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Chronic cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161692/association-between-extreme-values-of-markers-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-and-5-year-mortality-among-prevalent-hemodialysis-patients
#1
Jin-Gang Zhu, Jin-Bor Chen, Ben-Chung Cheng, Chih-Hsiung Lee, Gang Long, Yu-Shu Chien
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We examined the association between markers of chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the association between markers of CKD-MBD and mortality in 1,126 HD patients from 2009 to 2013 with baseline (B), time-average (TA), and time-dependent (TD) Cox regression models. RESULTS: Hypercalcemia (10.9-11.9 mg/dL) indicated an increased risk of all-cause mortality (TA: hazard ratio [HR] 3...
November 22, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160599/models-of-care-for-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Ruairidh Nicoll, Lynn Robertson, Elliot Gemmell, Pawana Sharma, Corri Black, Angharad Marks
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and presents an increasing burden to patients and health services. However, the optimal model of care for patients with CKD is unclear. We systematically reviewed the clinical effectiveness of different models of care for the management of CKD. A comprehensive search of eight databases was undertaken for articles published from 1992 to 2016. We included randomised controlled trials which assessed any model of care in the management of adults with pre-dialysis CKD, reporting renal, cardiovascular, mortality and other outcomes...
November 21, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160460/polypharmacy-a-challenge-for-the-primary-health-care-of-the-brazilian-unified-health-system
#3
Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo do Nascimento, Juliana Álvares, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Isabel Cristina Gomes, Micheline Rosa Silveira, Ediná Alves Costa, Silvana Nair Leite, Karen Sarmento Costa, Orlando Mario Soeiro, Ione Aquemi Guibu, Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski, Francisco de Assis Acurcio
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the polypharmacy in primary health care patients and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, exploratory, and evaluative study, part of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos - Serviços, 2015 (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines - Services, 2015). The variable of interest was polypharmacy, defined as the use of five or more medicines...
November 13, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160110/peroxiredoxin6-a-multitask-antioxidant-enzyme-involved-in-the-pathophysiology-of-chronic-non-communicable-diseases
#4
Francesca Pacifici, David Della-Morte, Barbara Capuani, Donatella Pastore, Alfonso Bellia, Paolo Sbraccia, Nicola Di Daniele, Renato Lauro, Davide Lauro
SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. NCDs mainly comprise diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer, and neurological degenerative diseases, which kill more than 80% of population, especially elderlies, worldwide. Recent Advances: Several recent theories established NCDs as multifactorial diseases, where a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors contributes to their pathogenesis...
November 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159529/plasma-p-cresol-lowering-effect-of-sevelamer-in-non-dialysis-ckd-patients-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Eleonora Riccio, Massimo Sabbatini, Dario Bruzzese, Lucia Grumetto, Cristina Marchetiello, Maria Amicone, Michele Andreucci, Bruna Guida, Davide Passaretti, Giacomo Russo, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: The accumulation of p-cresol, a metabolic product of aromatic amino acids generated by intestinal microbiome, increases the cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies to reduce plasma p-cresol levels are highly demanded. It has been reported that the phosphate binder sevelamer (SEV) sequesters p-cresol in vitro, while in vivo studies on dialysis patients showed controversial results. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels in non-dialysis CKD patients...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158920/enhancement-in-tonically-active-glutamatergic-inputs-to-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-induced-high-blood-pressure
#6
Wei Wang, Zui Zou, Xing Tan, Ru-Wen Zhang, Chang-Zhen Ren, Xue-Ya Yao, Cheng-Bao Li, Wei-Zhong Wang, Xue-Yin Shi
Neuropathic pain increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension with the characteristic of sympathetic overactivity. The enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contributes to sympathetic overactivity and blood pressure (BP) in cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesize that neuropathic pain enhances tonically active glutamatergic inputs to the RVLM, which contributes to high level of BP and sympathetic outflow. Animal model with the trigeminal neuropathic pain was induced by the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury (ION-CCI)...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157245/low-1-5-anhydroglucitol-levels-are-associated-with-long-term-cardiac-mortality-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-with-hemoglobin-a1c-levels-less-than-7-0
#7
Shohei Ouchi, Kazunori Shimada, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Shuhei Takahashi, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Azusa Murata, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Takao Kato, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shoko Suda, Eiryu Sai, Masaru Hiki, Hiroshi Iwata, Takatoshi Kasai, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. High hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, which indicate poor glycemic control, have been associated with occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. There are few parameters which can predict cardiovascular risk in patients with well-controlled diabetes. Low 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels are considered a clinical marker of postprandial hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that low 1,5-AG levels could predict long-term mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with relatively low HbA1c levels...
November 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157151/health-benefits-of-hard-martial-arts-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#8
Sandra Origua Rios, Jennifer Marks, Isaac Estevan, Lisa M Barnett
Participation in organized sports is promoted as a means of increasing physical activity levels and reducing chronic disease risk in adults. Hard martial arts practice (i.e. using body contact techniques), has gained in popularity over time. This review explores the evidence for health benefits of "hard" martial arts practice within the adult population. A systematic electronic database search was conducted, and quality assessments applied the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, examining balance, cognitive function, muscular skeletal status, psychological, cardiovascular fitness, and metabolic effects...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156466/-retinal-artery-occlusions
#9
Gabriele E Lang, Stefan J Lang
Retinal artery occlusions are acute vascular diseases. Very often they are caused by an embolisation. Rarely a thrombosis is caused by an arteriitis. In the acute phase diagnosis in most of the cases can be made by ophthalmoscopy due to the whitish retinal edema and in central retinal artery occlusion the cherry red spot. Difficulties in making the diagnosis can occur in the chronic stage, especially after reperfusion of the retinal vessels, when the fundus colour returned to normal again. Several diagnostic procedures help to make the diagnosis...
November 20, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156052/primary-adrenal-insufficiency-managing-mineralocorticoid-replacement-therapy
#10
Daniela Esposito, Daniela Pasquali, Gudmundur Johannsson
Context: Mineralocorticoid (MC) replacement therapy in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) was introduced more than 60 years ago. Still, there are limited data on how MC substitution should be optimized, since MC dosing regimens have only been systematically investigated in a few studies. We review the management of current standard MC replacement therapy in PAI and its plausible impact on outcome. Evidence Acquisition: Using PubMed, we conducted a systematic review of the literature from 1939 to 2017, with the following keywords: 'adrenal insufficiency', 'mineralocorticoid deficiency', 'aldosterone', 'cardiovascular disease', 'hypertension', and 'heart failure'...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155790/a-mouse-5-6th-nephrectomy-model-that-induces-experimental-uremic-cardiomyopathy
#11
Xiaoliang Wang, Muhammad A Chaudhry, Ying Nie, Zijian Xie, Joseph I Shapiro, Jiang Liu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a great risk factor for cardiovascular disease events and mortality, and progressively develops to the clinical phenotype called "uremic cardiomyopathy". We describe here an experimental CKD mouse model, named 5/6(th) partial nephrectomy (PNx) with pole ligation, which developed uremic cardiomyopathy at four weeks post-surgery. This PNx model was performed by a two-step surgery. In step-one surgery, both poles of the left kidney were ligated. In step-two surgery, which was performed 7 days after the step-one surgery, the right kidney was removed...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155496/insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Hong Xu, Juan J Carrero
This review provides an overview of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IR is a pathological state in which target tissues fail to respond normally to insulin. IR is understood as a consequence of CKD and its prevalence rises particularly in advanced CKD stages. Mechanisms leading to IR are complex and multifactorial, involving post-receptor signaling defects, unhealthy lifestyles, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, anemia, and uremic toxicity, as shown by human and experimental studies over the last 30 years...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155255/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-cardiovascular-health-and-aging-a-focus-on-physical-activity-and-nutrition
#13
REVIEW
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154950/murine-models-of-sleep-apnea-functional-implications-of-altered-macrophage-polarity-and-epigenetic-modifications-in-adipose-and-vascular-tissues
#14
Wojciech Trzepizur, Rene Cortese, David Gozal
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease across the lifespan, is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, and has been independently associated with substantial cardiometabolic morbidity. However, the reversibility of end-organ morbidity with treatment is not always apparent, suggesting that both tissue remodeling and epigenetic mechanisms may be operationally involved. Here, we review the cumulative evidence focused around murine models of OSA to illustrate the temporal dependencies of cardiometabolic dysfunction and its reversibility, and more particularly to discuss the critical contributions of tissue macrophages to adipose tissue insulin resistance and vascular atherogenesis...
November 15, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154830/understanding-mechanisms-to-promote-successful-aging-in-persons-living-with-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Gerome V Escota, Jane A O'Halloran, William G Powderly, Rachel M Presti
The mortality rate associated with HIV infection plummeted after the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy pioneered two decades ago.As a result, HIV-infected people now have a life expectancy comparable to that of HIV-uninfected individuals. Despite this, increased rates of osteoporosis, chronic liver disease, and in particular cardiovascular disease have been reported among people living with HIV infection. With the aging HIV-infected population, the burden of these co-morbid illnesses may continue to accrue over time...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154722/association-of-kidney-function-and-waist-circumference-with-uric-acid-levels-in-south-africans
#16
Nomandla Daphne Madala, Thozama Dubula, Alain Guy Honoré Assounga, Saraladevi Naicker
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence that hyperuricemia is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) provides a potential therapeutic target for CKD that has not been explored in Africans. With hyperuricemia and gout increasing globally, we sought to determine their prevalence in South Africans with varying kidney function levels. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of ambulatory adult patients presenting at a General Internal Medicine Outpatients Clinic between September 2012 and March 2014...
November 20, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154433/cardiac-muscle-wasting-in-individuals-with-cancer-cachexia
#17
Anush Barkhudaryan, Nadja Scherbakov, Jochen Springer, Wolfram Doehner
AIMS: Cachexia is a severe complication of cancer that adversely affects the course of the disease and is associated with high rates of mortality. Patients with cancer manifest symptoms, such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and impaired exercise tolerance, which are clinical signs of chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac muscle wasting in cancer individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed 177 individuals who died of cancer, including 58 lung, 60 pancreatic, and 59 gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, and 42 cancer-free controls who died of other, non-cardiovascular reasons...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153663/prognostic-model-for-chronic-hypertension-in-women-with-a-history-of-hypertensive-pregnancy-disorders-at-term
#18
V S Visser, W Hermes, J Twisk, A Franx, M G van Pampus, C Koopmans, B W J Mol, C J M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: The association between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease later in life is well described. In this study we aim to develop a prognostic model from patients characteristics known before, early in, during and after pregnancy to identify women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease e.g. chronic hypertension years after pregnancy complicated by hypertension at term. METHODS: We included women with a history of singleton pregnancy complicated by hypertension at term...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153199/soluble-st2-in-heart-failure
#19
REVIEW
Cian P McCarthy, James L Januzzi
Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is a member of the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor family, whose role was originally established in the context of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. More recently, testing for ST2 has been used in the setting of cardiovascular disease. The soluble form of ST2 is a decoy receptor that inhibits beneficial cardioprotective effects of IL-33; such inhibition results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and ventricular dysfunction. Measurement of soluble ST2 has utility for assessing heart failure severity and prognosis...
January 2018: Heart Failure Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153180/a-100-year-review-progress-on-the-chemistry-of-milk-and-its-components
#20
John A Lucey, Don Otter, David S Horne
Understanding the chemistry of milk and its components is critical to the production of consistent, high-quality dairy products as well as the development of new dairy ingredients. Over the past 100 yr we have gone from believing that milk has only 3 protein fractions to identifying all the major and minor types of milk proteins as well as discovering that they have genetic variants. The structure and physical properties of most of the milk proteins have been extensively studied. The structure of the casein micelle has been the subject of many studies, and the initial views on submicelles have given way to the current model of the micelle as being assembled as a result of the concerted action of several types of interactions (including hydrophobic and the formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters)...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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