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Gut Brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911317/alzheimer-s-disease-histological-and%C3%A2-behavioral-manifestations-in%C3%A2-transgenic-mice-correlate-with%C3%A2-specific%C3%A2-gut-microbiome-state
#2
Liang Shen, Lu Liu, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disease and is the most common form of dementia. In recent years, many studies indicated the association of gut microbiota changes with metabolic diseases. However, the gut microbiota of AD has not been investigated. The present study aims to compare the gut microbiota in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of AD and C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) mice by pyrosequencing the V3 and V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The 3-, 6-, and 8-month-old APP/PS1 and WT mice were used to explore the effects of age on the gut microbiota...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#3
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898425/modulation-of-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-by-berberine-resulting-in-improved-metabolic-status-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Zhen Cang, Chaoxia Zhu, Li Zhao, Xiaomin Nie, Jing Cheng, Fangzhen Xia, Hualing Zhai, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not berberine could improve metabolic status of high-fat-fed rats through modulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis. METHODS: Berberine was administered on high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain-gut hormones were detected, and changes of gut microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. RESULTS: Berberine could reduce weight gain and lipolysis in the high-fat diet-fed group. Moreover, trends of ameliorated insulin resistance and decreased endogenous glucose production were observed...
November 30, 2016: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897970/an-essential-cell-autonomous-role-for-hepcidin-in-cardiac-iron-homeostasis
#5
Samira Lakhal-Littleton, Magda Wolna, Yu Jin Chung, Helen C Christian, Lisa C Heather, Marcella Brescia, Vicky Ball, Rebeca Diaz, Ana Santos, Daniel Biggs, Kieran Clarke, Benjamin Davies, Peter A Robbins
Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Derived primarily from the liver, it inhibits the iron exporter ferroportin in the gut and spleen, the sites of iron absorption and recycling respectively. Recently, we demonstrated that ferroportin is also found in cardiomyocytes, and that its cardiac-specific deletion leads to fatal cardiac iron overload. Hepcidin is also expressed in cardiomyocytes, where its function remains unknown. To define the function of cardiomyocyte hepcidin, we generated mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of hepcidin, or knock-in of hepcidin-resistant ferroportin...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895414/hepatic-encephalopathy-ever-closer-to-its-big-bang
#6
EDITORIAL
Pablo A Souto, Ariel R Marcotegui, Lisandro Orbea, Juan Skerl, Juan Carlos Perazzo
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that commonly complicates the course of patients with liver disease. Despite the fact that the syndrome was probably first recognized hundreds of years ago, the exact pathogenesis still remains unclear. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the earliest form of HE and is estimated to affect more that 75% of patients with liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by cognitive impairment predominantly attention, reactiveness and integrative function with very subtle clinical manifestations...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892710/oxytocin-a-missing-link-of-the-gut-brain-axis-between-probiotics-and-chronic-migraine-comment-on-the-effects-of-the-multispecies-probiotic-mixture-ecologic-%C3%A2-barrier-on-migraine-results-of-an-open-label-pilot-study
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884736/brain-and-intestinal-expression-of-galanin-like-peptide-galp-galanin-receptor-r1-and-galanin-receptor-r2-and-galp-regulation-of-food-intake-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#8
Elsie Tachie Mensah, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Andrew Donini, Suraj Unniappan
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60 amino acid neuropeptide originally discovered from porcine hypothalamus, and is involved in the regulation of food intake in mammals. Since its discovery, GALP and its receptors (GALR1 and GALR2) have been characterized in mammals, but no publications are available on GALP in fish and other non-mammals. The present study aimed to characterize brain and intestinal GALP and its receptors using immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), and to study its effects on feeding behavior...
November 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884012/gut-microbiota-bacterial-translocation-and-interactions-with-diet-pathophysiological-links-between-major-depressive-disorder-and-non-communicable-medical-comorbidities
#9
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Felice N Jacka, Cristiano A Köhler, Tatiana Barichello, Roger S McIntyre, Michael Berk, Iria Grande, Jane A Foster, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Persistent low-grade immune-inflammatory processes, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation are integral to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The microbiome, intestinal compositional changes, and resultant bacterial translocation add a new element to the bidirectional interactions of the gut-brain axis; new evidence implicates these pathways in the patho-aetiology of MDD. In addition, abnormalities in the gut-brain axis are associated with several chronic non-communicable disorders, which frequently co-occur in individuals with MDD, including but not limited to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
November 25, 2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#10
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875954/how-immune-inflammatory-processes-link-cns-and-psychiatric-disorders-classification-and-treatment-implications
#11
George Anderson, Michael Maes
In this article the emerging biological overlaps of CNS disorders and psychiatric conditions are reviewed. Recent work has highlighted how immune-inflammatory processes and their interactions with oxidative and nitrosative stress, couple to drive changes in neuroregulatory tryptophan catabolites, with consequences for serotonin availability, including as a precursor for the melatonergic pathways. Subsequent alterations in the regulation of local melatonin synthesis are likely to have direct impacts on the reactivity of immune cells, both centrally and systemically...
November 22, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#12
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871802/probiotic-normalization-of-candida-albicans-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-longitudinal-pilot-study
#13
Emily G Severance, Kristin L Gressitt, Cassie R Stallings, Emily Katsafanas, Lucy A Schweinfurth, Christina L G Savage, Maria B Adamos, Kevin M Sweeney, Andrea E Origoni, Sunil Khushalani, Faith B Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
The molecules and pathways of the gut-brain axis represent new targets for developing methods to diagnose and treat psychiatric disorders. Manipulation of the gut microbiome with probiotics may be a therapeutic strategy with the potential to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) comorbidities and improve psychiatric symptoms. Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commensal yeast species, can be imbalanced in the unhealthy human microbiome, and these fungal exposures were previously found elevated in schizophrenia...
November 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869776/complementary-feeding-strategies-to-facilitate-acceptance-of-fruits-and-vegetables-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#14
Sophie Nicklaus
Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866330/human-gut-microbiota-the-links-with-dementia-development
#15
REVIEW
Rashad Alkasir, Jing Li, Xudong Li, Miao Jin, Baoli Zhu
Dementia is a comprehensive category of brain diseases that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning. The most common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, which makes most of cases. New researches indicate that gastrointestinal tract microbiota are directly linked to dementia pathogenesis through triggering metabolic diseases and low-grade inflammation progress. A novel strategy is proposed for the management of these disorders and as an adjuvant for psychiatric treatment of dementia and other related diseases through modulation of the microbiota (e...
November 19, 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866184/the-gut-brain-axis-autoimmune-and-neuroimmune-disorders
#16
Aristo Vojdani, Jama Lambert, Elroy Vojdani
No Abstract Available.
October 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#17
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863337/lead-accumulation-and-metallothionein-content-in-female-rats-of-different-ages-and-generations-after-daily-intake-of-pb-contaminated-food
#18
Cássia Regina Bruno Nascimento, Wagner Ezequiel Risso, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis Martinez
Female Wistar rats of different ages (45, 90 and 140 days) and generations (mothers and offspring) were fed a feed containing 2.0mg of Pb kg(-1) daily from weaning and the Pb accumulation was determined in different organs and in maternal milk, in addition metallothioneins (MTs) content was determined in the liver and kidneys. The results showed that Pb accumulation exhibited the following pattern: bone>liver>kidney>gut>blood cells>muscle>brain>ovary. Bones accumulated the most Pb in all animals, with its concentration increasing with age and prenatal exposure...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860511/large-brains-small-guts-the-expensive-tissue-hypothesis-supported-within-anurans
#19
Wen Bo Liao, Shang Ling Lou, Yu Zeng, Alexander Kotrschal
Brain size differs substantially among species, and several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of brain size. Because the brain is among the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body, trade-offs have been hypothesized to exert constraints on brain size evolution. Prominently, the expensive tissue hypothesis (ETH) proposes that reducing the size of another expensive organ, such as the gut, should compensate for the cost of a large brain. But energetic constraints may also drive covariation between the brain and other costly traits-such as body maintenance, locomotion, or reproduction-as formulated in the energy trade-off hypothesis...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858116/host-microbiome-interactions-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Hae Ung Lee, Zachary E McPherson, Bryan Tan, Agata Korecka, Sven Pettersson
The microbiome located within a given host and its organs forms a holobiont, an intimate functional entity with evolutionarily designed interactions to support nutritional intake and reproduction. Thus, all organs in a holobiont respond to changes within the microbiome. The development and function of the central nervous system and its homeostatic mechanisms are no exception and are also subject to regulation by the gut microbiome. In order for the holobiont to function effectively, the microbiome and host must communicate...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
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