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neuroprotection in anesthesiology

Jinghua Shan, Lianmei Sun, Dewei Wang, Xiuhua Li
BACKGROUND: There are a few reports regarding the comparison of these anesthetic agents, but previous studies mainly focus on the veterinary anesthesiology. Less attention has been focused comparing the effectiveness of these inhalational anesthetic agents in neurosurgery. This lack of interest is regretful particularly considering the fact that anesthetics during neurosurgery are an issue of extreme sensitivity and subtlety, where the cerebral oxygenation process plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanisms...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
C Janke, J M Bumb, S S Aksay, M Thiel, L Kranaster, A Sartorius
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established, safe and effective treatment for severe psychiatric disorders. Ketamine is known as a core medication in anesthesiology and has recently gained interest in ECT practice as there are three potential advantages: (1) ketamine has no anticonvulsive actions, (2) according to recent studies ketamine could possess a unique intrinsic antidepressive potential and (3) ketamine may exhibit neuroprotective properties, which again might reduce the risk of cognitive side effects associated with ECT...
May 2015: Der Anaesthesist
Ricardo Morais, Luísa Andrade, André Lourenço, Jorge Tavares
INTRODUCTION: The Xenon, a noble gas, has anesthetics properties, associated with remarkable hemodynamic stability as well as cardioprotective, neuroprotective proprieties. Its physicochemical characteristics give him a quick induction and emergence of anesthesia, being free of deleterious effects in all organs and showing no teratogenicity. Such properties have led to a growing interest in improving the knowledge about this noble gas, in order to assess the mechanisms of neuro and cardioprotection induced and to assess the clinical indications for its use...
March 2014: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
We review topics pertinent to the perioperative care of patients with neurological disorders. Our review addresses topics not only in the anesthesiology literature, but also in basic neurosciences, critical care medicine, neurology, neurosurgery, radiology, and internal medicine literature. We include literature published or available online up through December 8, 2013. As our review is not able to include all manuscripts, we focus on recurring themes and unique and pivotal investigations. We address the broad topics of general neuroanesthesia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, anesthetic neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, pharmacology, physiology, and nervous system monitoring...
April 2014: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Nathaniel H Greene, Mohammed M Minhaj, Ahmed F Zaky, Irene Rozet
OBJECTIVE: To examine current trends in anesthetic practice for management of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and how practice may differ by groups of practitioners. DESIGN: An online survey was sent to the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists and Society of Neuroscience, Anesthesiology, and Critical Care e-mail list servers. Responses were voluntary. SETTING: Academic medical centers and community-based hospitals providing perioperative care for a CEA in the United States and abroad...
August 2014: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
We provide a review of both clinical and basic science literature from 2012 relevant to care of the patient with neurological disease. Our review addresses the following major areas: general neurosurgical procedures, stroke, traumatic brain injury, spine surgery, anesthetic neurotoxicity, neuroprotective strategies, electrophysiological monitoring, history, and graduate medical education. We have focused on research describing new and innovative concepts and recurring themes. This review is intended to be of interest to those working in the clinical arena and also to neuroscientists...
April 2013: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
B Sinner, K Becke, K Engelhard
Many animal experiments have shown that anesthetics can have a neurotoxic effect on immature brains because they induce apoptosis and influence neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. In animal experiments this has substantial implications for the neurocognitive functions of animals in later life. Whether these results of animal experiments can be transferred to humans is currently the subject of intensive research. In several retrospective studies no clear association between anesthesia in premature babies, newborns or infants and the occurrence of learning disorders or behavioral problems could be found...
February 2013: Der Anaesthesist
C Dean, J Douglas
Magnesium is one of the most abundant cations in the human body. It is utilised extensively within the medical world and its role in the treatment of various conditions in both mother and fetus is increasing. This review focuses on the importance of magnesium for the obstetric anaesthetist and looks at the most recent evidence surrounding its use in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, neuroprotection of the premature infant and the expanding role of magnesium as an analgesic and adjunct to anaesthesia.
January 2013: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
The year 2012 marks the 40th anniversary of the Society of Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care (SNACC). To celebrate this occasion, we provide a review, speculative synthesis, and commentary addressing research relevant to neurosurgical anesthesiology in 1973 and 1974--the early years of SNACC. We address topics such as effects of anesthetic drugs, neuroprotection, cerebral physiology, and monitoring as they relate to the perioperative care of neurosurgical patients or patients experiencing or at risk for neurological disorders...
October 2012: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
William L Lanier
Neuroanesthesiology has a rich history. Although advances in research and clinical practice were cornerstones for the development of this field, other equally critical factors came into play. These include the development of subspecialty societies, formal dissemination of information through textbooks and journal publications, and, most importantly, strong leadership. This article reviews important advances within the subspecialty and many individuals behind those advances. The analysis and speculative synthesis provide insights into the current status of neuroanesthesiology and possible directions for the subspecialty's future...
October 2012: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Stuart D Faulkner, Neil A Downie, Christopher J Mercer, Stuart A Kerr, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
CONTEXT: The clinical applications of xenon for the neonate include both anaesthesia and neuroprotection. However, due to the limited natural availability of xenon, special equipment is required to administer and recapture the gas to develop xenon as a therapeutic agent. OBJECTIVE: In order to test the xenon recirculating ventilator for the application of neuroprotection in a preclinical trial, our primary objective was to test the efficiency, reliability and safety of administering 50% xenon for 24 h in hypoxic ischaemic piglets...
December 2012: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Chiara S Haller, William S Stone, Bernhard Walder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2012: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
With a focus on landmark investigations, common themes, and unique and innovative contributions to the literature, we provide a synopsis of the 2011 literature pertaining to general advances in neurosurgical procedures and perioperative care and anesthetic management of neurosurgical patients.
April 2012: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
We provide a summary of the 2010 literature pertinent to the care of neurosurgical patients and those requiring neurocritical care. In addition, we address topics in the basic neurosciences as they relate to neuroanesthesiology. This review incorporates studies not only from both neuroanesthesiology and general anesthesiology-focused journals, but also from neurology, neurosurgery, critical care, and internal medicine journals and includes articles published after January 1, 2010, through those available on-line by November 31, 2010...
April 2011: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Susanne Herroeder, Marianne E Schönherr, Stefan G De Hert, Markus W Hollmann
Magnesium plays a fundamental role in many cellular functions, and thus there is increasing interest in its role in clinical medicine. Although numerous experimental studies indicate positive effects of magnesium in a variety of disease states, large clinical trials often give conflicting results. However, there is clear evidence for magnesium to benefit patients with eclampsia or torsades de pointes arrhythmias. In addition, magnesium seems to have antinociceptive and anesthetic as well as neuroprotective effects, yet well-designed large clinical trials are required to determine its actual efficacy in pain management or in the state of stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage...
April 2011: Anesthesiology
Stuart A Forman
Over the last several decades, the average age of patients has steadily increased, whereas the use of general anesthesia and deep sedation has grown largely outside the operating room environment. Currently available general anesthetics and delivery models represent limitations in addressing these trends. At the same time, research has tremendously expanded the knowledge of how general anesthetics produce their beneficial effects and also revealed evidence of previously unappreciated general anesthetic toxicities...
December 2010: Anesthesiology Clinics
Jeffrey J Pasternak, William L Lanier
Recent literature contains many reports of value to clinicians providing anesthetic or intensive care for neurosurgical patients or patients experiencing, or at risk for, neurological impairment. We will review many of these articles, focusing on those that address intracranial hemorrhage, intracranial procedures, carotid endarterectomy, spine surgery, and the determinants of outcome in patients with evolving or new-onset neurologic disease. Additionally, we will review articles addressing neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, and nervous system monitoring...
April 2010: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
J Knapp, M Bernhard, H Rauch, A Hyhlik-Dürr, D Böckler, A Walther
Aortic aneurysms are frequent in the elderly who often suffer from relevant co-morbidities. In Germany it is estimated that approximately 250,000 patients suffer from an aortic aneurysm. Due to the high risk of cardiac or pulmonary complications operative management poses a challenge to the anesthesiologist. Especially hemodynamic management during aortic cross-clamping requires anesthesiologic know-how and an anticipatory use of vasodilators and catecholamines. Furthermore, the anesthesiologist has to protect renal function...
November 2009: Der Anaesthesist
Shilpa Rawat, John Dingley
BACKGROUND: Xenon (Xe) is an anesthetic with minimal side effects, now also showing promise as a neuroprotectant both in vitro and in vivo. Although scarce and expensive, Xe is insoluble and patient uptake is low, making closed circuits the optimum delivery method. Although the future of Xe anesthesia is uncertain, effective neuroprotection is highly desirable even if moderately expensive. A factor limiting Xe research in all these fields may be the perceived need to purchase special Xe anesthesia workstations that are expensive and difficult to service...
January 1, 2010: Anesthesia and Analgesia
G Erdös, I Tzanova, U Schirmer, J Ender
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this nationwide survey carried out in department of cardiac anesthesia in Germany was to identify current practice with regard to neuromonitoring und neuroprotection. METHODOLOGY: The data are based on a questionnaire sent out to all departments of cardiac anesthesia in Germany between October 2007 und January 2008. The anonymized questionnaire contained 26 questions about the practice of preoperative evaluation of cerebral vessels, intra-operative use of neuromonitoring, the nature und application of cerebral protective measures, perfusion management during cardiopulmonary bypass, postoperative evaluation of neurological status, and training in the field of cerebral monitoring...
March 2009: Der Anaesthesist
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