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Neuromuscular release technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068628/upper-limb-rehabilitation-robot-powered-by-pams-cooperates-with-fes-arrays-to-realize-reach-to-grasp-trainings
#1
Xikai Tu, Hualin Han, Jian Huang, Jian Li, Chen Su, Xiaobo Jiang, Jiping He
The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065566/upper-limb-rehabilitation-robot-powered-by-pams-cooperates-with-fes-arrays-to-realize-reach-to-grasp-trainings
#2
Xikai Tu, Hualin Han, Jian Huang, Jian Li, Chen Su, Xiaobo Jiang, Jiping He
The reach-to-grasp activities play an important role in our daily lives. The developed RUPERT for stroke patients with high stiffness in arm flexor muscles is a low-cost lightweight portable exoskeleton rehabilitation robot whose joints are unidirectionally actuated by pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). In order to expand the useful range of RUPERT especially for patients with flaccid paralysis, functional electrical stimulation (FES) is taken to activate paralyzed arm muscles. As both the exoskeleton robot driven by PAMs and the neuromuscular skeletal system under FES possess the highly nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, iterative learning control (ILC) is studied and is taken to control this newly designed hybrid rehabilitation system for reaching trainings...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994789/focal-macropatch-recordings-of-synaptic-currents-from-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#3
Alexander Vasin, Maria Bykhovskaia
Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is an excellent model system to study glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We describe the technique of focal macropatch recordings of synaptic currents from visualized boutons at the Drosophila larval NMJ. This technique requires customized fabrication of recording micropipettes, as well as a compound microscope equipped with a high magnification, long-distance water immersion objective, differential interference contrast (DIC) optics, and a fluorescent attachment. The recording electrode is positioned on the top of a selected synaptic bouton visualized with DIC optics, epi-fluorescence, or both...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894267/optogenetic-approach-for-targeted-activation-of-global-calcium-transients-in-differentiated-c2c12-myotubes
#4
Stéphane Sebille, Oualid Ayad, Charles-Albert Chapotte-Baldacci, Christian Cognard, Patrick Bois, Aurélien Chatelier
Excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells is initiated by a restricted membrane depolarization delimited within the neuromuscular junction. This targeted depolarization triggers an action potential that propagates and induces a global cellular calcium response and a consequent contraction. To date, numerous studies have investigated this excitation-calcium response coupling by using different techniques to depolarize muscle cells. However, none of these techniques mimic the temporal and spatial resolution of membrane depolarization observed in the neuromuscular junction...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873252/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-acetazolamide-shifts-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-to-a-fast-mode-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#5
Nicolas Ivan Bertone, Ayelén Ivana Groisman, Graciela Lujan Mazzone, Raquel Cano, Lucia Tabares, Osvaldo Daniel Uchitel
Acetazolamide (AZ), a molecule frequently used to treat different neurological syndromes, is an inhibitor of the carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that regulates pH inside and outside cells. We combined fluorescent FM styryl dyes and electrophysiological techniques at ex vivo levator auris longus neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) from mice to investigate the modulation of synaptic transmission and vesicle recycling by AZ. Transmitter release was minimally affected by AZ, as evidenced by evoked and spontaneous end-plate potential measurements...
September 5, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867438/neuromuscular-paralysis-by-the-basic-phospholipase-a2-subunit-of-crotoxin-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-snake-venom-needs-its-acid-chaperone-to-concurrently-inhibit-acetylcholine-release-and-produce-muscle-blockage
#6
Walter L G Cavalcante, José B Noronha-Matos, Maria A Timóteo, Marcos R M Fontes, Márcia Gallacci, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Crotoxin (CTX), a heterodimeric phospholipase A2 (PLA2) neurotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, promotes irreversible blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Indirect electrophysiological evidence suggests that CTX exerts a primary inhibitory action on transmitter exocytosis, yet contribution of a postsynaptic action of the toxin resulting from nicotinic receptor desensitization cannot be excluded. Here, we examined the blocking effect of CTX on nerve-evoked transmitter release measured directly using radioisotope neurochemistry and video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835509/quantal-fluctuations-in-central-mammalian-synapses-functional-role-of-vesicular-docking-sites
#7
REVIEW
Camila Pulido, Alain Marty
Quantal fluctuations are an integral part of synaptic signaling. At the frog neuromuscular junction, Bernard Katz proposed that quantal fluctuations originate at "reactive sites" where specific structures of the presynaptic membrane interact with synaptic vesicles. However, the physical nature of reactive sites has remained unclear, both at the frog neuromuscular junction and at central synapses. Many central synapses, called simple synapses, are small structures containing a single presynaptic active zone and a single postsynaptic density of receptors...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724748/depressed-synaptic-transmission-and-reduced-vesicle-release-sites-in-huntington-s-disease-neuromuscular-junctions
#8
Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the CNS. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710284/the-neuronal-protein-neurexin-directly-interacts-with-the-scribble-pix-complex-to-stimulate-f-actin-assembly-for-synaptic-vesicle-clustering
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Menglong Rui, Jinjun Qian, Lijuan Liu, Yihan Cai, Huihui Lv, Junhai Han, Zhengping Jia, Wei Xie
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) form distinct pools at synaptic terminals, and this well-regulated separation is necessary for normal neurotransmission. However, how the SV cluster, in particular synaptic compartments, maintains normal neurotransmitter release remains a mystery. The presynaptic protein Neurexin (NRX) plays a significant role in synaptic architecture and function, and some evidence suggests that NRX is associated with neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the role of NRX in SV clustering is unclear...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572757/muscle-contraction-regulates-bdnf-trkb-signaling-to-modulate-synaptic-function-through-presynaptic-cpkc%C3%AE-and-cpkc%C3%AE-i
#10
Erica Hurtado, Víctor Cilleros, Laura Nadal, Anna Simó, Teresa Obis, Neus Garcia, Manel M Santafé, Marta Tomàs, Katherine Halievski, Cynthia L Jordan, Maria A Lanuza, Josep Tomàs
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts via tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) to regulate synapse maintenance and function in the neuromuscular system. The potentiation of acetylcholine (ACh) release by BDNF requires TrkB phosphorylation and Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation. BDNF is secreted in an activity-dependent manner but it is not known if pre- and/or postsynaptic activities enhance BDNF expression in vivo at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we investigated whether nerve and muscle cell activities regulate presynaptic conventional PKC (cPKCα and βI) via BDNF/TrkB signaling to modulate synaptic strength at the NMJ...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#11
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508278/physiotherapy-programme-reduces-fatigue-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-receiving-palliative-care-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anna Pyszora, Jacek Budzyński, Agnieszka Wójcik, Anna Prokop, Małgorzata Krajnik
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common and relevant symptom in patients with advanced cancer that significantly decreases their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physiotherapy programme on CRF and other symptoms in patients diagnosed with advanced cancer. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. Sixty patients diagnosed with advanced cancer receiving palliative care were randomized into two groups: the treatment group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30)...
September 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160030/-fixed-bearing-unicondylar-arthroplasty-in-medial-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#13
R Becker, C Paech, A Denecke
OBJECTIVE: The unicondylar prosthesis replaces the medial femerotibial compartment only, the part presenting with osteoarthritic changes. The remaining compartments of the knee present less osteoarthritic changes and thus can be preserved. INDICATIONS: Osteoarthritis of the medial femorotibial compartment is the ideal indication for unicondylar arthroplasty. The knee should show an intraarticular deformity, which means the malalignment is caused by the osteoarthritic changes of the medial compartment...
February 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791978/single-stage-single-incision-correction-of-neuromuscular-hip-dysplasia-surgical-technique
#14
Fiesky A Nunez, Bettina Gyr
Surgical correction of neuromuscular hip dysplasia is a common orthopaedic procedure that carries significant risk of complications. Reducing time of surgery, limiting incisions, and minimizing unnecessary surgical exposure are paramount in reducing complications. This article describes the use of a single-stage, single-surgical approach operation for the correction of neuromuscular hip dysplasia. The operation consists of a modified anterolateral approach to the hip joint (modified Watson-Jones approach) to perform a varus derotational proximal femur osteotomy, hinged acetabuloplasty, and soft tissue releases...
December 0: Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203810/spinal-fusion-for-pediatric-neuromuscular-scoliosis-national-trends-complications-and-in-hospital-outcomes
#15
Kavelin Rumalla, Chester K Yarbrough, Andrew J Pugely, Linda Koester, Ian G Dorward
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine if the recent changes in technology, surgical techniques, and surgical literature have influenced practice trends in spinal fusion surgery for pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). In this study the authors analyzed recent trends in the surgical management of NMS and investigated the effect of various patient and surgical factors on in-hospital complications, outcomes, and costs, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. METHODS The NIS was queried from 2002 to 2011 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification codes to identify pediatric cases (age < 18 years) of spinal fusion for NMS...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26934944/feasibility-of-a-reversed-isolated-forearm-technique-by-regional-antagonization-of-rocuronium-induced-neuromuscular-block-a-pilot-study
#16
T Hamp, M Mairweck, J Schiefer, M Krammel, E Pablik, M Wolzt, W Plöchl
BACKGROUND: The isolated forearm technique is used to monitor intraoperative awareness. However, this technique cannot be applied to patients who must be kept deeply paralysed for >1h, because the tourniquet preventing the neuromuscular blocking agent from paralysing the forearm must be deflated from time to time. To overcome this problem, we tested the feasibility of a 'reversed' isolated forearm technique. METHODS: Patients received rocuronium 0.6 mg kg(-1) i...
June 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26827645/age-dependent-action-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-transmitter-release-in-mammalian-neuromuscular-junctions
#17
Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Guzel Valeeva, Arthur Giniatullin, Nikolay Naumenko, Stefania Fulle, Anton Akulov, Mustafa Atalay, Eugeny Nikolsky, Rashid Giniatullin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in aging, but the neurobiological mechanisms of ROS action are not fully understood. Using electrophysiological techniques and biochemical assays, we studied the age-dependent effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on acetylcholine release in rat diaphragm neuromuscular junctions. H2O2 significantly inhibited both spontaneous (measured as frequency of miniature end-plate potentials) and evoked (amplitude of end-plate potentials) transmitter release in adult rats. The inhibitory effect of H2O2 was much stronger in old rats, whereas in newborns tested during the first postnatal week, H2O2 did not affect spontaneous release from nerve endings and potentiated end-plate potentials...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26447126/transmission-development-and-plasticity-of-synapses
#18
REVIEW
Kathryn P Harris, J Troy Littleton
Chemical synapses are sites of contact and information transfer between a neuron and its partner cell. Each synapse is a specialized junction, where the presynaptic cell assembles machinery for the release of neurotransmitter, and the postsynaptic cell assembles components to receive and integrate this signal. Synapses also exhibit plasticity, during which synaptic function and/or structure are modified in response to activity. With a robust panel of genetic, imaging, and electrophysiology approaches, and strong evolutionary conservation of molecular components, Drosophila has emerged as an essential model system for investigating the mechanisms underlying synaptic assembly, function, and plasticity...
October 2015: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352742/rigid-instrumentation-for-neuromuscular-scoliosis-improves-deformity-correction-without-increasing-complications
#19
Shawn Funk, Steven Lovejoy, Gregory Mencio, Jeffrey Martus
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart and radiographic review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate spinopelvic fixation technical advancements for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Implants for vertebral and pelvic fixation have evolved without data demonstrating the benefit for neuromuscular scoliosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate this evolution in terms of deformity correction, complications, and implant cost...
January 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26248508/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-inhibits-neuromuscular-junction-maturation-mediated-by-intracellular-ca-2-and-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-kinase
#20
Wei Song, Xiwan Albert Jin
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inhibits neuromuscular junction (NMJ) maturation. In this study we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of this process. METHODS: We used a patch-clamp technique to measure spontaneous synaptic currents (SSCs) from innervated muscle cells in Xenopus nerve-muscle cocultures. RESULTS: In the presence of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN93, SSC amplitude (226...
April 2016: Muscle & Nerve
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