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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469195/postoperative-ileus-following-major-colorectal-surgery
#1
REVIEW
S J Chapman, A Pericleous, C Downey, D G Jayne
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus (POI) is characterized by delayed gastrointestinal recovery following surgery. Current knowledge of pathophysiology, clinical interventions and methodological challenges was reviewed to inform modern practice and future research. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using search terms related to ileus and colorectal surgery. All RCTs involving an intervention to prevent or reduce POI published between 1990 and 2016 were identified...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467611/the-vagus-nerve-at-the-interface-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#2
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Thomas Bazin, Sonia Pellissier
The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463666/gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-diabetes-prevalence-assessment-pathogenesis-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Yang T Du, Christopher K Rayner, Karen L Jones, Nicholas J Talley, Michael Horowitz
If you haven't measured something, you really don't know much about it.-Karl Pearson (attributed)Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms represent an important and often unappreciated cause of morbidity in diabetes, although the significance of this burden across the spectrum of patients and the underlying pathophysiology, including the relationship of symptoms with glycemic control, remain poorly defined. The relevance of GI symptoms and the necessity for their accurate assessment have increased with the greater focus on the gut as a therapeutic target for glucose lowering...
March 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462993/the-biased-g-protein-coupled-receptor-agonism-bridges-the-gap-between-the-insulin-receptor-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Iryna Liauchonak, Fady Dawoud, Yatin Riat, Bessi Qorri, Manpreet Sambi, Justin Jain, Regina-Veronicka Kalaydina, Nicole Mendonza, Komal Bajwa, Myron R Szewczuk
Insulin signaling, as mediated through the insulin receptor (IR), plays a critical role in metabolism. Aberrations in this signaling cascade lead to several pathologies, the majority of which are classified under the umbrella term "metabolic syndrome". Although many of these pathologies are associated with insulin resistance, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. One area of current interest is the possibility of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) influencing or regulating IR signaling. This concept is particularly significant, because GPCRs have been shown to participate in cross-talk with the IR...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442203/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Sanjay Bhandari, Pinky Jha, Abhishek Thakur, Abhipsa Kar, Harrison Gerdes, Thangam Venkatesan
Cyclic-vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting. Although once thought to be a pediatric disorder, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults. The exact pathogenesis is unknown and several theories have been proposed. Migraine and CVS share a similar pathophysiology as suggested by several studies. Since there are no specific biomarkers available for this disorder, physicians should rely on Rome criteria for the diagnosis...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436209/focus-on-gastroesophageal-reflux-ger-and-laryngopharyngeal-reflux-lpr-new-pragmatic-insights-in-clinical-practice
#6
M Gelardi, G Ciprandi
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common disease usually limited to the oesophagus. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of pharynx, larynx, and other associated upper respiratory organs, caused by a reflux of stomach contents outside the oesophagus. LPR is considered to be a relatively new clinical entity with a vast number of clinical manifestations which are treated sometimes empirically and without a correct diagnosis. However, there is disagreement between specialists about its definition and management: gastroenterologists consider LPR to be a substantially rare manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), whereas otolaryngologists believe that LPR is an independent, but common in their practice, disorder...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421814/herbal-preparation-stw%C3%A2-5-for-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-clinical-experience-in-everyday-practice
#7
Tatiana L Lapina, Alexander S Trukhmanov
BACKGROUND: The most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with a prevalence in the general population of 15-20% (FD) and 10% (IBS), respectively. The complexity of pathophysiologic mechanisms and limitations in therapeutic options make the management of FD and IBS patients a challenge in routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: Syndromes classified as FGID frequently overlap, and coexist with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421808/pathophysiology-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-holistic-overview
#8
Gerald Holtmann, Ayesha Shah, Mark Morrison
Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421797/functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-complex-treatments-for-complex-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#9
Fermin Mearin, Peter Malfertheiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421028/clostridial-abomasitis-and-enteritis-in-ruminants
#10
REVIEW
Katharine M Simpson, Robert J Callan, David C Van Metre
Clostridial abomasitis and enteritis are important alimentary diseases observed in all domestic ruminant species. These diseases most commonly result from overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens types A, B, C, D, and E with the associated release of bacterial exotoxins that result in necrosis of the abomasal or intestinal mucosa. Clostridium difficile may also be associated with enteritis in calves but is much less common than disease caused by C perfringens. This article reviews the causes, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of clostridial gastrointestinal diseases in ruminants...
March 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413011/the-role-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-in-gastrointestinal-disease
#11
REVIEW
Martin H Floch
With the advent of the scientific realization that the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract was more than the cells that exist in the body, the full importance of prebiotics and probiotics has come forth. The importance has been stressed and is available in the new textbook entitled, "The Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology: Implication for Human Health, Prebiotics, Probiotics and Dysbiosis." There is enough evidence now published in the literature so that the scientific world now believes that prebiotics and probiotics are important in gastrointestinal disease...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408799/the-case-for-a-distinctive-philosophy-of-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#12
Hutan Ashrafian
What is an organ and what is an organ system? According to the 'standard' hierarchical model of physiology, each living organism comprises of organ systems including those that offer sensory and control functions (nervous system), energy accumulation (gastrointestinal system), internal dissipation (circulatory system) and mobility (musculoskeletal system). Each organ system in turn is comprised of individual organs. This taxonomy has conceptual flaws as not every organ has a single organ system function but may participate in a myriad of physiological functions...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406791/functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-in-children
#13
Shaman Rajindrajith, Judith Zeevenhooven, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus Perera, Marc A Benninga
Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406356/gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-left-ventricular-assist-device-octreotide-and-other-treatment-modalities
#14
Tara L Molina, Jill Krisl, Kevin Donahue, Sara Varnado
Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) offer a therapeutic strategy for patients with end-stage heart failure. Increased device utilization has also increased the incidence of device-related complications including gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Multiple mechanisms have been proposed in the pathophysiology of continuous-flow LVAD-associated GIB including physiologic changes associated with high shear and nonpulsatile flow such as gastrointestinal arteriovenous malformations and acquired von Willebrand syndrome...
February 5, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396034/epidemiology-clinical-characteristics-and-associations-for-symptom-based-rome-iv-functional-dyspepsia-in-adults-in-the-usa-canada-and-the-uk-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#15
Imran Aziz, Olafur S Palsson, Hans Törnblom, Ami D Sperber, William E Whitehead, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND: The population prevalence, clinical characteristics, and associations for Rome IV functional dyspepsia are not known. Following the publication of the Rome IV criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders, we aimed to assess the prevalence, characteristics, and associations for symptom-based Rome IV functional dyspepsia in adults across the USA, Canada, and the UK. METHODS: We sent an internet-based cross-sectional health survey to adults in the general population of three English-speaking countries: the USA, Canada, and the UK...
January 29, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392081/trefoil-factor-3-cholinesterase-and-homocysteine-potential-predictors-for-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-and-vascular-parkinsonism-dementia-in-advanced-stage
#16
Jing Zou, Zhigang Chen, Caiqian Liang, Yongmei Fu, Xiaobo Wei, Jianjun Lu, Mengqiu Pan, Yue Guo, Xinxue Liao, Huifang Xie, Duobin Wu, Min Li, Lihui Liang, Penghua Wang, Qing Wang
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), cholinesterase activity (ChE activity) and homocysteine (Hcy) play critical roles in modulating recognition, learning and memory in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and vascular parkinsonism with dementia (VPD). However, whether they can be used as reliable predictors to evaluate the severity and progression of PDD and VPD remains largely unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study that included 92 patients with PDD, 82 patients with VPD and 80 healthy controls...
February 2018: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389238/inflammatory-diseases-of-the-gut
#17
Michael Rohr, Chandrakala Aluganti Narasimhulu, Dhara Sharma, Mitsushita Doomra, Aladdin Riad, Saleh Naser, Sampath Parthasarathy
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract whose prevalence has been dramatically increasing over the past decade. New studies have shown that IBD is the second most common chronic inflammatory disease worldwide after rheumatoid arthritis, affecting millions of people mainly in industrialized countries. Symptoms of IBD include frequent bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramping, anorexia, abdominal distension, and emesis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387569/anorexia-highlights-in-traditional-persian-medicine-and-conventional-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Majid Nimrouzi, Mohammad Mehdi Zarshenas
Objective: Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384958/the-intra-and-extraluminal-appendiceal-microbiome-in-pediatric-patients-a-comparative-study
#19
Sara Schülin, Nadine Schlichting, Carlotta Blod, Sabine Opitz, Anne Suttkus, Catalina Suzana Stingu, Kathryn Barry, Martin Lacher, Ulf Bühligen, Steffi Mayer
Intestinal microbiota is involved in metabolic processes and the pathophysiology of various gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to characterize the microbiome of the appendix in acute pediatric appendicitis comparing extraluminal and intraluminal samples.Between January and June 2015, 29 children (3-17 years, mean age 10.7 ± 3.4 years, sex M:F = 2.6:1) undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis were prospectively included in the study. Samples for bacterial cultures (n = 29) and 16S ribosomal desoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) sequencing (randomly chosen n = 16/29) were taken intracorporeally from the appendiceal surface before preparation ("extraluminal") and from the appendiceal lumen after removal ("intraluminal")...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384115/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-in-children-what-s-known-what-s-new
#20
REVIEW
M I Petrosino, A Scaparrotta, P Di Filippo, M Attanasi, S Di Pillo, F Chiarelli, A Mohn
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an under-recognized and frequently misdiagnosed non-IgE mediated food allergy syndrome. Affected infants show gastrointestinal symptoms few hours after ingestion of the incriminating food. Pathophysiology of FPIES has not yet been clearly defined and needs further characterization. The common allergy tests are not helpful for this disorder and tests for food specific IgE are usually negative. A diagnostic oral food challenge (OFC) is the method to confirm the diagnosis of FPIES...
November 24, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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