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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551645/the-method-of-quality-marker-research-and-quality-evaluation-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-based-on-drug-properties-and-effect-characteristics
#1
Tiejun Zhang, Gang Bai, Yanqi Han, Jun Xu, Suxiao Gong, Yazhuo Li, Hongbing Zhang, Changxiao Liu
BACKGROUND: Quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in industry of TCM. Rapid development of TCM pharmaceutical areas is, however, greatly limited, since there are many issues not been resolved, concerning the quality study of TCM. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Core concept of TCM quality as well as the characteristics of TCM was discussed, in order to guide the quality research and evaluation of TCM, further improve the level of TCM quality control...
March 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540706/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-in-tree-peony-during-chilling-induced-dormancy-release-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#2
Yuxi Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Xuekai Gao, Chunying Liu, Shupeng Gai
Tree peony, one of the most valuable horticultural and medicinal plants in the world, has to go through winter to break dormancy. Growing studies from molecular aspects on dormancy release process have been reported, but inadequate study has been done on miRNA-guided regulation in tree peony. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was employed to identify and characterize miRNAs in three libraries (6 d, 18 d and 24 d chilling treatments). There were 7,122, 10,076 and 9,097 unique miRNA sequences belonging to 52, 87 and 68 miRNA families, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500208/foundation-year-2-doctors-reasons-for-leaving-uk-medicine-an-in-depth-analysis-of-decision-making-using-semistructured-interviews
#3
Samantha E Smith, Victoria R Tallentire, Lindsey M Pope, Anita H Laidlaw, Jill Morrison
OBJECTIVES: To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. SETTING: All four regions of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis...
March 2, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465984/direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-for-characterization-of-large-saccharides
#4
Huiying Ma, Qing Jiang, Diya Dai, Hongli Li, Wentao Bi, David Da Yong Chen
Polysaccharide characterization posts the most difficult challenge to available analytical technologies compared to other types of biomolecules. Plant polysaccharides are reported to have numerous medicinal values, but their effect can be different based on the types of plants, and even regions of productions and conditions of cultivation. However, the molecular basis of the differences of these polysaccharides is largely unknown. In this study, direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was used to generate polysaccharide fingerprints...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417567/breaking-down-barriers-to-effective-patient-care
#5
EDITORIAL
Peter H O'Donnell, Kellie Schoolar Reynolds
The theme for the 2018 ASCPT Annual Meeting is "Breaking Down Barriers to Effective Patient Care." This theme refers to the essential contributions of clinical pharmacology to the development of today's discovery into tomorrow's medicine. The various subdisciplines within clinical pharmacology serve to move molecules through the various stages of drug development and also refine or expand use of the drug postapproval. The wide range of topics covered by the 2018 Annual Meeting scientific program demonstrates the breadth of clinical pharmacology's impact...
March 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383741/chart-stalking-list-making-and-physicians-efforts-to-track-patients-outcomes-after-transitioning-responsibility
#6
Judith L Bowen, Bridget C O'Brien, Jonathan S Ilgen, David M Irby, Olle Ten Cate
CONTEXT: Transitions of patient care responsibility occur frequently between physicians. Resultant discontinuities make it difficult for physicians to observe clinical outcomes. Little is known about what physicians do to overcome the practical challenges to learning these discontinuities create. This study explored physicians' activities in practice as they sought follow-up information about patients. METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews with 18 internal medicine hospitalist and resident physicians at a single tertiary care academic medical center explored participants' strategies when deliberately conducting follow-up after they transitioned responsibility for patients to other physicians...
April 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363591/topoisomerases-as-anticancer-targets
#7
REVIEW
Justine L Delgado, Chao-Ming Hsieh, Nei-Li Chan, Hiroshi Hiasa
Many cancer type-specific anticancer agents have been developed and significant advances have been made toward precision medicine in cancer treatment. However, traditional or nonspecific anticancer drugs are still important for the treatment of many cancer patients whose cancers either do not respond to or have developed resistance to cancer-specific anticancer agents. DNA topoisomerases, especially type IIA topoisomerases, are proved therapeutic targets of anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Clinically successful topoisomerase-targeting anticancer drugs act through topoisomerase poisoning, which leads to replication fork arrest and double-strand break formation...
January 23, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#8
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
April 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328018/-a-day-in-the-life-of-a-medical-resident-on-the-ward
#9
A R Schuurman, S A Bos, K de Wit, R de Graaf, W J Wiersinga
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how internal medicine residents allocate their time during a hospital dayshift on the wards. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study (time and motion study). METHODS: Data were collected from 36 internal medicine residents working at the Internal Medicine Department of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Trained observers monitored 22 residents using a newly developed smartphone-application, registering their dayshift activities (meetings and education, direct patient contact, administrative tasks, lunch/break, other) and location (workstation, conference room, ward and patient rooms, other)...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322560/fast-nonlinear-susceptibility-inversion-with-variational-regularization
#10
Carlos Milovic, Berkin Bilgic, Bo Zhao, Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Cristian Tejos
PURPOSE: Quantitative susceptibility mapping can be performed through the minimization of a function consisting of data fidelity and regularization terms. For data consistency, a Gaussian-phase noise distribution is often assumed, which breaks down when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A previously proposed alternative is to use a nonlinear data fidelity term, which reduces streaking artifacts, mitigates noise amplification, and results in more accurate susceptibility estimates. We hereby present a novel algorithm that solves the nonlinear functional while achieving computation speeds comparable to those for a linear formulation...
January 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313034/the-wyss-institute-a-new-model-for-medical-technology-innovation-and-translation-across-the-academic-industrial-interface
#11
REVIEW
Mary Tolikas, Ayis Antoniou, Donald E Ingber
The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University was formed based on the recognition that breakthrough discoveries cannot change the world if they never leave the laboratory. The Institute's mission is to discover the biological principles that Nature uses to build living things, and to harness these insights to create biologically inspired engineering innovations to advance human health and create a more sustainable world. Since its launch in 2009, the Institute has developed a new model for innovation, collaboration, and technology translation within academia, breaking "silos" to enable collaborations that cross institutional and disciplinary barriers...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273513/zerumbone-protects-human-skin-keratinocytes-against-uva-irradiated-damages-through-nrf2-induction
#12
Hsin-Ling Yang, Chin-Ling Lee, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Jia-Jiuan Wu, You-Cheng Hseu
Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is toxic to skin as it penetrates deep into the dermis and damages cellular components through excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which accelerates photoaging and skin cancer. We evaluated the dermato-protective efficacies of zerumbone (natural sesquiterpene of Zingiber zerumbet) in UVA-irradiated human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and mouse epidermis. Zerumbone pretreatment (2-10 μM) substantially suppressed UVA (15 J/cm2 )-induced HaCaT cell death and lactate dehydrogenase release in a dose-dependent manner...
February 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235408/balint-work-and-the-creation-of-medical-knowledge
#13
John Muench
Michael Balint's pioneering work in primary care was not simply the application of psychodynamic theory to the complex problems and relationships encountered by clinicians. Rather, Balint's work was part of a wider conversation in Western epistemology that had already begun to break down the enlightenment rationalist agenda. Since the time of Descartes, we sought to find certain truth through decontextualizing and abstracting problems, and through separation of the observer from the thing observed, with a focus on finding universal timeless laws that could be generalized...
January 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150003/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-and-human-disease-modeling
#14
Marta Martinez-Lage, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales
The CRISPR/Cas9 system development has revolutionized the field of genome engineering through the efficient creation of targeted breaks in the DNA of almost any organism and cell type, opening an avenue for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. Apart from gene edition through knock-in or knock-out approaches, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell imaging of chromosomal loci, edition of RNA and high-throughput screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117787/reprogramming-of-adult-peripheral-blood-cells-into-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-safe-and-accessible-source-of-endothelial-cells
#15
Pavel Simara, Lenka Tesarova, Daniela Rehakova, Simon Farkas, Barbara Salingova, Katerina Kutalkova, Eva Vavreckova, Pavel Matula, Petr Matula, Lenka Veverkova, Irena Koutna
New approaches in regenerative medicine and vasculogenesis have generated a demand for sufficient numbers of human endothelial cells (ECs). ECs and their progenitors reside on the interior surface of blood and lymphatic vessels or circulate in peripheral blood; however, their numbers are limited, and they are difficult to expand after isolation. Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) research have opened possible avenues to generate unlimited numbers of ECs from easily accessible cell sources, such as the peripheral blood...
January 1, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110885/the-nih-science-of-behavior-change-program-transforming-the-science-through-a-focus-on-mechanisms-of-change
#16
Lisbeth Nielsen, Melissa Riddle, Jonathan W King, Will M Aklin, Wen Chen, David Clark, Elaine Collier, Susan Czajkowski, Layla Esposito, Rebecca Ferrer, Paige Green, Christine Hunter, Karen Kehl, Rosalind King, Lisa Onken, Janine M Simmons, Luke Stoeckel, Catherine Stoney, Lois Tully, Wendy Weber
The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation...
February 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067646/the-oxidative-dna-damage-response-a-review-of-research-undertaken-with-tsinghua-and-xiangya-students-at-the-university-of-pittsburgh
#17
REVIEW
Arthur S Levine, Luxi Sun, Rong Tan, Ying Gao, Lu Yang, Hao Chen, Yaqun Teng, Li Lan
Endogenous stress and exogenous toxicants (chemicals and UV light) alter genetic information either directly or indirectly through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby driving genomic instability in cells and promoting tumorigenesis. All living cells try to faithfully preserve and transmit their genomic information from one generation to the next using DNA repair mechanisms to repair oxidative DNA damage to prevent cancer or premature aging. Oxidative DNA damage comprises a mixture of DNA lesions including base damage, DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs)...
October 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941850/meso-level-multi-disciplinary-approach-for-reduction-of-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-in-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-delhi-india
#18
Nandini Sharma, Shivani Chandra, Meera Dhuria, Charu Kohli, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Nishi Aggarwal, Kuldeep Sachdeva
BACKGROUND: Universal access to tuberculosis (TB) care services emphasizes early detection and initiation of treatment for all pulmonary TB patients. Pre-treatment loss to follow-up patients needs to be actively tracked and treated to break the chain of transmission in the community. OBJECTIVES: MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional study of a sample of 340 patients who were pre-treatment loss to follow-up was conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 in Delhi...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#19
REVIEW
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869913/modelling-of-immiscible-liquid-liquid-systems-by-smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics
#20
H Elekaei Behjati, M Navvab Kashani, M J Biggs
Immiscible fluid systems are ubiquitous in industry, medicine and nature. Understanding the phase morphologies and intraphase fluid motion is often desirable in many of these situations; for example, this will aid improved design of microfluidic platforms for the production of medicinal formulations. In this paper, we detail a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that facilitates this understanding. The approach includes surface tension and enforces incompressibility. The approach also allows the consideration of an arbitrary number of immiscible phases of differing viscosities and densities...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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