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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166482/abortion-and-sex-related-conditions-in-substance-dependent-brazilian-patients
#1
Alessandra Diehl, Sandra Cristina Pillon, Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Ronaldo Laranjeira
Abortion is a very sensitive issue with relevance to public health; however few clinical or population-based studies have examined induced abortion among drug users. The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of induced abortion and sex-related conditions in an inpatient drug user sample. A cross-sectional design study was conducted in an inpatient addiction treatment unit in São Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 616 patients, aged 18-75. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and dependence severity were evaluated in relation to induced abortion...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166481/-prep-forum-an-on-line-debate-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-brazil
#2
Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes Queiroz, Alvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa
This study aimed to identify health-promoting contents focused on HIV/Aids prevention in messages posted in a Facebook group for debates on the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). This was a prospective observational study using systematic non-participant observation. From July 2015 to June 2016, all the posts in the group were catalogued and formed a corpus. Everything was processed in IRaMuTeQ and analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. The collected data were grouped in three classes: (1) HIV/Aids prevention: discussing prophylaxis, treatment, target public, and side effects; (2) universal access to PrEP in Brazil: discussing government responsibilities; (3) on-line purchase of truvada: exposing a situation of vulnerability...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166437/breastfeeding-indicators-trends-in-brazil-for-three-decades
#3
Cristiano Siqueira Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello Boccolini, Fernanda Ramos Monteiro, Sonia Isoyama Venâncio, Elsa Regina Justo Giugliani
OBJECTIVE: Update breastfeeding indicators trend in Brazil for the last three decades, incorporating more up-to-date information from the National Health Survey. METHODS: We used secondary data from national surveys with information on breastfeeding (1986, 1996, 2006, and 2013) to construct the time series of prevalence for the following indicators: exclusive breastfeeding in children under six months of age (EBF6m), breastfeeding in toddlers under 2 years of age (BF), continued breastfeeding at one year of age (BF1year), and continued breastfeeding at two years of age (BF2years)...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166432/engagement-in-physical-education-classes-and-health-among-young-people-does-sports-practice-matter-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam, Philippe Fanelli Ferraiol
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Physical education classes aim to promote health but it is unknown whether benefits occur independently of sports practice. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between engagement in physical education classes and physical fitness and obesity according to sports practice among Brazilian students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional school-based study involving 737 students aged 10-17 years in southern Brazil. METHODS: Engagement in physical education classes and sports practice were analyzed using a self-report questionnaire...
November 17, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166355/restoring-faculty-vitality-in-academic-medicine-when-burnout-threatens
#5
Darshana T Shah, Valerie N Williams, Luanne E Thorndyke, E Eugene Marsh, Roberta E Sonnino, Steven M Block, Thomas R Viggiano
Increasing rates of burnout-with accompanying stress and lack of engagement-among faculty, residents, students, and practicing physicians have caused alarm in academic medicine. Central to the debate among academic medicine's stakeholders are oft-competing issues of social accountability; cost containment; effectiveness of academic medicine's institutions; faculty recruitment, retention, and satisfaction; increasing expectations for faculty; and mission-based productivity.The authors propose that understanding and fostering what contributes to faculty and institutional vitality is central to preventing burnout during times of change...
November 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166251/risk-of-diabetes-mellitus-among-medicaid-beneficiaries-in-hawaii
#6
Dongmei Li, Chuan C Chinn, Ritabelle Fernandes, Christina M B Wang, Myra D Smith, Rebecca Rude Ozaki
INTRODUCTION: Medicaid is the largest primary health insurance for low-income populations in the United States, and it provides comprehensive benefits to cover treatment and services costs for chronic diseases, including diabetes. The standardized per capita spending on diabetes by Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the fee-for-service program in Hawaii increased from 2012 to 2015. We examined the difference in odds of diabetes between Medicaid and non-Medicaid populations in major racial/ethnic groups in Hawaii...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166249/qualitative-exploration-of-cross-sector-perspectives-on-the-contributions-of-local-health-departments-in-land-use-and-transportation-policy
#7
Meera Sreedhara, Karin Valentine Goins, Semra A Aytur, Rodney Lyn, Jay E Maddock, Robin Riessman, Thomas L Schmid, Heather Wooten, Stephenie C Lemon
INTRODUCTION: Transportation and land-use policies can affect the physical activity of populations. Local health departments (LHDs) are encouraged to participate in built-environment policy processes, which are outside their traditional expertise. Cross-sector collaborations are needed, yet stakeholders' perceptions of LHD involvement are not well understood. The objective of this study was to describe the perceived value of LHD participation in transportation and land-use decision making and potential contributions to these processes among stakeholders...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166188/enhancement-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-prevention-behavior-with-role-play-among-elementary-school-students
#8
Evi Supriatun, Astuti Yuni Nursasi, Poppy Fitriyani
Tuberculosis as an infectious disease is increasing in both the number of cases and severity of impact, and the number of cases among school-aged children is also increasing. Health promotion campaigns in schools have not been intensive, and there is poor behavior in tuberculosis prevention. Role play-playing roles actively with provided materials-is one health education method that can empower school-aged children to understand tuberculosis prevention. The purpose of this research is to identify the influence of role playing on tuberculosis transmission prevention in school-aged children...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166138/medical-drama-viewing-and-healthy-lifestyle-behaviors-understanding-the-role-of-health-locus-of-control-beliefs-and-education-level
#9
Sungsu Kim, Young Min Baek
The present study advances the understanding of how medical drama viewing influences healthy lifestyle behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercising, and consuming vegetables) by examining the role of the health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs and education level. An analysis of nationally representative data reveals that watching medical dramas is positively associated with chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs. In addition, healthy lifestyle behaviors are positively associated with the internal HLOC belief and are negatively associated with the chance and powerful others' HLOC beliefs...
November 22, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165855/physical-activity-coaching-by-australian-exercise-physiologists-is-cost-effective-for-patients-referred-from-general-practice
#10
Ben Ewald, Fiona Stacey, Natalie Johnson, Ronald C Plotnikoff, Elizabeth Holliday, Wendy Brown, Erica L James
OBJECTIVE: Interventions to promote physical activity for sedentary patients seen in general practice may be a way to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Coaching by an exercise physiologist is publicly funded in Australia, but cost effectiveness has not been documented. METHODS: In a three-arm randomised controlled trial, face-to-face coaching and telephone coaching over 12 weeks were compared with a control group using the outcome of step count for one week at baseline, three months and twelve months...
November 22, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165641/how-to-do-or-not-to-do-%C3%A2-measuring-health-worker-motivation-in-surveys-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#11
J Borghi, J Lohmann, E Dale, F Meheus, J Goudge, K Oboirien, A Kuwawenaruwa
A health system's ability to deliver quality health care depends on the availability of motivated health workers, which are insufficient in many low income settings. Increasing policy and researcher attention is directed towards understanding what drives health worker motivation and how different policy interventions affect motivation, as motivation is key to performance and quality of care outcomes. As a result, there is growing interest among researchers in measuring motivation within health worker surveys...
November 20, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165627/health-literacy-and-patient-outcomes-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-systematic-review
#12
Dominic M Taylor, Simon Fraser, Chris Dudley, Gabriel C Oniscu, Charles Tomson, Rommel Ravanan, Paul Roderick
Background: Limited health literacy affects 25% of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and may reduce self-management skills resulting in poorer clinical outcomes. By disproportionately affecting people with low socio-economic status and non-white ethnicity, limited health literacy may promote health inequity. Methods: We performed a systematic review of quantitative studies of health literacy and clinical outcomes among adults with CKD. Results: A total of 29 studies (13 articles; 16 conference abstracts) were included...
November 20, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165584/carers-as-system-navigators-exploring-sources-processes-and-outcomes-of-structural-burden
#13
Laura M Funk, Lisette Dansereau, Sheila Novek, Barbara J Bowers
Background and Objectives: Structural features of formal care systems influence the amount, difficulty, and complexity of what carers do as they interface with those systems. In this study, we explored how carers navigate health and social care systems, and their experiences of structural burden related to features such as complexity and fragmentation. Research Design and Methods: This qualitative descriptive inquiry drew on data from in-person interviews with 32 carers of older adults, which were analyzed first using inductive thematic analysis and then using structural burden as a conceptual lens...
November 19, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165426/the-mitochondrial-upr-mechanisms-physiological-functions-and-implications-in-ageing
#14
REVIEW
Tomer Shpilka, Cole M Haynes
Mitochondrial function declines during ageing owing to the accumulation of deleterious mitochondrial genomes and damage resulting from the localized generation of reactive oxygen species, both of which are often exacerbated in diseases such as Parkinson disease. Cells have several mechanisms to assess mitochondrial function and activate a transcriptional response known as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) when mitochondrial integrity and function are impaired. The UPR(mt) promotes cell survival and the recovery of the mitochondrial network to ensure optimal cellular function...
November 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165370/vitamin-e-bioavailability-mechanisms-of-intestinal-absorption-in-the-spotlight
#15
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Reboul
Vitamin E is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient whose effects on human health can be attributed to both antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties. A growing number of studies aim to promote vitamin E bioavailability in foods. It is thus of major interest to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of vitamin E absorption, which remain only partly understood. It was long assumed that vitamin E was absorbed by passive diffusion, but recent data has shown that this process is actually far more complex than previously thought...
November 22, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165367/urban-green-space-and-the-pursuit-of-health-equity-in-parts-of-the-united-states
#16
Viniece Jennings, April Karen Baptiste, Na'Taki Osborne Jelks, Renée Skeete
Research has demonstrated that inequitable access to green space can relate to health disparities or inequalities. This commentary aims to shift the dialogue to initiatives that have integrated green spaces in projects that may promote health equity in the United States. Specifically, we connect this topic to factors such as community revitalization, affordable housing, neighborhood walkability, food security, job creation, and youth engagement. We provide a synopsis of locations and initiatives in different phases of development along with characteristics to support effectiveness and strategies to overcome challenges...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165358/understanding-the-molecular-genetics-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Pellegrini, Maria Giovanna Maturo, Lucia Di Nardo, Valeria Ciciarelli, Carlota Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Maria Concetta Fargnoli
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO, the TP53 tumor suppressor, and members of the RAS proto-oncogene family. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway represents the molecular driver in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis, with the majority of BCCs carrying somatic point mutations, mainly ultraviolet (UV)-induced, and/or copy-loss of heterozygosis in the PTCH1 gene...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165173/health-and-well-being-benefits-of-spending-time-in-forests-systematic-review
#18
Byeongsang Oh, Kyung Ju Lee, Chris Zaslawski, Albert Yeung, David Rosenthal, Linda Larkey, Michael Back
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported that spending time in nature is associated with the improvement of various health outcomes and well-being. This review evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of a specific type of exposure to nature, forest therapy. METHOD: A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and ProQuest databases and manual searches from inception up to December 2016. Key words: "Forest" or "Shinrin -Yoku" or "Forest bath" AND "Health" or "Wellbeing"...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165172/cross-sectional-association-between-medical-expenses-and-intellectual-activity-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#19
Kimiko Tomioka, Norio Kurumatani, Hiroshi Hosoi
BACKGROUND: Little is known concerning the lifestyle habits and health conditions in community-dwelling elderly who do not get medical care. We investigated the cross-sectional association between medical expenses (ME) and intellectual activity (IA) in community-dwelling older Japanese. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to all residents born between 1945 and 1949 and covered by A City's medical insurance system (n = 19,354). Independent variables including health behaviors, oral health, social capital, neighborhood environment, and physical and mental functioning were included in the questionnaires...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165148/japan-environment-and-children-s-study-backgrounds-activities-and-future-directions-in-global-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Kazue Ishitsuka, Shoji F Nakayama, Reiko Kishi, Chisato Mori, Zentaro Yamagata, Yukihiro Ohya, Toshihiro Kawamoto, Michihiro Kamijima
There is worldwide concern about the effects of environmental factors on children's health and development. The Miami Declaration was signed at the G8 Environment Ministers Meeting in 1997 to promote children's environmental health research. The following ministerial meetings continued to emphasize the need to foster children's research. In response to such a worldwide movement, the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (MOE), launched a nationwide birth cohort study with 100,000 pairs of mothers and children, namely, the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), in 2010...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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