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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150003/crispr-cas9-technology-applications-and-human-disease-modeling
#1
Marta Martinez-Lage, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Sandra Rodriguez-Perales
The CRISPR/Cas9 system development has revolutionized the field of genome engineering through the efficient creation of targeted breaks in the DNA of almost any organism and cell type, opening an avenue for a wide range of applications in biomedical research and medicine. Apart from gene edition through knock-in or knock-out approaches, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been used for many other purposes, including regulation of endogenous gene expression, epigenome editing, live-cell imaging of chromosomal loci, edition of RNA and high-throughput screening...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117787/reprogramming-of-adult-peripheral-blood-cells-into-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-safe-and-accessible-source-of-endothelial-cells
#2
Pavel Simara, Lenka Tesarova, Daniela Rehakova, Simon Farkas, Barbara Salingova, Katerina Kutalkova, Eva Vavreckova, Pavel Matula, Petr Matula, Lenka Veverkova, Irena Koutna
New approaches in regenerative medicine and vasculogenesis have generated a demand for sufficient numbers of human endothelial cells (ECs). ECs and their progenitors (EPCs) reside on the interior surface of blood and lymphatic vessels or circulate in peripheral blood; however, their numbers are limited and they are difficult to expand after isolation. Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) research have opened possible avenues to generate unlimited numbers of ECs from easily accessible cell sources, such as the peripheral blood...
November 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110885/the-nih-science-of-behavior-change-program-transforming-the-science-through-a-focus-on-mechanisms-of-change
#3
Lisbeth Nielsen, Melissa Riddle, Jonathan W King, Will M Aklin, Wen Chen, David Clark, Elaine Collier, Susan Czajkowski, Layla Esposito, Rebecca Ferrer, Paige Green, Christine Hunter, Karen Kehl, Rosalind King, Lisa Onken, Janine M Simmons, Luke Stoeckel, Catherine Stoney, Lois Tully, Wendy Weber
The goal of the NIH Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program is to provide the basis for an experimental medicine approach to behavior change that focuses on identifying and measuring the mechanisms that underlie behavioral patterns we are trying to change. This paper frames the development of the program within a discussion of the substantial disease burden in the U.S. attributable to behavioral factors, and details our strategies for breaking down the disease- and condition-focused silos in the behavior change field to accelerate discovery and translation...
July 6, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067646/the-oxidative-dna-damage-response-a-review-of-research-undertaken-with-tsinghua-and-xiangya-students-at-the-university-of-pittsburgh
#4
REVIEW
Arthur S Levine, Luxi Sun, Rong Tan, Ying Gao, Lu Yang, Hao Chen, Yaqun Teng, Li Lan
Endogenous stress and exogenous toxicants (chemicals and UV light) alter genetic information either directly or indirectly through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby driving genomic instability in cells and promoting tumorigenesis. All living cells try to faithfully preserve and transmit their genomic information from one generation to the next using DNA repair mechanisms to repair oxidative DNA damage to prevent cancer or premature aging. Oxidative DNA damage comprises a mixture of DNA lesions including base damage, DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs)...
October 23, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941850/meso-level-multi-disciplinary-approach-for-reduction-of-pre-treatment-loss-to-follow-up-in-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-delhi-india
#5
Nandini Sharma, Shivani Chandra, Meera Dhuria, Charu Kohli, Kamal Kishore Chopra, Nishi Aggarwal, Kuldeep Sachdeva
BACKGROUND: Universal access to tuberculosis (TB) care services emphasizes early detection and initiation of treatment for all pulmonary TB patients. Pre-treatment loss to follow-up patients needs to be actively tracked and treated to break the chain of transmission in the community. OBJECTIVES: MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional study of a sample of 340 patients who were pre-treatment loss to follow-up was conducted from November 2011 to March 2012 in Delhi...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#6
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869913/modelling-of-immiscible-liquid-liquid-systems-by-smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics
#7
H Elekaei Behjati, M Navvab Kashani, M J Biggs
Immiscible fluid systems are ubiquitous in industry, medicine and nature. Understanding the phase morphologies and intraphase fluid motion is often desirable in many of these situations; for example, this will aid improved design of microfluidic platforms for the production of medicinal formulations. In this paper, we detail a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that facilitates this understanding. The approach includes surface tension and enforces incompressibility. The approach also allows the consideration of an arbitrary number of immiscible phases of differing viscosities and densities...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853329/artificial-biomembrane-morphology-a-dissipative-particle-dynamics-study
#8
Matthew Becton, Rodney Averett, Xianqiao Wang
Artificial membranes mimicking biological structures are rapidly breaking new ground in the areas of medicine and soft-matter physics. In this endeavor, we use dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation to investigate the morphology and behavior of lipid-based biomembranes under conditions of varied lipid density and self-interaction. Our results show that a less-than-normal initial lipid density does not create the traditional membrane; but instead results in the formation of a 'net', or at very low densities, a series of disparate 'clumps' similar to the micelles formed by lipids in nature...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807365/-the-breakthrough-of-personalized-medicine-new-hopes-and-new-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Ronan Flippot, Christophe Massard, Edouard Auclin, David Azria, Héloïse Bourien, Philippe Rochigneux, Antoine Schernberg, Loïc Verlingue, Lara Zafrani, Stéphane Vignot
The development of personalized medicine in oncology is based on biomarkers that help select populations for more efficient and less toxic therapies. The onset of molecular biology led to new paradigms in drug development, with efficacy data reported in early clinical trials and accelerated approvals. Multiple clinical trials, including SHIVA, SAFIR-01 and MOSCATO-01, have been developed to evaluate the interest of treatment decision-making based on tumor molecular profiling, with the ambition to replace historical clinical and pathological classifications...
September 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712102/precision-medicine-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-relevant-carcinogenic-pathways-and-targets-part-2-approaches-beyond-first-line-therapy-and-novel-biologic-agents-under-investigation
#10
REVIEW
Benjamin A Weinberg, Marion L Hartley, Mohamed E Salem
A frequent quandary for oncologists is the selection of chemotherapy and biologic therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in second-line and higher treatment settings. While not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the first-line setting, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting agents ziv-aflibercept and ramucirumab are appropriate treatment options in the second-line setting, as is continuation of first-line bevacizumab. Tumor RAS mutational status is helpful to determine which patients may benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed therapies, and other novel biomarkers (BRAF, HER2, and mismatch repair deficiency) allow us to select patients who may benefit from biologic therapies that are FDA-approved for other malignancies...
July 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696958/rock-climbing-related-bone-marrow-edema-of-the-hand-a-follow-up-study
#11
Christoph Lutter, Thomas Hochholzer, Thomas Bayer, Volker Schöffl
OBJECTIVE: Sport climbers strain passive and active anatomical structures of their hands and fingers to the maximum during training or competition. This study was designed to investigate bone marrow edema (BME) in rock climbing athletes. DESIGN: Systematic detection, treatment, and follow-up investigation of rock climbing athletes with BME of the hand. SETTING: Primary-level orthopedic surgery and sports medicine division of a large academic medical center...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662958/targeting-atr-in-cancer-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Raghav Sundar, Jessica Brown, Alvaro Ingles Russo, Timothy A Yap
DNA damage occurs continually through various intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms such as ultraviolet radiation, smoking, reactive oxygen species, and errors during replication. The cellular DNA damage response (DDR) comprises signaling networks that regulate a spectrum of processes, including cell cycle progression, which enable DNA repair to occur. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated and rad3-related (ATR) kinase are 2 key regulators of the DDR cell cycle checkpoints. ATR plays an essential role in the repair of replication-associated DNA damage, while ATM is activated by DNA double-strand breaks...
July 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636269/commentary-on-r-d-trends-away-from-general-medicine-cardiovascular-drugs-can-the-fda-help-reverse-the-trend
#13
REVIEW
R J Meyer
In the latter part of the 20th century, drug development in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was a paragon of "modern" therapeutics, bringing about a substantial number of effective, well-tolerated agents targeting some of the most prevalent diseases of the Western world. These drugs were often examples of rational drug development targeting specific pathophysiologic pathways previously elucidated through basic research (e.g., targeting of the renin-angiotensin system or the cholesterol synthesis pathway). The widespread adoption of these ground-breaking medications in practice and into medical guidelines undoubtedly played a role in the fall of morbidity and mortality from CVD in the United States in recent decades...
August 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633990/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-a-mathematical-addendum-quantifying-energetic-dynamics-in-physical-and-biological-systems-through-a-simple-geometric-tool-and-geodetic-curves
#14
REVIEW
Alexander Yurkin, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C Marijuán
The present Addendum complements the accompanying paper "Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle"; it illustrates a recently-developed geometrical physical model able to assess electronic movements and energetic paths in atomic shells. The model describes a multi-level system of circular, wavy and zigzag paths which can be projected onto a horizontal tape. This model ushers in a visual interpretation of the distribution of atomic electrons' energy levels and the corresponding quantum numbers through rather simple tools, such as compasses, rulers and straightforward calculations...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426908/clinically-useful-brain-imaging-for-neuropsychiatry-how-can-we-get-there
#15
REVIEW
Michael P Milham, R Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based "growth charts" or "lab tests" have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward...
July 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402189/going-non-viral-the-sleeping-beauty-transposon-system-breaks-on-through-to-the-clinical-side
#16
REVIEW
Michael Hudecek, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Sandra Johnen, Matthias Renner, Gabriele Thumann, Zoltán Ivics
Molecular medicine has entered a high-tech age that provides curative treatments of complex genetic diseases through genetically engineered cellular medicinal products. Their clinical implementation requires the ability to stably integrate genetic information through gene transfer vectors in a safe, effective and economically viable manner. The latest generation of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors fulfills these requirements, and may overcome limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are prevalent in ongoing pre-clinical and translational research...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295846/the-enigmatic-oncogene-and-tumor-suppressor-like-properties-of-rad54b-insights-into-genome-instability-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Erin N McAndrew, Kirk J McManus
One of the major challenges to the cell is to ensure genome stability, which can be compromised through endogenous errors or exogenous DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation or common chemotherapeutic agents. To maintain genome stability the cell has a multifaceted line of defense, including cell cycle checkpoints and DNA damage repair pathways. RAD54B is involved in many of these pathways and thus exhibits a role in maintaining and repairing genome stability following DNA damage. RAD54B is involved in cell cycle regulation after DNA damage and participates in homologous recombinational repair, which ensures the precise repair of the most deleterious DNA lesions, double-stranded breaks...
July 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137220/multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-chitosan-scaffold-cytotoxic-apoptoti-c-and-necrotic-effects-on-chondrocyte-cell-lines
#18
Sibel Ilbasmis-Tamer, Hakan Ciftci, Mustafa Turk, Tuncer Degim, Ugur Tamer
BACKGROUND: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered highly successful and proficient in terms of their mechanical, thermal and electrical functionalization and biocompatibility. In regards to their significant extent in bone regeneration, it has been determined that CNTs hold the capability to endure clinical applications through bone tissue engineering and orthopedic procedures. In the present study, we report on a composite preparation, involving the use of CNT-chitosan as scaffold for bone repair and regeneration...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966480/triphala-a-formulation-of-traditional-ayurvedic-medicine-shows-protective-effect-against-x-radiation-in-hela-cells
#19
Yuki Takauji, Kensuke Miki, Juma Mita, Mohammad Nazir Hossain, Masatake Yamauchi, Mitomu Kioi, Dai Ayusawa, Michihiko Fujii
Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879375/the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-koenimbine-induced-dna-damage-and-heat-shock-protein-modulation-in-hepg2-cells
#20
Yahya Hasan Hobani
BACKGROUND: Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng, is a significant herb of traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. Koenimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant holds antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. The aim of this study was to assess koenimbine-induced DNA damage and to clarify the role of free radicals in cell death mechanisms, using HepG2 cells. METHODS: The level of cytotoxicity was assayed by MTT assay. To elucidate the role of glutathione (GSH), the intracellular GSH level was analyzed...
December 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
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