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gastrointestinal pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210715/blistering-and-skin-fragility-due-to-imatinib-therapy-loss-of-laminin-and-collagen-iv-as-a-possible-cause-of-cutaneous-basement-membrane-instability
#1
Sebastian Mühl, Jan Ehrchen, Dieter Metze
Imatinib mesylate (Glivec; Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which is used in the treatment of oncologic diseases like chronic myeloid leukemia and gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST). Among cutaneous side effects, bullous reactions are rare. The authors describe the case of a 66-year-old woman developing blistering and skin fragility on her hands, foot, lower legs, and back after intake of imatinib for treatment of GIST. Biopsy showed vacuolar alteration at the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ) associated with a few lymphocytes and a subepidermal blister...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200567/the-menacing-side-of-valproate-a-case-series-of-valproate-induced-hyperammonemia
#2
Deeksha Elwadhi, Rashmi Prakash, Manushree Gupta
Valproate (VPA) is a well-tolerated and commonly used drug to treat variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare adverse effect which can commonly occur in the background of normal liver function and therapeutic serum levels. Any delay in treatment of VPA-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy can lead to life-threatening coma thus a strong clinical suspicion, fair understanding of the pathophysiology, and management of this drug-related complication can prevent fatal outcome...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199167/which-diseases-are-risk-factors-for-developing-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
Filiz Akyüz, Özlem Mutluay Soyer
Although the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains unclear, it is accepted as a multifactorial disease. It is thought that some of the interventions that might cause alterations in the normal gastrointestinal tract anatomy and diseases that affect the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal clearance, and stomach motility (gastric emptying) might lay a foundation for GERD development. Moreover, it is common knowledge that GERD might cause various extraesophageal symptoms and complications...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184185/cellular-senescence-in-gastrointestinal-diseases-from-pathogenesis-to-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
Nina Frey, Sascha Venturelli, Lars Zender, Michael Bitzer
Senescence is a durable cell cycle arrest that can be induced in response to various stress factors, such as telomere erosion, DNA damage or the aberrant activation of oncogenes. In addition to its well-established role as a stress response programme, research has revealed important physiological roles of senescence in nondisease settings, such as embryonic development, wound healing, tissue repair and ageing. Senescent cells secrete various cytokines, chemokines, matrix remodelling proteases and growth factors, a phenotype collectively referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype...
November 29, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178842/a-non-interventional-observational-study-of-a-fixed-combination-of-pepsin-and-amino-acid-hydrochloride-in-patients-with-functional-dyspepsia
#5
Kristin Forssmann, Larissa Meier, Bernhard Uehleke, Cornelia Breuer, Rainer Stange
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent and diverse symptoms and pathophysiology that remains unexplained following routine clinical investigation. Enzynorm®f is a pharmaceutical preparation comprising fixed amounts of pepsin of biological origin and organically bound acid in the form of amino acid hydrochloride. It is traditionally used as a mild agent to support gastric function and to stimulate the stomach's proteolytic activities in FD...
November 25, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177922/sglt1-and-sglt1-inhibitors-a-role-to-be-assessed-in-the-current-clinical-practice
#6
Leonardo Spatola, Silvia Finazzi, Claudio Angelini, Marco Dauriz, Salvatore Badalamenti
Diabetes is a complex disease of increasingly common occurrence worldwide. Attaining optimal glycemic control is the main challenge to prevent the development of diabetes-related complications and/or to stop their progression. In recent years, the pharmacologic toolkit for the treatment of diabetes has considerably expanded, thus paving the way to more pathophysiology-oriented therapies. For instance, the sodium-glucose cotransporters SGLT2 and SGLT1 have been in the spotlight because of better knowledge of their physiology and therapeutic potential...
November 24, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175461/the-future-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-therapeutic-approaches-for-cancer-from-cells-to-ghosts
#7
Andrea Mohr, Ralf Zwacka
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types including osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. They are normally resident in adipose tissue, bone marrow and the umbilical cord, but can also be found in other tissues and are known to be recruited to sites of wound healing as well as growing tumours. The therapeutic potential of MSCs has been explored in a number of phase I/II and III clinical trials, of which several were targeted against graft-versus-host disease and to support engraftment of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but currently only very few in the oncology field...
November 23, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166940/effects-of-urban-coarse-particles-inhalation-on-oxidative-and-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-mouse-lung-and-colon
#8
Cécile Vignal, Muriel Pichavant, Laurent Y Alleman, Madjid Djouina, Florian Dingreville, Esperanza Perdrix, Christophe Waxin, Adil Ouali Alami, Corinne Gower-Rousseau, Pierre Desreumaux, Mathilde Body-Malapel
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a recognized aggravating factor for pulmonary diseases and has notably deleterious effects on asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia. Recent studies suggest that air pollution may also cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Accumulating experimental evidence shows that immune responses in the pulmonary and intestinal mucosae are closely interrelated, and that gut-lung crosstalk controls pathophysiological processes such as responses to cigarette smoke and influenza virus infection...
November 22, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159277/development-of-a-porcine-model-for-assessment-of-mucosal-repair-following-endoscopic-resection-of-the-lower-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
Nicolas Etchepare, Jérémy Bregeon, Lucille Quénéhervé, Sami Haddara, Yann Touchefeu, Michel Neunlist, Emmanuel Coron
Background and aims:  Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is widely performed for the treatment of colorectal polyps. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of mucosal repair, including in situations at high risk of post-polypectomy bleeding, remain largely unknown. The objective of our study was to develop a porcine model of EMR in the lower gastrointestinal tract to monitor mucosal wound healing over time. Methods:  Under general anesthesia, five large wounds were created in the lower gastrointestinal tract at different times, i...
October 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157499/functional-abdominal-pain-and-related-syndromes
#10
REVIEW
Michael Herzlinger, Carolina Cerezo
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are very common. They result from dysfunctional interaction in the brain-gut axis. Although the nature is benign, symptoms may be debilitating. The etiology is multifactorial; therefore, the diagnosis should be approached in a bio-psychosocial model. There are no biomarkers to characterize these conditions, but a solid understanding of the pathophysiology allows providers to present these disorders as a positive clinical diagnosis, rather than a diagnosis of exclusion. Effective management entails close collaboration between the medical and mental health providers...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#11
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149923/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Tracy M Frech, Diane Mar
Although classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) do not incorporate gastrointestinal tract (GIT) manifestations often present in this disease, the GIT is the most common internal organ involved. Pathophysiology of GIT involvement is thought to be similar to other organs in SSc with fibroproliferative vascular lesions of small arteries and arterioles, increased production of profibrotic growth factors, and alterations of innate, humoral, and cellular immunity. These processes result in neuropathy progressing to myopathy with eventual fibrosis...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138990/non-ige-mediated-adverse-food-reactions
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie A Leonard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update what is currently known about the major non-IgE-mediated food allergies: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE). These conditions are similar in that symptoms are regulated to the gastrointestinal tract; therefore understanding their specific features is important for diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The most progress has been made in understanding FPIES with several recent large cohorts being described...
November 14, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134293/medicinal-foods-for-functional-gi-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Brent W Acker, Brooks D Cash
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 10 years, there has been a dramatic increase in basic and clinical research involving functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). New diagnostic and biomarker procedures are helping to identify physiologic disruptions associated with FGIDs on cellular and molecular levels. Simultaneously, clinicians are using new approaches to help manage patients with FGIDs. Among these, an important component of care has been the use of medical foods. These include probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, peppermint oil, caraway oil, curcumin, bovine immunoglobulin and many others...
November 13, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132548/excretory-secretory-proteases-and-mechanical-movement-of-anisakis-pegreffii-infective-larvae-in-the-penetration-of-balb-c-mice-gastrointestine
#15
June-Der Lee, Li-Yu Chung, Rong-Jyh Lin, Jiun-Jye Wang, Hong-Pin Tu, Chuan-Min Yen
Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by infection with the infective larvae of Anisakis. Accidental infection in humans causes the gastrointestinal pathophysiological effects of mechanical tissue damage by migrating larvae. The mechanism of the infective larval invasion and migration is suspected to involve larval excretory/secretory proteases and motility. This study demonstrates the penetration rate of the infective larvae of Anisakis pegreffii in mouse gastrointestine depends on the time after infection, and that only 15% of larvae remain in the gastrointestinal tract 3 h after infection...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124893/ischaemic-colitis-uncertainty-in-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Amanda L Nikolic, James O Keck
Ischaemic colitis is the most common form of gastrointestinal ischaemia, but may be confused with acute mesenteric ischaemia, inflammatory bowel disease or infectious colitis. This review article outlines the current classification, epidemiology and risk factors, as well as approaches about diagnosis and management to guide clinical practice. It also identifies areas for further research.
November 9, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122501/psychoneuroimmunological-approach-to-gastrointestinal-related-pain
#17
REVIEW
Karlo Toljan, Bruce Vrooman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE (AIMS): Psychoneuroimmunology is both a theoretical and practical field of medicine in which human biology and psychology are considered an interconnected unity. Through such a framework it is possible to elucidate complex syndromes in gastrointestinal related pain, particularly chronic non-malignant. The aim is to provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms and suggest treatment modalities according to a comprehensive paradigm. The article also presents novel findings that may guide clinicians to recognize new targets or scientists to find new research topics...
November 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122007/pancreatic-cyst-fluid-harbors-a-unique-microbiome
#18
Shan Li, Gwenny M Fuhler, Nahush Bn, Tony Jose, Marco J Bruno, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Sergey R Konstantinov
BACKGROUND: It is clear that specific intestinal bacteria are involved in the development of different premalignant conditions along the gastrointestinal tract. An analysis of the microbial constituents in the context of pancreatic cystic lesions has, however, as yet not been performed. This consideration prompted us to explore whether endoscopically obtained pancreatic cyst fluids (PCF) contain bacterial DNA and to determine the genera of bacteria present in such material. METHODS: Total DNA was isolated from 69 PCF samples...
November 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115211/measurement-of-gastrointestinal-hormones
#19
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
Towards the end of the 20th century, the number of subjects with diabetes and obesity rose exponentially. The discoveries of insulin- and appetite-modulating chemical signals, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted from the gastrointestinal system, led to development of a new group of drugs which now are being used for glucose-lowering therapy and weight loss. Understanding of the physiology of gut derived signals and their pathophysiologi-cal importance requires accurate measurements of their circulat-ing levels...
November 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114179/tspo-pet-imaging-from-microglial-activation-to-peripheral-sterile-inflammatory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Bérenger Largeau, Anne-Claire Dupont, Denis Guilloteau, Maria-João Santiago-Ribeiro, Nicolas Arlicot
Peripheral sterile inflammatory diseases (PSIDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that gathers several chronic insults involving the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal system and wherein inflammation is the cornerstone of the pathophysiology. In PSID, timely characterization and localization of inflammatory foci are crucial for an adequate care for patients. In brain diseases, in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) exploration of inflammation has matured over the last 20 years, through the development of radiopharmaceuticals targeting the translocator protein-18 kDa (TSPO) as molecular biomarkers of activated microglia...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
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