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Neuromuscular release technique

Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the central nervous system. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Menglong Rui, Jinjun Qian, Lijuan Liu, Yihan Cai, Huihui Lv, Junhai Han, Zhengping Jia, Wei Xie
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) form distinct pools at synaptic terminals, and this well-regulated separation is necessary for normal neuro-transmission. However, how SV cluster in particular synaptic compartments to maintain normal neurotransmitter release remains a mystery. The presynaptic protein Neurexin (NRX) plays a significant role in synaptic architecture and function, and some evidences suggest that NRX is associated with neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the role of NRX in SV clustering is unclear...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Erica Hurtado, Víctor Cilleros, Laura Nadal, Anna Simó, Teresa Obis, Neus Garcia, Manel M Santafé, Marta Tomàs, Katherine Halievski, Cynthia L Jordan, Maria A Lanuza, Josep Tomàs
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts via tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) to regulate synapse maintenance and function in the neuromuscular system. The potentiation of acetylcholine (ACh) release by BDNF requires TrkB phosphorylation and Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation. BDNF is secreted in an activity-dependent manner but it is not known if pre- and/or postsynaptic activities enhance BDNF expression in vivo at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we investigated whether nerve and muscle cell activities regulate presynaptic conventional PKC (cPKCα and βI) via BDNF/TrkB signaling to modulate synaptic strength at the NMJ...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Anna Pyszora, Jacek Budzyński, Agnieszka Wójcik, Anna Prokop, Małgorzata Krajnik
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and relevant symptom in patients with advanced cancer that significantly decreases their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physiotherapy programme on CRF and other symptoms in patients diagnosed with advanced cancer. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Sixty patients diagnosed with advanced cancer receiving palliative care were randomized into two groups: the treatment group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30)...
September 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
R Becker, C Paech, A Denecke
OBJECTIVE: The unicondylar prosthesis replaces the medial femerotibial compartment only, the part presenting with osteoarthritic changes. The remaining compartments of the knee present less osteoarthritic changes and thus can be preserved. INDICATIONS: Osteoarthritis of the medial femorotibial compartment is the ideal indication for unicondylar arthroplasty. The knee should show an intraarticular deformity, which means the malalignment is caused by the osteoarthritic changes of the medial compartment...
February 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
Fiesky A Nunez, Bettina Gyr
Surgical correction of neuromuscular hip dysplasia is a common orthopaedic procedure that carries significant risk of complications. Reducing time of surgery, limiting incisions, and minimizing unnecessary surgical exposure are paramount in reducing complications. This article describes the use of a single-stage, single-surgical approach operation for the correction of neuromuscular hip dysplasia. The operation consists of a modified anterolateral approach to the hip joint (modified Watson-Jones approach) to perform a varus derotational proximal femur osteotomy, hinged acetabuloplasty, and soft tissue releases...
December 0: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
Kavelin Rumalla, Chester K Yarbrough, Andrew J Pugely, Linda Koester, Ian G Dorward
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine if the recent changes in technology, surgical techniques, and surgical literature have influenced practice trends in spinal fusion surgery for pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). In this study the authors analyzed recent trends in the surgical management of NMS and investigated the effect of various patient and surgical factors on in-hospital complications, outcomes, and costs, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. METHODS The NIS was queried from 2002 to 2011 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes to identify pediatric cases (age < 18 years) of spinal fusion for NMS...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
T Hamp, M Mairweck, J Schiefer, M Krammel, E Pablik, M Wolzt, W Plöchl
BACKGROUND: The isolated forearm technique is used to monitor intraoperative awareness. However, this technique cannot be applied to patients who must be kept deeply paralysed for >1h, because the tourniquet preventing the neuromuscular blocking agent from paralysing the forearm must be deflated from time to time. To overcome this problem, we tested the feasibility of a 'reversed' isolated forearm technique. METHODS: Patients received rocuronium 0.6 mg kg(-1) i...
June 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Guzel Valeeva, Arthur Giniatullin, Nikolay Naumenko, Stefania Fulle, Anton Akulov, Mustafa Atalay, Eugeny Nikolsky, Rashid Giniatullin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in aging, but the neurobiological mechanisms of ROS action are not fully understood. Using electrophysiological techniques and biochemical assays, we studied the age-dependent effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on acetylcholine release in rat diaphragm neuromuscular junctions. H2O2 significantly inhibited both spontaneous (measured as frequency of miniature end-plate potentials) and evoked (amplitude of end-plate potentials) transmitter release in adult rats. The inhibitory effect of H2O2 was much stronger in old rats, whereas in newborns tested during the first postnatal week, H2O2 did not affect spontaneous release from nerve endings and potentiated end-plate potentials...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Kathryn P Harris, J Troy Littleton
Chemical synapses are sites of contact and information transfer between a neuron and its partner cell. Each synapse is a specialized junction, where the presynaptic cell assembles machinery for the release of neurotransmitter, and the postsynaptic cell assembles components to receive and integrate this signal. Synapses also exhibit plasticity, during which synaptic function and/or structure are modified in response to activity. With a robust panel of genetic, imaging, and electrophysiology approaches, and strong evolutionary conservation of molecular components, Drosophila has emerged as an essential model system for investigating the mechanisms underlying synaptic assembly, function, and plasticity...
October 2015: Genetics
Shawn Funk, Steven Lovejoy, Gregory Mencio, Jeffrey Martus
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart and radiographic review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate spinopelvic fixation technical advancements for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implants for vertebral and pelvic fixation have evolved without data demonstrating the benefit for neuromuscular scoliosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate this evolution in terms of deformity correction, complications, and implant cost...
January 2016: Spine
Wei Song, Xiwan Albert Jin
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibits neuromuscular junction (NMJ) maturation. In this study we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process. METHODS: We used a patch-clamp technique to measure spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) from innervated muscle cells in Xenopus nerve-muscle cocultures. RESULTS: In the presence of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN93, SSC amplitude (226...
April 2016: Muscle & Nerve
E Gerasimova, J Lebedeva, A Yakovlev, A Zefirov, R Giniatullin, G Sitdikova
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings...
September 10, 2015: Neuroscience
Pedro Linares-Clemente, José L Rozas, Josif Mircheski, Pablo García-Junco-Clemente, José A Martínez-López, José L Nieto-González, M Eugenio Vázquez, C Oscar Pintado, Rafael Fernández-Chacón
KEY POINTS: Neurotransmitter release requires a tight coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with dynamin being a key protein in that process. We used imaging techniques to examine the time course of endocytosis at mouse motor nerve terminals expressing synaptopHluorin, a genetically encoded reporter of the synaptic vesicle cycle. We separated two sequential phases of endocytosis taking place during the stimulation train: early and late endocytosis. Freshly released synaptic vesicle proteins are preferentially retrieved during the early phase, which is very sensitive to dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin GTPase activity...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Vinod Laheri, Kshitij Chaudhary, Ashok Rathod, Mihir Bapat
PURPOSE: Recently, it has been demonstrated that anterior release of tight structures via a transoral approach can assist posterior distraction-reduction technique in restoring the cranio-cervical anatomy in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocations. Our aim was to evaluate the radiological and clinical outcome of anterior release and posterior instrumentation for irreducible congenital basilar invagination. METHODS: A consecutive series of 15 patients (2007-2009) with irreducible congenital basilar invagination were treated with anterior release using transoral approach...
December 2015: European Spine Journal
M R Kasimov, A R Giniatullin, A L Zefirov, A M Petrov
We have investigated the effects of 5α-cholesten-3-one (5Ch3, 200 nM) on synaptic transmission in mouse diaphragm. 5Ch3 had no impact on the amplitude or frequency of miniature endplate currents (MEPCs, spontaneous secretion), but decreased the amplitude of EPCs (evoked secretion) triggered by single action potentials. Treatment with 5Ch3 increased the depression of EPC amplitude and slowed the unloading of the dye FM1-43 from synaptic vesicles (exocytosis rate) during high-frequency stimulation. The estimated recycling time of vesicles did not change, suggesting that the decline of synaptic efficiency was due to the reduction in the size of the population of vesicles involved in release...
May 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Michele Scorzeto, Irene Zornetta, Bryan C Dickinson, Christopher J Chang, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni
An acute and highly reproducible motor axon terminal degeneration followed by complete regeneration is induced by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins, representing an appropriate and controlled system to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals. We have previously shown that nerve terminals exposed to spider or snake presynaptic neurotoxins degenerate as a result of calcium overload and mitochondrial failure. Here we show that toxin-treated primary neurons release signaling molecules derived from mitochondria: hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome c...
February 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wei Song, Xiwan Albert Jin
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is established through initial contact of motor neuron axon with a skeletal muscle cell and the subsequent synaptic maturation. Previous studies have shown that cyclic AMP (cAMP) enhanced spinal neurons' survival and growth but inhibited synaptogenesis. Here, we find that elevating intracellular cAMP level of presynaptic neurons prevented NMJs from maturation both physiologically and morphologically. Importantly, cytosolic Ca(2+) is essential for the inhibitory effects of cAMP on NMJ maturation...
March 4, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
D D Brănişteanu, A Sauciuc, B Proca, A Fuică, G Gogescu
While increasing the spontaneous quantal transmitter release in frog neuromuscular junctions, streptomycin blocked the evoked transmitter release by decreasing the quantal content (m). The quantal parameter of release n (number of release sites) was significantly decreased, while p (probability of release through transmitter activation) increased. Streptomycin competes with calcium ions for the membrane release sites while the intracellular mechanisms of release remain unaffected. The data show a good fit to the two-step hypothesis of quantal transmitter release recently developed on the basis of ouabain actions...
April 1982: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
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