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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110300/irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-diet
#1
REVIEW
Piero Portincasa, Leonilde Bonfrate, Ornella de Bari, Anthony Lembo, Sarah Ballou
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. The impact of IBS on the general population is large due to its high prevalence, suboptimal medical treatments and significant economic burden. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and treatments are often symptom-specific. The most common therapeutic approaches for IBS include education and reassurance, lifestyles (especially nutrition-based interventions), peripherally acting medications (which typically target motility), centrally acting medications (which target visceral hypersensitivity and pain) and psychological interventions (which aim to reduce the effects of stress or symptom-specific anxiety)...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105529/upper-gi-disorders-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#2
Henry P Parkman
Symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract are associated with abnormalities of upper gastric neuromuscular function including abnormalities of motility, sensation, and absorption. Of the upper digestive tract, the stomach is of particular importance in its role in symptom generation, and is highlighted in this chapter. Gastric symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical activity and contractility...
January 20, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#3
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090566/large-animal-models-the-key-to-translational-discovery-in-digestive-disease-research
#4
Amanda Ziegler, Liara Gonzalez, Anthony Blikslager
Gastrointestinal disease is a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality and the use of animal models have been instrumental in studying mechanisms of digestive pathophysiology. As investigators attempt to translate the wealth of basic science information developed from rodent, models, large animal models provide a number of translational advantages. The pig, in particular, is arguably one of the most powerful models of human organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract. The pig has provided important tools and insight into intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, intestinal mucosal repair, as well as new insights into esophageal injury and repair...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#5
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079347/the-diagnostic-challenge-of-symptomatic-uncomplicated-diverticular-disease
#6
Cesare Cremon, Lara Bellacosa, Maria R Barbaro, Rosanna F Cogliandro, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giovanni Barbara
Colonic diverticulosis is a common condition in Western industrialized countries occurring in up to 65% of people over the age of 60 years. Only a minority of these subjects (about 10- 25%) experience symptoms, fulfilling Rome criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis (IBS-like symptoms) in 10 to 66% of cases. Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms attributed to diverticula in the absence of macroscopically evident alterations other than the presence of diverticula...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#7
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074613/health-benefits-of-methylxanthines-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Ainhoa Oñatibia-Astibia, Rafael Franco, Eva Martínez-Pinilla
Methylxanthines (MTXs) are consumed by almost everybody in almost every area of the world. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are the most well-known members of this family of compounds; they are present, inter alia, in coffee, tea, cacao, yerba mate and cola drinks. MTXs are readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and are able to penetrate into the central nervous system, where they exert significant psychostimulant actions, which are more evident in acute intake. Coffee has been paradigmatic, as its use was forbidden in many diseases, however, this negative view has radically changed; evidence shows that methylxanthines display health benefits in diseases involving cell death in the nervous system...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073356/gut-microbiota-disturbance-during-helminth-infection-can-it-affect-cognition-and-behaviour-of-children
#9
Vanina Guernier, Bradley Brennan, Laith Yakob, Gabriel Milinovich, Archie C A Clements, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. Recent studies have shown that helminth infections can alter the normal gut microbiota. Studies have also shown that the gut microbiota is instrumental in the normal development, maturation and function of the brain. The pathophysiological pathways by which helminth infections contribute to altered cognitive function remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062437/dieulafoy-s-lesion-of-the-oesophagus-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#10
Faisal Inayat, Waqas Ullah, Qulsoom Hussain, Abu Hurairah
Dieulafoy's lesion is a vascular abnormality consisting of a tortuous, dilated aberrant submucosal vessel that erodes the overlying mucosal layer without ulceration. The oesophagus is a very rare location for the lesion. Herein, we report a case series of 3 patients who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy was performed, which showed a large calibre-persistent tortuous submucosal artery protruding into the oesophageal lumen. All the patients were successfully managed with endoscopic intervention using epinephrine injection around the lesion followed by hemoclip application...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062361/redox-signaling-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Salvador Pérez, Raquel Taléns-Visconti, Sergio Rius-Pérez, Isabela Finamor, Juan Sastre
Redox signaling regulates physiological self-renewal, proliferation, migration and differentiation in gastrointestinal epithelium by modulating Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways mainly through NADPH oxidases (NOXs). In the intestine, intracellular and extracellular thiol redox status modulates the proliferative potential of epithelial cells. Furthermore, commensal bacteria contribute to intestine epithelial homeostasis through NOX1- and dual oxidase 2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The loss of redox homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis and development of a wide diversity of gastrointestinal disorders, such as Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, ischemic intestinal injury, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
January 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061969/role-of-nitric-oxide-in-stress-induced-anxiety-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-target
#12
A Kumar, P Chanana
Stress is often marked by a state of hyperarousal to aid the initiation of necessary stress response for the successful management of stressful stimuli. It can be manifested as a challenge (stimulus) that requires behavioral, psychological, and physiological adaptations for the maintenance of a state of homeostasis in response to stressful stimuli. In an organism, miscellaneous stressors trigger a wide spectrum of alterations in hormonal and neuronal physiologies, resulting in behavioral (anxiety and depression disorders, diminished food intake and gastrointestinal dysfunctions, decline in sexual behavior, diabetes, and loss of cognitive function) and other physiological responses...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058009/visceral-hypersensitivity-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-role-of-proteases
#13
REVIEW
Hannah Ceuleers, Hanne Van Spaendonk, Nikita Hanning, Jelena Heirbaut, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Jurgen Joossens, Koen Augustyns, Joris G De Man, Ingrid De Meester, Benedicte Y De Winter
Proteases, enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, are present at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. Besides their well-known role in the digestive process, they also function as signaling molecules through the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Based on their chemical mechanism for catalysis, proteases can be classified into several classes: serine, cysteine, aspartic, metallo- and threonine proteases represent the mammalian protease families. In particular, the class of serine proteases will play a significant role in this review...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052268/microbiota-plays-a-key-role-in-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-small-intestinal-damage
#14
Koji Otani, Tetsuya Tanigawa, Toshio Watanabe, Sunao Shimada, Yuji Nadatani, Yasuaki Nagami, Fumio Tanaka, Noriko Kamata, Hirokazu Yamagami, Masatsugu Shiba, Kazunari Tominaga, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) damage the small intestine by causing multiple erosions and ulcers. However, to date, no established therapies and prophylactic agents are available to treat such damages. We reviewed the role of intestinal microbiota in NSAID-induced intestinal damage and identified potential therapeutic candidates. SUMMARY: The composition of the intestinal microbiota is an important factor in the pathophysiology of NSAID-induced small intestinal damage...
2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041752/burns-and-long-term-infectious-disease-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#15
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Fiona M Wood, James H Boyd, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of data that indicates that serious injury suppresses immune function, predisposing individuals to infectious complications. With recent evidence showing long-term immune dysfunction after less severe burn, this study aimed to investigate post-burn infectious disease morbidity and assess if burn patients have increased long-term hospital use for infectious diseases. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia for all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012...
December 29, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034973/opioid-induced-constipation-and-bowel-dysfunction-a-clinical-guideline
#16
Stefan Müller-Lissner, Gabrio Bassotti, Benoit Coffin, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Harald Breivik, Elon Eisenberg, Anton Emmanuel, Françoise Laroche, Winfried Meissner, Bart Morlion
OBJECTIVE:  To formulate timely evidence-based guidelines for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. SETTING:  Constipation is a major untoward effect of opioids. Increasing prescription of opioids has correlated to increased incidence of opioid-induced constipation. However, the inhibitory effects of opioids are not confined to the colon, but also affect higher segments of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to the coining of the term "opioid-induced bowel dysfunction...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031008/action-and-function-of-vitamin-d-in-digestive-tract-physiology-and-pathology
#17
Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler, Auke Pieter Verhaar, Luc J W Van Der Laan
BACKGROUND: The body of biomedical literature on Vitamin D effector mechanisms in gastrointestinal biology and pathophysiology is rapidly expanding. Accordingly, new possibilities of vitamin D biology-based therapeutical intervention in gastroenterological disease are being identified. However, the literature lacks a concise review on these developments, hampering comprehension of the possibilities involved for many in the community. RESULTS: Genetic vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and other VDR biology regulation are involved in predisposition to gastrointestinal cancers and might allow tailored strategies for managing those individuals especially at risk, e...
December 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029683/alopecia-areata-incognita-in-cronkhite-canada-syndrome
#18
S Ong, C Rodriguez-Garcia, S Grabczynska, J Carton, M Osborn, J Walters, F Kubba, C M Stefanato
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is an acquired inflammatory polyposis syndrome in which alopecia, onychomadesis and hyperpigmentation occur concurrently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The pathophysiology of alopecia in Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome has not been definitively elucidated and we present evidence for alopecia incognita as a possible mechanism of hair loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 28, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028528/the-comparison-of-treatments-with-and-without-azithromycin-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-predominant-in-gastrointestinal-clinic-of-al-zahra-hospital-isfahan-iran
#19
Mohamadreza Yazdani, Amirhossein Aramesh, Rahmatollah Rafiei, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder. Recent studies suggest the importance of gut flora in the pathophysiology of it. Therefore, antibiotics have demonstrated a substantial benefit to reduce gut flora. Having few side effects, and applying one-dose per day, we studied the effect of azithromycin to treat IBS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six patients enrolled a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028357/can-probiotics-benefit-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Fernando Navarro, Yuying Liu, Jon Marc Rhoads
Children with autism are commonly affected by gastrointestinal problems such as abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of probiotics in this population, as it hypothetically may help to improve bowel habits and the behavioral and social functioning of these individuals. The gut microbiome plays an important role in the pathophysiology of organic as well as functional gastrointestinal disorders. Microbial modification with the use of antibiotics, probiotics, and fecal transplantation have been effective in the treatment of conditions such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, pouchitis, and irritable bowel syndrome...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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