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K Ozeki, T Masuzawa, H Aoki
Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films were coated on a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) substrate using a sputtering technique. A thin titanium (Ti) intermediate layer was formed between the HA and the PEEK surface to improve adhesion of the HA film to the PEEK substrate. The coated films were recrystallized using a hydrothermal treatment to reduce the dissolution of the HA film. The films were then characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A pull-out test was performed to measure the film-to-substrate adhesion strength, and an immersion test was performed in ultra-pure water...
March 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yvonne Förster, Ricardo Bernhardt, Vera Hintze, Stephanie Möller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Dieter Scharnweber, Stefan Rammelt
Bone regeneration in critical size bone defects still represents an important but unsolved clinical problem. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) like chondroitin sulfate (CS) or hyaluronan (HA) are important multifunctional components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in bone and may stimulate bone healing by recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells and by supporting their differentiation. Sulfation of GAGs affects their biological activity and thus their interactions with growth factors and/or cells involved in the bone healing process...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Donita I Bylski-Austrow, David L Glos, Anne C Bonifas, Max F Carvalho, Matthew C Coombs, Peter F Sturm
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatments for early onset scoliosis (EOS) correct curvatures and improve respiratory function but involve many complications. A distractible, or 'growing rod,' implant construct that is more flexible than current metal rod systems may sufficiently correct curves in small children and reduce complications due to biomechanical factors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine ranges of motion (ROM) after implantation of simulated growing rod constructs with a range of clinically relevant structural properties...
2016: Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
Ralph Jasper Mobbs, Kevin Phan, Yusuf Assem, Matthew Pelletier, William R Walsh
Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a common procedure for patients with degenerative pathologies of the lumbar spine. In this study, the clinical and radiological outcomes of a combination titanium/polyetheretherketone (Ti/PEEK) ALIF cages in one, two and three-level surgery were evaluated. Over an 18-month time period, a prospective single surgeon series of 20 implants (15 patients) were included in the study, with minimum 10-months follow-up. From these 15 patients, two were supplemented with posterior percutaneous pedicle screw fixation for additional stability...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Andreas Dominik Schwitalla, Mohamed Abou-Emara, Tycho Zimmermann, Tobias Spintig, Florian Beuer, Justus Lackmann, Wolf-Dieter Müller
The high-performance polymer PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) is more and more being used in the field of dentistry, mainly for removable and fixed prostheses. In cases of screw-retained implant-supported reconstructions of PEEK, an abutment screw made of PEEK might be advantageous over a conventional metal screw due to its similar elasticity. Also in case of abutment screw fracture, a screw of PEEK could be removed more easily. M1.6-abutment screws of four different PEEK compounds were subjected to tensile tests to set their maximum tensile strengths in relation to an equivalent stress of 186MPa, which is aused by a tightening torque of 15Ncm...
October 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Byung Jo Victor Yoon, Fred Xavier, Brendon R Walker, Samuel Grinberg, Frank P Cammisa, Celeste Abjornson
BACKGROUND: Titanium plasma spray coating on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a recent innovation to interbody spacer technology. The inherent hydrophobic properties of standard, uncoated PEEK implants can hamper cell attachment and bone healing during fusion. The addition of Ti coating not only offers initial stability due to increased surface roughness, but long term stability due to bony ongrowth created from osteoconductive microenvironment on the device surface. The previously established hydrophilic and osteophilic properties of commercially pure titanium (CPTi) can potentially provide an ideal environment promoting cell attachment and bony ingrowth when applied at the endplate level of the fusion site...
May 27, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Massimiliano Rea, Sara Ricci, Paolo Ghensi, Niklaus P Lang, Daniele Botticelli, Claudio Soldini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the marginal soft and hard tissue healing at titanium and Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) healing implant abutments over a 4-month period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In six Labrador dogs, all mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted. After 4 months of healing, flaps were elevated, and two implants were installed at each side of the mandible, one in the premolar and the other in the molar regions. Four different types of healing abutments were positioned on the top of each implant: (i) titanium (Ti); (ii) PEEK material bonded to a base made of titanium (Ti-P), randomly positioned in the premolar region; (iii) PEEK, pristine (P); and (iv) PEEK, roughened (P-R), randomly positioned in the molar region...
April 15, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Shimei Tanida, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Kazutaka Masamoto, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Takeo Nakayama, Shuichi Matsuda
STUDY DESIGN: The bone union rate after lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) using titanium (Ti) or polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages was investigated retrospectively. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the PEEK cage is superior to the Ti cage in terms of bone union after LIF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: We previously reported that the formation of vertebral endplate cysts is useful for predicting nonunion after LIF using Ti cages. METHODS: We examined 144 levels in 117 patients treated from March 2005 to July 2012 with transforaminal LIF using Ti (93 levels in 77 patients) or PEEK cages (51 levels in 40 patients) with pedicle screw fixation...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Anita Sak, Tomasz Moskalewicz, Sławomir Zimowski, Łukasz Cieniek, Beata Dubiel, Agnieszka Radziszewska, Marcin Kot, Alicja Łukaszczyk
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) coatings of 70-90μm thick were electrophoretically deposited from a suspension of PEEK powder in ethanol on near-β Ti-13Nb-13Zr titanium alloy. In order to produce good quality coatings, the composition of the suspension (pH) and optimized deposition parameters (applied voltage and time) were experimentally selected. The as-deposited coatings exhibited the uniform distribution of PEEK powders on the substrate. The subsequent annealing at a temperature above the PEEK melting point enabled homogeneous, semi-crystalline coatings with spherulitic morphology to be produced...
June 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Elizabeth Chong, Ralph J Mobbs, Matthew H Pelletier, William R Walsh
OBJECTIVE: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is the most commonly employed surgical technique for treating cervical spondylosis. Although autologous bone grafts are considered the gold standard in achieving fusion, associated short- and long-term morbidities have led to a search for alternative materials. These have included carbon-fiber, titanium alloy (Ti) and ceramic and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) based implants. Recent attempts to optimize cage implants through using composite designs have combined Ti and PEEK...
February 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
R Guillot, I Pignot-Paintrand, J Lavaud, A Decambron, E Bourgeois, V Josserand, D Logeart-Avramoglou, E Viguier, C Picart
UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of titanium implants (Ti-6Al-4V, noted here TA6V) and poly(etheretherketone) PEEK implants induced by a BMP-2-delivering surface coating made of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. The in vitro bioactivity of the polyelectrolyte film-coated implants was assessed using the alkaline phosphatase assay. BMP-2-coated TA6V and PEEK implants with a total dose of 9.3μg of BMP-2 were inserted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand white rabbits and compared to uncoated implants...
May 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
M Sampaio, M Buciumeanu, B Henriques, F S Silva, J C M Souza, J R Gomes
In the oral cavity, abrasive wear is predictable at exposed tooth or restorative surfaces, during mastication and tooth brushing. Also, wear can occur at contacting surfaces between the Ti-based prosthetic structures and implants in presence of abrasive compounds from food or toothpaste. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the abrasive wear resistance of PEEK and Ti6Al4V on three-body abrasion related to different hydrated silica content and loads. Surfaces of Ti6Al4V or PEEK cylinders (8mm diameter and 4mm height) were wet ground on SiC papers and then polished with 1µm diamond paste...
July 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Kevin Phan, Jarred A Hogan, Yusuf Assem, Ralph J Mobbs
Recent developments have seen poly[aryl-ether-ether-ketone] (PEEK) being increasingly used in vertebral body fusion. More novel approaches to improve PEEK have included the introduction of titanium-PEEK (Ti-PEEK) composites and coatings. This paper aims to describe a potential complication of PEEK based implants relating to poorer integration with the surrounding bone, producing a "PEEK-Halo" effect which is not seen in Ti-PEEK composite implants. We present images from two patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF)...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Alexander Tsouknidas
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of spine disorders in industrialized environments has impaired the quality of life in the elder population. In an effort to relieve pain, physicians strive to improve treatment through the consideration of patient specific characteristics during preoperative planning of procedures such as spinal fusion. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at quantifying aspects of spondylodesis to the loading and mobility of the utilized instrumentation, as the use of rigid vs...
2015: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Yi Deng, Ping Zhou, Xiaochen Liu, Lixin Wang, Xiaoling Xiong, Zhihui Tang, Jie Wei, Shicheng Wei
As FDA-approved implantable material, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is becoming a prime candidate to replace traditional surgical metallic implants made of titanium (Ti) and its alloys, since it has a lower elastic modulus than Ti. The bioinertness and defective osteointegration of PEEK, however, limit its clinical adoption as load-bearing dental/orthopedic material. The present work aimed at developing a PEEK bioactive ternary composite, polyetheretherketone/nano-hydroxyapatite/carbon fiber (PEEK/n-HA/CF), and evaluating it as a potential bone-repairing material by assessment of growth and differentiation of osteoblast-like MG63 cells and by estimation of osteointegration in vivo...
December 1, 2015: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Donita I Bylski-Austrow, David L Glos, Anne C Bonifas, Max F Carvalho, Matthew T Coombs, Peter F Sturm
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatments for early onset scoliosis (EOS), including growing rod constructs, involve many complications. Some are due to biomechanical factors. A construct that is more flexible than current instrumentation systems may reduce complications. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine spine range of motion (ROM) after implantation of simulated growing rod constructs with a range of clinically relevant structural properties. The hypothesis was that ROM of spines instrumented with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) rods would be greater than metal rods and lower than noninstrumented controls...
2015: Scoliosis
Minami Maekawa, Zuisei Kanno, Takahiro Wada, Toshio Hongo, Hisashi Doi, Takao Hanawa, Takashi Ono, Motohiro Uo
Most orthodontic equipment is fabricated from alloys such as stainless steel, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti because of their excellent elastic properties. In recent years, increasing esthetic demands, metal allergy and interference of metals with magnetic resonance imaging have driven the development of non-metallic orthodontic materials. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using three super engineering plastics (PEEK, PES and PVDF) as orthodontic wires. PES and PVDF demonstrated excellent esthetics, although PEEK showed the highest bending strength and creep resistance...
2015: Dental Materials Journal
Hyun-Do Jung, Hui-Sun Park, Min-Ho Kang, Yuanlong Li, Hyoun-Ee Kim, Young-Hag Koh, Yuri Estrin
Blends of ductile Ti metal with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymer were studied with regard to their mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility. PEEK/Ti composites with various Ti contents, ranging from 0 vol % to 60 vol %, were produced by compression molding at 370°C. In all composites produced, regardless of the initial Ti content, Ti particles were well distributed in the PEEK matrix. Addition of Ti led to a significant increase in mechanical properties of PEEK. Specifically, an increase in Ti content enhanced compressive strength and stiffness, while preserving ductile fracture behavior...
January 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Takashi Kizuki, Tomiharu Matsushita, Tadashi Kokubo
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is widely used in orthopedic implants, such as spinal fusion devices, because of its moderate elastic modulus, as well as relatively high mechanical strength. However, it does not bond to living bone, and hence it needs autograft to be fixed to the bone. In this study, we attempted to add bone-bonding properties to PEEK by coating with TiO2 synthesized by the sol-gel process. When a TiO2 sol solution consisting of titanium isopropoxide, water, ethanol, and nitric acid was deposited on a PEEK substrate without any pretreatment, the formed TiO2 gel layer was easily peeled off after subsequent treatments...
January 2015: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Sharon L Hyzy, Paul J Slosar, Jennifer M Schneider, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
STUDY DESIGN: An in vitro study examining factors produced by human mesenchymal stem cells on spine implant materials. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether the inflammatory microenvironment generated by cells on titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-alloy, TiAlV) surfaces is affected by surface microtexture and whether it differs from that generated on poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Histologically, implants fabricated from PEEK have a fibrous connective tissue surface interface whereas Ti-alloy implants demonstrate close approximation with surrounding bone...
March 15, 2015: Spine
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