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Neuromuscular release technique

Kavelin Rumalla, Chester K Yarbrough, Andrew J Pugely, Linda Koester, Ian G Dorward
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine if the recent changes in technology, surgical techniques, and surgical literature have influenced practice trends in spinal fusion surgery for pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). In this study the authors analyzed recent trends in the surgical management of NMS and investigated the effect of various patient and surgical factors on in-hospital complications, outcomes, and costs, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. METHODS The NIS was queried from 2002 to 2011 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes to identify pediatric cases (age < 18 years) of spinal fusion for NMS...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
T Hamp, M Mairweck, J Schiefer, M Krammel, E Pablik, M Wolzt, W Plöchl
BACKGROUND: The isolated forearm technique is used to monitor intraoperative awareness. However, this technique cannot be applied to patients who must be kept deeply paralysed for >1h, because the tourniquet preventing the neuromuscular blocking agent from paralysing the forearm must be deflated from time to time. To overcome this problem, we tested the feasibility of a 'reversed' isolated forearm technique. METHODS: Patients received rocuronium 0.6 mg kg(-1) i...
June 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Guzel Valeeva, Arthur Giniatullin, Nikolay Naumenko, Stefania Fulle, Anton Akulov, Mustafa Atalay, Eugeny Nikolsky, Rashid Giniatullin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in aging, but the neurobiological mechanisms of ROS action are not fully understood. Using electrophysiological techniques and biochemical assays, we studied the age-dependent effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on acetylcholine release in rat diaphragm neuromuscular junctions. H2O2 significantly inhibited both spontaneous (measured as frequency of miniature end-plate potentials) and evoked (amplitude of end-plate potentials) transmitter release in adult rats. The inhibitory effect of H2O2 was much stronger in old rats, whereas in newborns tested during the first postnatal week, H2O2 did not affect spontaneous release from nerve endings and potentiated end-plate potentials...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Kathryn P Harris, J Troy Littleton
Chemical synapses are sites of contact and information transfer between a neuron and its partner cell. Each synapse is a specialized junction, where the presynaptic cell assembles machinery for the release of neurotransmitter, and the postsynaptic cell assembles components to receive and integrate this signal. Synapses also exhibit plasticity, during which synaptic function and/or structure are modified in response to activity. With a robust panel of genetic, imaging, and electrophysiology approaches, and strong evolutionary conservation of molecular components, Drosophila has emerged as an essential model system for investigating the mechanisms underlying synaptic assembly, function, and plasticity...
October 2015: Genetics
Shawn Funk, Steven Lovejoy, Gregory Mencio, Jeffrey Martus
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart and radiographic review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate spinopelvic fixation technical advancements for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implants for vertebral and pelvic fixation have evolved without data demonstrating the benefit for neuromuscular scoliosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate this evolution in terms of deformity correction, complications, and implant cost...
January 2016: Spine
Wei Song, Xiwan Albert Jin
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibits neuromuscular junction (NMJ) maturation. In this study we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process. METHODS: We used a patch-clamp technique to measure spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) from innervated muscle cells in Xenopus nerve-muscle cocultures. RESULTS: In the presence of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN93, SSC amplitude (226...
April 2016: Muscle & Nerve
E Gerasimova, J Lebedeva, A Yakovlev, A Zefirov, R Giniatullin, G Sitdikova
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a widespread gasotransmitter also known as a powerful neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. However, the action of H2S in peripheral synapses is much less studied. In the current project we studied the modulatory effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on synaptic transmission in the mouse neuromuscular junction using microelectrode technique. Using focal recordings of presynaptic response and evoked transmitter release we have shown that NaHS (300 μM) increased evoked end-plate currents (EPCs) without changes of presynaptic waveforms which indicated the absence of NaHS effects on sodium and potassium currents of motor nerve endings...
September 10, 2015: Neuroscience
Pedro Linares-Clemente, José L Rozas, Josif Mircheski, Pablo García-Junco-Clemente, José A Martínez-López, José L Nieto-González, M Eugenio Vázquez, C Oscar Pintado, Rafael Fernández-Chacón
KEY POINTS: Neurotransmitter release requires a tight coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with dynamin being a key protein in that process. We used imaging techniques to examine the time course of endocytosis at mouse motor nerve terminals expressing synaptopHluorin, a genetically encoded reporter of the synaptic vesicle cycle. We separated two sequential phases of endocytosis taking place during the stimulation train: early and late endocytosis. Freshly released synaptic vesicle proteins are preferentially retrieved during the early phase, which is very sensitive to dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin GTPase activity...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Physiology
Vinod Laheri, Kshitij Chaudhary, Ashok Rathod, Mihir Bapat
PURPOSE: Recently, it has been demonstrated that anterior release of tight structures via a transoral approach can assist posterior distraction-reduction technique in restoring the cranio-cervical anatomy in irreducible atlantoaxial dislocations. Our aim was to evaluate the radiological and clinical outcome of anterior release and posterior instrumentation for irreducible congenital basilar invagination. METHODS: A consecutive series of 15 patients (2007-2009) with irreducible congenital basilar invagination were treated with anterior release using transoral approach...
December 2015: European Spine Journal
M R Kasimov, A R Giniatullin, A L Zefirov, A M Petrov
We have investigated the effects of 5α-cholesten-3-one (5Ch3, 200 nM) on synaptic transmission in mouse diaphragm. 5Ch3 had no impact on the amplitude or frequency of miniature endplate currents (MEPCs, spontaneous secretion), but decreased the amplitude of EPCs (evoked secretion) triggered by single action potentials. Treatment with 5Ch3 increased the depression of EPC amplitude and slowed the unloading of the dye FM1-43 from synaptic vesicles (exocytosis rate) during high-frequency stimulation. The estimated recycling time of vesicles did not change, suggesting that the decline of synaptic efficiency was due to the reduction in the size of the population of vesicles involved in release...
May 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Michele Scorzeto, Irene Zornetta, Bryan C Dickinson, Christopher J Chang, Cesare Montecucco, Michela Rigoni
An acute and highly reproducible motor axon terminal degeneration followed by complete regeneration is induced by some animal presynaptic neurotoxins, representing an appropriate and controlled system to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve terminals. We have previously shown that nerve terminals exposed to spider or snake presynaptic neurotoxins degenerate as a result of calcium overload and mitochondrial failure. Here we show that toxin-treated primary neurons release signaling molecules derived from mitochondria: hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial DNA, and cytochrome c...
February 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Wei Song, Xiwan Albert Jin
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is established through initial contact of motor neuron axon with a skeletal muscle cell and the subsequent synaptic maturation. Previous studies have shown that cyclic AMP (cAMP) enhanced spinal neurons' survival and growth but inhibited synaptogenesis. Here, we find that elevating intracellular cAMP level of presynaptic neurons prevented NMJs from maturation both physiologically and morphologically. Importantly, cytosolic Ca(2+) is essential for the inhibitory effects of cAMP on NMJ maturation...
March 4, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
D D Brănişteanu, A Sauciuc, B Proca, A Fuică, G Gogescu
While increasing the spontaneous quantal transmitter release in frog neuromuscular junctions, streptomycin blocked the evoked transmitter release by decreasing the quantal content (m). The quantal parameter of release n (number of release sites) was significantly decreased, while p (probability of release through transmitter activation) increased. Streptomycin competes with calcium ions for the membrane release sites while the intracellular mechanisms of release remain unaffected. The data show a good fit to the two-step hypothesis of quantal transmitter release recently developed on the basis of ouabain actions...
April 1982: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
Izabela Blaszczyk, Anna Cecilia Granström, Mikael Wiberg
OBJECT: The dyskinetic subtype of cerebral palsy is difficult to manage, and there is no established gold standard for treatment. External rotation of the shoulder(s) is often managed nonsurgically using injections of botulinum toxin A into the external rotator muscles. This article reports a new surgical technique for managing external rotation when botulinum toxin A treatment is not sufficient or possible. METHODS: Six patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy underwent denervation of the infraspinatus muscle and release of the posterior part of the deltoid muscle...
April 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Tan Ding, Chao Zhu, Jun-Bin Yin, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Jun Ren, Yun-Qing Li
AIMS: To investigate the effect of locally slow-released rapamycin (RAPA) from the bionic peripheral nerve scaffold on rat sciatic nerve regeneration in the early phase of nerve injury. MAIN METHODS: Slow-releasing RAPA-polyhydroxy alcohol (PLGA) microspheres were prepared and tested for microsphere diameter and slow-release effect in vitro after loading onto nerve scaffold. A total of 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group and 3 experimental groups as follows: group 1: RAPA-PLGA scaffold; group 2: RAPA scaffold; and group 3: scaffold alone...
February 1, 2015: Life Sciences
Feng Shen, Bin Zhou, Quan Li, Ming Li, Zhiwei Wang, Qiang Li, Bo Ran
OBJECT: The object of this study was to review the effectiveness in treating severe and rigid scoliosis with posterioronly spinal release combined with derotation, translation, segmental correction, and an in situ rod-contouring technique. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with severe and rigid scoliosis (Cobb angle>70° and flexibility<30%) were retrospectively enrolled between June 2008 and June 2010. The average age of the patients was 17.1 years old (range 12-22 years old), 18 were female, and 10 were male...
February 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Pierre Barouk
Gastrocnemius proximal lengthening was first performed to correct spasticity in children, and was adapted for the patient with no neuromuscular condition in the late 1990s. Since then, the proximal gastrocnemius release has become less invasive and has evolved to include only the fascia overlying the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The indications for performing this procedure are a clinically demonstrable gastrocnemius contracture that influences a variety of clinical conditions in the forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle...
December 2014: Foot and Ankle Clinics
James E C Jepson, Mohammed Shahidullah, Die Liu, Sylvain J le Marchand, Sha Liu, Mark N Wu, Irwin B Levitan, Matthew B Dalva, Kyunghee Koh
Synaptic scaffold proteins control the localization of ion channels and receptors, and facilitate molecular associations between signaling components that modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we define novel roles for a recently described scaffold protein, Dsychronic (DYSC), at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. DYSC is the Drosophila homolog of whirlin/DFNB31, a PDZ domain protein linked to Usher syndrome, the most common form of human deaf-blindness. We show that DYSC is expressed presynaptically and is often localized adjacent to the active zone, the site of neurotransmitter release...
December 2014: Development
N Mañé, V Gil, M Martínez-Cutillas, P Clavé, D Gallego, M Jiménez
AIM: ATP and nitric oxide (NO) are released from enteric inhibitory motor neurones and are responsible for colonic smooth muscle relaxation. However, how frequency of neural stimulation affects this cotransmission process and the post-junctional responses has not been systematically characterized in the human colon. METHODS: The dynamics of inhibitory cotransmission were studied using different protocols of electrical field stimulation (EFS) to characterize the inhibitory junction potentials (IJP) and the corresponding relaxation in colonic strips obtained from 36 patients...
December 2014: Acta Physiologica
Alexey M Petrov, Anastasiya A Yakovleva, Andrey L Zefirov
Using electrophysiological and optical techniques, we studied the mechanisms by which cholesterol depletion stimulates spontaneous transmitter release by exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. We found that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD, 10 mM)-mediated exhaustion of cholesterol resulted in the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. An increase in ROS levels occurred both extra- and intracellularly, and it was associated with lipid peroxidation in synaptic regions...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Physiology
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