 adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used with 6 or 7 rats per group...
April 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371278/the-influence-of-end-of-life-care-on-organ-donor-potential
#13
M Witjes, A Kotsopoulos, I H F Herold, L Otterspoor, K S Simons, J van Vliet, M de Blauw, B Festen, J J A Eijkenboom, N E Jansen, J G van der Hoeven, W F Abdo
Many patients with acute devastating brain injury die outside intensive care units and could go unrecognized as potential organ donors. We conducted a prospective observational study in seven hospitals in the Netherlands to define the number of unrecognized potential organ donors outside intensive care units, and to identify the effect that end-of-life care has on organ donor potential. Records of all patients who died between January 2013 and March 2014 were reviewed. Patients were included if they died within 72 h after hospital admission outside the intensive care unit due to devastating brain injury, and fulfilled the criteria for organ donation...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366520/the-needs-of-families-of-icu-trauma-patients-an-integrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Krista Wetzig, Marion Mitchell
BACKGROUND: The sudden, devastating, nature of traumatic injuries has a profound effect on patients and their families. When family needs are appropriately met in the intensive care units (ICU), families are empowered to support their injured relative (Blom et al., 2013). While the needs of families of general ICU patients have been examined the needs of trauma patients' families are not known and may be unique. AIM: The authors aimed to answer the question: "What are the needs of families of the adult ICU trauma patient?" METHOD: An integrative review methodology was used...
March 30, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343216/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-identifies-iron-oxide-labeled-human-neural-stem-cells-automated-computational-detection
#15
Mohsen Baghchechi, Amy Plaia, Mary Hamer, Nirmalya Ghosh, Stephen Ashwal, Andre Obenaus
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336376/effect-of-anesthetics-on-microglial-activation-and-nanoparticle-uptake-implications-for-drug-delivery-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Gokul Kannan, Siva P Kambhampati, Sapna R Kudchadkar
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem, often with devastating consequences for patients and their families. Affordable and timely therapies can have a substantial impact on outcomes in severe TBI. Despite the common use of sedatives and anesthetics in the acute phase of TBI management, their effect on glial cells is not well understood. We investigated the effect of a commonly used sedative, pentobarbital, on glial cells and their uptake of nanoparticles. First, we studied how pentobarbital affects BV2 mouse microglial cells in culture...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330876/electrocorticographic-dynamics-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-five-models-of-epileptogenesis
#17
Dan Z Milikovsky, Itai Weissberg, Lyna Solomon-Kamintsky, Kristina Lippmann, Osnat Schefenbauer, Federica Frigerio, Massimo Rizzi, Liron Sheintuch, Daniel Zelig, Jonathan Ofer, Annamaria Vezzani, Alon Friedman
Post injury epilepsy (PIE) is a devastating sequela of various brain insults. While recent studies offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and discover potential preventive treatments, the lack of PIE biomarkers hinders the clinical implementation of such treatments. Here we explored the biomarker potential of different electrographic features in five models of PIE. Electrocorticographic or intrahippocampal recordings of epileptogenesis (from the insult to the first spontaneous seizure) from two laboratories were analyzed in 3 mouse and 2 rat PIE models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317920/kus121-a-vcp-modulator-attenuates-ischemic-retinal-cell-death-via-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#18
Masayuki Hata, Hanako O Ikeda, Chinami Kikkawa, Sachiko Iwai, Yuki Muraoka, Tomoko Hasegawa, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Ischemic neural damages cause several devastating diseases, including brain stroke and ischemic retinopathies, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the neuronal cell death of these conditions. We previously synthesized Kyoto University substances (KUSs) as modulators of valosin-containing protein (VCP); KUSs inhibit VCP ATPase activity and protect cells from different cell death-inducing insults. Here, we examined the efficacy of KUS121 in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298024/reduction-of-inflammation-after-administration-of-interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-results-of-the-subcutaneous-interleukin-1ra-in-sah-scil-sah-study
#19
James Galea, Kayode Ogungbenro, Sharon Hulme, Hiren Patel, Sylvia Scarth, Margaret Hoadley, Karen Illingworth, Catherine J McMahon, Nikolaos Tzerakis, Andrew T King, Andy Vail, Stephen J Hopkins, Nancy Rothwell, Pippa Tyrrell
OBJECTIVE Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular event with long-term morbidity and mortality. Patients who survive the initial bleeding are likely to suffer further early brain injury arising from a plethora of pathological processes. These may result in a worsening of outcome or death in approximately 25% of patients and may contribute to longer-term cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Inflammation, mediated by the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), is an important contributor to cerebral ischemia after diverse forms of brain injury, including aSAH...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286764/phase-i-and-phase-ii-therapies-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-an-update-on-currently-studied-drugs-in-clinical-research
#20
REVIEW
Cesar Reis, Onat Akyol, Wing Mann Ho, Camila Araujo, Lei Huang, Richard Applegate, John H Zhang
Acute ischemic stroke is a devastating cause of death and disability, consequences of which depend on the time from ischemia onset to treatment, the affected brain region, and its size. The main targets of ischemic stroke therapy aim to restore tissue perfusion in the ischemic penumbra in order to decrease the total infarct area by maintaining blood flow. Advances in research of pathological process and pathways during acute ischemia have resulted in improvement of new treatment strategies apart from restoring perfusion...
2017: BioMed Research International
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