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Chronic cardiovascular disease

Shereen M Hamza, John E Hall
Renal sympathetic nerves contribute significantly to both physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. Evaluating renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is of great interest in many areas of research such as chronic kidney disease, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and obesity. Unequivocal assessment of the role of the sympathetic nervous system is thus imperative for proper interpretation of experimental results and understanding of disease processes. RSNA has been traditionally measured in anesthetized rodents, including mice...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Keiichi Torimoto, Yosuke Okada, Yoshiya Tanaka
Vascular endothelial function is important for maintaining the homeostasis of the living body. Especially, nitric oxide (NO) produced in vascular endothelial cells regulates blood vessel tone and has an antiatherosclerotic effect. Type 2 diabetes is a typical disease that causes impaired vascular endothelial function, resulting in various vascular complications and damage to organs. Cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes is a chronic inflammatory disease that starts with endothelial dysfunction (ED), and vascular ED is important as an initial change in arteriosclerotic lesions...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Maria C Mirabelli, Tegan K Boehmer, Scott A Damon, Kanta D Sircar, Hilary K Wall, Fuyuen Y Yip, Hatice S Zahran, Paul L Garbe
INTRODUCTION: Poor air quality affects respiratory and cardiovascular health. Information about health risks associated with outdoor air quality is communicated to the public using air quality alerts. This study was conducted to assess associations of existing respiratory and heart disease with three aspects of air quality awareness: awareness of air quality alerts, discussing with a health professional strategies to reduce air pollution exposure, and avoiding busy roads to reduce air pollution exposure when walking, biking, or exercising outdoors...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Masanari Kuwabara, Claudio Borghi, Arrigo F G Cicero, Ichiro Hisatome, Koichiro Niwa, Minoru Ohno, Richard J Johnson, Miguel A Lanaspa
BACKGROUND: High serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with the dyslipidemia, but whether hyperuricemia predicts an increase in serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is unknown. This study is to evaluate whether an elevated SUA predicts the development of high LDL cholesterol as well as hypertriglyceridemia. METHODS: This is a retrospective 5-year cohort study of 6476 healthy Japanese adults (age, 45.7 ± 10.1 years; 2.243 men) who underwent health examinations at 2004 and were reevaluated in 2009 at St...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Jarrod M Zamparini, Andrew R Immelman, Frederick J Raal
BACKGROUND: Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) develop significant vascular calcification early in life, the cause of which is not yet fully understood. Patients with chronic kidney disease have similar vascular calcification, with fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) implicated in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there was a difference in FGF23 between patients with HoFH and age- and gender-matched controls and whether there is a correlation between FGF23 and serum low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with HoFH...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Geoff Hackett, Mike Kirby, Kevan Wylie, Adrian Heald, Nick Ossei-Gerning, David Edwards, Asif Muneer
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the 2008 British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) guidelines. AIM: To provide up-to-date guidance for U.K. (and international) health care professionals managing male sexual dysfunction. METHODS: Source information was obtained from peer-reviewed articles, meetings, and presentations. A search of Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Reviews was performed, covering the search terms "hypogonadism," "eugonadal or hypogonadism or hypogonadal or gonadal," and "low or lower testosterone," starting from 2009 with a cut-off date of September 2017...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Maida Rakanović Todić, Sanita Maleškić, Lejla Burnazović Ristić, Aida Kulo Ćesić, Jasna Kusturica, Besim Prnjavorac
Aim To analyse frequency of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation in patients on therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and relevant factors that influence the rate of COPD exacerbations in a subgroup of moderate illness, like FEV1, comorbidities and other concomitant therapy. Methods The study included patients with moderate COPD with at least 10 pack-years history of smoking and accompanying cardiovascular comorbidity. Demographic data, frequency of exacerbations and information about proscribed treatments - ICS alone or in combination with long acting beta agonist (LABA), were collected from medical records for the previous 12 months from the index date...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
M I Maiorino, G Bellastella, D Giugliano, K Esposito
Metabolic diseases are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been indicated as a potential mediator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Visceral adiposity is thought to be the starting condition of the inflammatory state through the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, CRP, and IL-6, which in turn promote endothelial dysfunction, endothelial expression of chemokines (IL-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin), and the inhibition of anti-atherogenic factors (adiponectin)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Ahmadreza Argha, Andrey Savkin, Siaw-Teng Liaw, Branko George Celler
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation has an impact on the hospitalization rate of patients with a range of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and angina. This paper presents findings on the influence of seasonal variation on the results of a recently completed national trial of home telemonitoring of patients with chronic conditions, carried out at five locations along the east coast of Australia. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to evaluate the effect of the seasonal timing of hospital admission and length of stay on clinical outcome of a home telemonitoring trial involving patients (age: mean 72...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Daniela Stefania Trifu, Anna Kamocka, Julia Álvarez Hernández
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has beneficial effects on obesity and associated comorbidities such as glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and renal and hepatic function. Nevertheless, this surgery is not free of complications and possible side effects due to restrictive and/or malabsorptive related components. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 60-year-old woman whose past medical history included morbid obesity, hypertension and Scopinaro biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with duodenal switch in 1998...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Karen E Assmann, Moufidath Adjibade, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Michael D Wirth, Mathilde Touvier, Tasnime Akbaraly, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Chantal Julia, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Background: While low-grade chronic inflammation has been suggested as a major modulator of healthy aging (HA), no study has yet investigated the link between the inflammatory potential of the diet and multidimensional concepts of HA. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet at midlife, as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and HA assessed 13 y later. Methods: We analyzed data from 2796 participants in the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Holger Winkels, Erik Ehinger, Melanie Vassallo, Konrad Buscher, Huy Dinh, Kouji Kobiyama, Anouk Hamers, Clément Cochain, Ehsan Vafadarnejad, Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba, Alma Zernecke, Akula Pramod, Amlan Ghosh, Nathaly Anto Michel, Natalie Hoppe, Ingo Hilgendorf, Andreas Zirlik, Catherine Hedrick, Klaus Ley, Dennis Wolf
<u>Rationale:</u> Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is driven by the interplay of pro- and anti-inflammatory leukocytes in the aorta. Yet, the phenotypic and transcriptional diversity of aortic leukocytes is only poorly understood. <u>Objective:</u> We characterized leukocytes from healthy and atherosclerotic mouse aortas in-depth by single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNAseq) and mass cytometry (CyTOF) to define an atlas of the immune cell landscape in atherosclerosis...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
E K Yeoh, Martin C S Wong, Eliza L Y Wong, Carrie Yam, C M Poon, Roger Y Chung, Marc Chong, Yuan Fang, Harry H X Wang, Miaoyin Liang, Wilson W L Cheung, Chun Hei Chan, Benny Zee, Andrew J Stewart Coats
BACKGROUND: Chronic Care Model (CCM) has been developed to improve patients' health care by restructuring health systems in a multidimensional manner. This systematic review aims to summarize and analyse programs specifically designed and conducted for the fulfilment of multiple CCM components. We have focused on programs targeting diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. METHOD AND RESULTS: This review was based on a comprehensive literature search of articles in the PubMed database that reported clinical outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Loai Albarqouni, Khamis Elessi, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: Research conducted on conditions responsible for the greatest disease burden should be given the highest priority, particularly in resource-limited settings. The present study aimed to assess the research output in relation to disease burden in Palestine and to identify the conditions which are under- or over-investigated, if any. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and December 2015...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Takuya Wakamatsu, Suguru Yamamoto, Toru Ito, Yoko Sato, Koji Matsuo, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Yoshikatsu Kaneko, Shin Goto, Junichiro James Kazama, Fumitake Gejyo, Ichiei Narita
In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. One of the hallmarks of kidney disease-related cardiovascular disease is intravascular macrophage inflammation, but the mechanism of the reaction with these toxins is not completely understood. Macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells were exposed to indoxyl sulfate (IS), a representative uremic toxin, and changes in inflammatory cytokine production and intracellular signaling molecules including interleukin (IL)-1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear factor (NF)-κ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome were quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 15, 2018: Toxins
Francesco Caso, Marco Tasso, Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola, Dario Di Minno, Roberta Lupoli, Livio Criscuolo, Paolo Caso, Francesco Ursini, Antonio Del Puente, Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Rosario Peluso
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that affects 14%-30% of patients with skin and/or nail psoriasis and leading to severe physical limitations and disability. It has been included in the group of spondyloarthropathy with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features in addition to familial and genetic relationship. Beyond skin and joint involvement, psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a high prevalence of extra-articular manifestation and comorbidities, such as autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Richard H Singer, Mark Stoutenberg, Daniel J Feaster, Jianwen Cai, WayWay M Hlaing, Lisa R Metsch, Christian R Salazar, Shirley M Beaver, Tracy L Finlayson, Gregory Talavera, Marc D Gellman, Neil Schneiderman
BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease (PD) is associated with a significant increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of known confounders. PD is a chronic oral disease with significant variation in prevalence demonstrated among Hispanic/Latino subgroups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between PD and CVD risk and variations with sex, age, and Hispanic/Latino background. METHODS: The sample included 7,379 participants aged 30-74 years, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008 to 2011)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Johannes Krämer, Felix Kreuzer, Michael Kaestner, Peter Bride, Fabian von Scheidt, Jannos Siaplaouras, Heiner Latus, Dietmar Schranz, Christian Apitz
Right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy is regarded as the adaptation on chronic RV pressure load in pulmonary hypertension. As the RV Sokolow-Lyon index (RVSLI) is an electrocardiographic marker of RV hypertrophy, we hypothesized that RVSLI might be able to reflect RV pressure load. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the diagnostic impact of the RVSLI in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in order to assess disease severity and to evaluate its value for the prediction of worse outcome...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Jian-Qiang Li, Rui Li, Zhuang-Zhuang Chen, Gen-Qiang Deng, Huihui Wang, Constandinos X Mavromoustakis, Houbing Song, Zhong Ming
With increasingly fierce competition for jobs, the pressures on people have risen in recent years, leading to lifestyle and diet disorders that result in significantly higher risks of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is one of the common chronic cardiovascular diseases; however, mainstream blood pressure measurement devices are relatively heavy. When multiple measurements are required, the user experience and the measurement results may be unsatisfactory. In this paper, we describe the design of a signal collection module that collects pulse waves and electrocardiograph (ECG) signals...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
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