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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334237/safety-of-working-patterns-among-uk-neuroradiologists-what-can-we-learn-from-the-aviation-industry-and-cognitive-science
#1
John Reicher, Stuart Currie, Daniel Birchall
As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to achieve the necessary balance between satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 Neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328018/-a-day-in-the-life-of-a-medical-resident-on-the-ward
#2
A R Schuurman, S A Bos, K de Wit, R de Graaf, W J Wiersinga
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how internal medicine residents allocate their time during a hospital dayshift on the wards. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study (time and motion study). METHODS: Data were collected from 36 internal medicine residents working at the Internal Medicine Department of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Trained observers monitored 22 residents using a newly developed smartphone-application, registering their dayshift activities (meetings and education, direct patient contact, administrative tasks, lunch/break, other) and location (workstation, conference room, ward and patient rooms, other)...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322560/fast-nonlinear-susceptibility-inversion-with-variational-regularization
#3
Carlos Milovic, Berkin Bilgic, Bo Zhao, Julio Acosta-Cabronero, Cristian Tejos
PURPOSE: Quantitative susceptibility mapping can be performed through the minimization of a function consisting of data fidelity and regularization terms. For data consistency, a Gaussian-phase noise distribution is often assumed, which breaks down when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A previously proposed alternative is to use a nonlinear data fidelity term, which reduces streaking artifacts, mitigates noise amplification, and results in more accurate susceptibility estimates. We hereby present a novel algorithm that solves the nonlinear functional while achieving computation speeds comparable to those for a linear formulation...
January 10, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313034/the-wyss-institute-a-new-model-for-medical-technology-innovation-and-translation-across-the-academic-industrial-interface
#4
REVIEW
Mary Tolikas, Ayis Antoniou, Donald E Ingber
The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University was formed based on the recognition that breakthrough discoveries cannot change the world if they never leave the laboratory. The Institute's mission is to discover the biological principles that Nature uses to build living things, and to harness these insights to create biologically inspired engineering innovations to advance human health and create a more sustainable world. Since its launch in 2009, the Institute has developed a new model for innovation, collaboration, and technology translation within academia, breaking "silos" to enable collaborations that cross institutional and disciplinary barriers...
September 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273513/zerumbone-protects-human-skin-keratinocytes-against-uva-irradiated-damages-through-nrf2-induction
#5
Hsin-Ling Yang, Chin-Ling Lee, Mallikarjuna Korivi, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Peramaiyan Rajendran, Jia-Jiuan Wu, You-Cheng Hseu
Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is toxic to skin as it penetrates deep into the dermis and damages cellular components through excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which accelerates photoaging and skin cancer. We evaluated the dermato-protective efficacies of zerumbone (natural sesquiterpene of Zingiber zerumbet) in UVA-irradiated human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and mouse epidermis. Zerumbone pretreatment (2-10 μM) substantially suppressed UVA (15 J/cm2)-induced HaCaT cell death and lactate dehydrogenase release in a dose-dependent manner...
December 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235408/balint-work-and-the-creation-of-medical-knowledge
#6
John Muench
Michael Balint's pioneering work in primary care was not simply the application of psychodynamic theory to the complex problems and relationships encountered by clinicians. Rather, Balint's work was part of a wider conversation in Western epistemology that had already begun to break down the enlightenment rationalist agenda. Since the time of Descartes, we sought to find certain truth through decontextualizing and abstracting problems, and through separation of the observer from the thing observed, with a focus on finding universal timeless laws that could be generalized...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150003/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-and-human-disease-modeling
#7
Marta Martinez-Lage, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales
The CRISPR/Cas9 system development has revolutionized the field of genome engineering through the efficient creation of targeted breaks in the DNA of almost any organism and cell type, opening an avenue for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. Apart from gene edition through knock-in or knock-out approaches, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell imaging of chromosomal loci, edition of RNA and high-throughput screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117787/reprogramming-of-adult-peripheral-blood-cells-into-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-safe-and-accessible-source-of-endothelial-cells
#8
Pavel Simara, Lenka Tesarova, Daniela Rehakova, Simon Farkas, Barbara Salingova, Katerina Kutalkova, Eva Vavreckova, Pavel Matula, Petr Matula, Lenka Veverkova, Irena Koutna
New approaches in regenerative medicine and vasculogenesis have generated a demand for sufficient numbers of human endothelial cells (ECs). ECs and their progenitors (EPCs) reside on the interior surface of blood and lymphatic vessels or circulate in peripheral blood; however, their numbers are limited and they are difficult to expand after isolation. Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) research have opened possible avenues to generate unlimited numbers of ECs from easily accessible cell sources, such as the peripheral blood...
November 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110885/the-nih-science-of-behavior-change-program-transforming-the-science-through-a-focus-on-mechanisms-of-change
#9
Lisbeth Nielsen, Melissa Riddle, Jonathan W King, Will M Aklin, Wen Chen, David Clark, Elaine Collier, Susan Czajkowski, Layla Esposito, Rebecca Ferrer, Paige Green, Christine Hunter, Karen Kehl, Rosalind King, Lisa Onken, Janine M Simmons, Luke Stoeckel, Catherine Stoney, Lois Tully, Wendy Weber
The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation...
July 6, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067646/the-oxidative-dna-damage-response-a-review-of-research-undertaken-with-tsinghua-and-xiangya-students-at-the-university-of-pittsburgh
#10
REVIEW
Arthur S Levine, Luxi Sun, Rong Tan, Ying Gao, Lu Yang, Hao Chen, Yaqun Teng, Li Lan
Endogenous stress and exogenous toxicants (chemicals and UV light) alter genetic information either directly or indirectly through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby driving genomic instability in cells and promoting tumorigenesis. All living cells try to faithfully preserve and transmit their genomic information from one generation to the next using DNA repair mechanisms to repair oxidative DNA damage to prevent cancer or premature aging. Oxidative DNA damage comprises a mixture of DNA lesions including base damage, DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs)...
October 23, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941850/meso-level-multi-disciplinary-approach-for-reduction-of-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-in-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-delhi-india
#11
Nandini Sharma, Shivani Chandra, Meera Dhuria, Charu Kohli, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Nishi Aggarwal, Kuldeep Sachdeva
BACKGROUND: Universal access to tuberculosis (TB) care services emphasizes early detection and initiation of treatment for all pulmonary TB patients. Pre-treatment loss to follow-up patients needs to be actively tracked and treated to break the chain of transmission in the community. OBJECTIVES: MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional study of a sample of 340 patients who were pre-treatment loss to follow-up was conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 in Delhi...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#12
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869913/modelling-of-immiscible-liquid-liquid-systems-by-smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics
#13
H Elekaei Behjati, M Navvab Kashani, M J Biggs
Immiscible fluid systems are ubiquitous in industry, medicine and nature. Understanding the phase morphologies and intraphase fluid motion is often desirable in many of these situations; for example, this will aid improved design of microfluidic platforms for the production of medicinal formulations. In this paper, we detail a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that facilitates this understanding. The approach includes surface tension and enforces incompressibility. The approach also allows the consideration of an arbitrary number of immiscible phases of differing viscosities and densities...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853329/artificial-biomembrane-morphology-a-dissipative-particle-dynamics-study
#14
Matthew Becton, Rodney Averett, Xianqiao Wang
Artificial membranes mimicking biological structures are rapidly breaking new ground in the areas of medicine and soft-matter physics. In this endeavor, we use dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation to investigate the morphology and behavior of lipid-based biomembranes under conditions of varied lipid density and self-interaction. Our results show that a less-than-normal initial lipid density does not create the traditional membrane; but instead results in the formation of a 'net', or at very low densities, a series of disparate 'clumps' similar to the micelles formed by lipids in nature...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807365/-the-breakthrough-of-personalized-medicine-new-hopes-and-new-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Ronan Flippot, Christophe Massard, Edouard Auclin, David Azria, Héloïse Bourien, Philippe Rochigneux, Antoine Schernberg, Loïc Verlingue, Lara Zafrani, Stéphane Vignot
The development of personalized medicine in oncology is based on biomarkers that help select populations for more efficient and less toxic therapies. The onset of molecular biology led to new paradigms in drug development, with efficacy data reported in early clinical trials and accelerated approvals. Multiple clinical trials, including SHIVA, SAFIR-01 and MOSCATO-01, have been developed to evaluate the interest of treatment decision-making based on tumor molecular profiling, with the ambition to replace historical clinical and pathological classifications...
September 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712102/precision-medicine-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-relevant-carcinogenic-pathways-and-targets-part-2-approaches-beyond-first-line-therapy-and-novel-biologic-agents-under-investigation
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin A Weinberg, Marion L Hartley, Mohamed E Salem
A frequent quandary for oncologists is the selection of chemotherapy and biologic therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in second-line and higher treatment settings. While not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the first-line setting, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting agents ziv-aflibercept and ramucirumab are appropriate treatment options in the second-line setting, as is continuation of first-line bevacizumab. Tumor RAS mutational status is helpful to determine which patients may benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed therapies, and other novel biomarkers (BRAF, HER2, and mismatch repair deficiency) allow us to select patients who may benefit from biologic therapies that are FDA-approved for other malignancies...
July 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696958/rock-climbing-related-bone-marrow-edema-of-the-hand-a-follow-up-study
#17
Christoph Lutter, Thomas Hochholzer, Thomas Bayer, Volker Schöffl
OBJECTIVE: Sport climbers strain passive and active anatomical structures of their hands and fingers to the maximum during training or competition. This study was designed to investigate bone marrow edema (BME) in rock climbing athletes. DESIGN: Systematic detection, treatment, and follow-up investigation of rock climbing athletes with BME of the hand. SETTING: Primary-level orthopedic surgery and sports medicine division of a large academic medical center...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662958/targeting-atr-in-cancer-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Raghav Sundar, Jessica Brown, Alvaro Ingles Russo, Timothy A Yap
DNA damage occurs continually through various intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms such as ultraviolet radiation, smoking, reactive oxygen species, and errors during replication. The cellular DNA damage response (DDR) comprises signaling networks that regulate a spectrum of processes, including cell cycle progression, which enable DNA repair to occur. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated and rad3-related (ATR) kinase are 2 key regulators of the DDR cell cycle checkpoints. ATR plays an essential role in the repair of replication-associated DNA damage, while ATM is activated by DNA double-strand breaks...
July 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636269/commentary-on-r-d-trends-away-from-general-medicine-cardiovascular-drugs-can-the-fda-help-reverse-the-trend
#19
REVIEW
R J Meyer
In the latter part of the 20th century, drug development in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was a paragon of "modern" therapeutics, bringing about a substantial number of effective, well-tolerated agents targeting some of the most prevalent diseases of the Western world. These drugs were often examples of rational drug development targeting specific pathophysiologic pathways previously elucidated through basic research (e.g., targeting of the renin-angiotensin system or the cholesterol synthesis pathway). The widespread adoption of these ground-breaking medications in practice and into medical guidelines undoubtedly played a role in the fall of morbidity and mortality from CVD in the United States in recent decades...
August 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633990/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-a-mathematical-addendum-quantifying-energetic-dynamics-in-physical-and-biological-systems-through-a-simple-geometric-tool-and-geodetic-curves
#20
REVIEW
Alexander Yurkin, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C Marijuán
The present Addendum complements the accompanying paper "Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle"; it illustrates a recently-developed geometrical physical model able to assess electronic movements and energetic paths in atomic shells. The model describes a multi-level system of circular, wavy and zigzag paths which can be projected onto a horizontal tape. This model ushers in a visual interpretation of the distribution of atomic electrons' energy levels and the corresponding quantum numbers through rather simple tools, such as compasses, rulers and straightforward calculations...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
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