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gastrointestinal pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930260/new-treatments-and-therapeutic-targets-for-ibs-and-other-functional-bowel-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Magnus Simrén, Jan Tack
Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are a spectrum of disorders characterized by combinations of symptoms attributable to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Most current first-line therapies for IBS and other FBDs target the predominant symptom and mainly affect one symptom in the symptom complex. Additional broadly effective treatment alternatives targeting the entire symptom complex are needed. New drugs for FBDs (such as lubiprostone, linaclotide, plecanatide, prucalopride, eluxadoline and rifaximin) target key mechanisms in the pathophysiology of these disorders and improve both the abnormal bowel habit and other key symptoms, such as abdominal pain and bloating...
June 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928154/primary-gastric-burkitt-lymphoma-induced-anaemia-a-case-report-and-a-literature-review
#2
Monika Kapitančukė, Agnija Vaščiūnaitė, Rasa Augustinienė, Jūratė Sakalinskienė, Gražina Kleinotienė
Background: Primary tumours of the gastrointestinal tract are very uncommon in children. They can present with anaemia caused by gastrointestinal acute or chronic bleeding. One of the most common gastrointestinal tumours is Burkitt lymphoma. This lymphoma is a highly aggressive, rapidly growing B-cell neoplasm, making survival without treatment possible only for a few weeks. For this reason it requires immediate hospitalization and treatment. Case report: We report a case of a gastric Burkitt lymphoma in an adolescent girl who presented with anaemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924294/fat-label-compared-with-fat-content-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-brain-activity-in-functional-dyspepsia-patients-and-healthy-controls
#3
In-Seon Lee, Stephanie Kullmann, Klaus Scheffler, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck
Background: High-fat meals are associated with dyspeptic symptoms in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. It is still unclear how fat is processed, or how FD symptoms and neuronal activities are modulated by psychological factors. Objective: We investigated brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after the ingestion of high- and low-fat foods with correct/incorrect fat information. Design: We compared 12 FD patients and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922073/identification-of-pgam1-as-a-putative-therapeutic-target-for-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-metastasis-using-quantitative-proteomics
#4
Xinlu Liu, Yejing Weng, Peng Liu, Zhigang Sui, Lei Zhou, Yinpeng Huang, Lihua Zhang, Yukui Zhang, Xiaodong Tan
Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal cancer characterized by an extremely low survival rate because of early metastasis. Identifying satisfactory therapeutic targets associated with metastasis is crucial to improve the treatment effect of PDAC. Materials and methods: In this research, we used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-assisted sample preparation method preparing protein sample and nano-reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis to perform the comparative proteomics of two homologous hamster pancreatic cancer cell lines that are different in metastatic ability: PC-1...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913746/neuroimaging-of-the-human-visceral-pain-system-a-methodological-review
#5
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Søren Schou Olesen, Carina Graversen, Trine Andresen, Dina Lelic, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
During the last decades there has been a tremendous development of non-invasive methods for assessment of brain activity following visceral pain. Improved methods for neurophysiological and brain imaging techniques have vastly increased our understanding of the central processing of gastrointestinal sensation and pain in both healthy volunteers as well as in patients suffering from gastrointestinal disorders. The techniques used are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG)/evoked brain potentials (EPs), magnetoencephalography (MEG), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the multimodal combinations of these techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912757/dietary-interventions-in-liver-cirrhosis
#6
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910741/physiology-and-pathophysiology-in-ultra-marathon-running
#7
REVIEW
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
In this overview, we summarize the findings of the literature with regards to physiology and pathophysiology of ultra-marathon running. The number of ultra-marathon races and the number of official finishers considerably increased in the last decades especially due to the increased number of female and age-group runners. A typical ultra-marathoner is male, married, well-educated, and ~45 years old. Female ultra-marathoners account for ~20% of the total number of finishers. Ultra-marathoners are older and have a larger weekly training volume, but run more slowly during training compared to marathoners...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904631/chronic-diffuse-pain-and-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-after-traumatic-stress-pathophysiology-through-a-polyvagal-perspective
#8
Jacek Kolacz, Stephen W Porges
Chronic diffuse pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome, place substantial burden on those affected and on the medical system. Despite their sizable impact, their pathophysiology is poorly understood. In contrast to an approach that focuses on the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) and a specific organ or symptom, we propose that a bio-evolutionary threat-related autonomic response-as outlined in the Polyvagal Theory-may serve as a plausible explanation of how HRV, particularly respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), would index the pathophysiology of these disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902642/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-rumination-syndrome
#9
Magnus Halland, John Pandolfino, Elizabeth Barba
Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless post-prandial regurgitation. The disorder appears uncommon, although only limited epidemiological data are available. Awareness of the characteristic symptoms is essential for recognizing the disorder, and thus avoiding the long delay in diagnosis which many patients experience. Whilst objective testing by post-prandial esophageal high resolution impedance manometry is available in select referral centers, a clinical diagnosis can be made in most patients...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901549/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-clinical-and-translational-research-in-pediatric-gastroenterology-from-1970-to-2017
#10
Melanie H Schwimmer, Mary Catherine Sawh, Karen M Heskett, Nidhi P Goyal, Kimberly P Newton, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric gastroenterology is a clinical and research discipline principally developed over the past 50 years. Bibliometric methods provide quantitative analysis and identify research trends. Study aims were to characterize the growth and trends in pediatric gastroenterology clinical and translational research using citation analysis. METHODS: Using citations analysis software, a search strategy specific for pediatric gastroenterology was implemented for the years 1970-2017...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896124/-immune-gate-of-psychopathology-the-role-of-gut-derived-immune-activation-in-major-psychiatric-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Leszek Rudzki, Agata Szulc
Interaction between the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and brain functions has recently become a topic of growing interest in psychiatric research. These multidirectional interactions take place in the so-called gut-brain axis or more precisely, the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The GI tract is the largest immune organ in the human body and is also the largest surface of contact with the external environment. Its functions and permeability are highly influenced by psychological stress, which are often a precipitating factor in the first episode, reoccurrence and/or deterioration of symptoms of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891432/gastric-emptying-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-mini-review
#12
REVIEW
Karoline Knudsen, Martha Szwebs, Allan K Hansen, Per Borghammer
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience a range of non-motor symptoms, including constipation and other gastrointestinal problems. These symptoms are sometimes present in the prodromal disease phase. An improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is needed considering that PD has been hypothesized to originate in the gut. Delayed gastric emptying time (GET) is often listed as a prevalent gastrointestinal symptom in PD, but the true prevalence is controversial. The aim of this short review was to investigate if GET in PD is dependent on the applied measuring methodology...
June 6, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888452/the-esophagiome-integrated-anatomical-mechanical-and-physiological-analysis-of-the-esophago-gastric-segment
#13
Jingbo Zhao, Barry McMahon, Mark Fox, Hans Gregersen
Esophageal diseases are highly prevalent and carry significant socioeconomic burden. Despite the apparently simple function of the esophagus, we still struggle to better understand its physiology and pathophysiology. The assessment of large data sets and application of multiscale mathematical organ models have gained attention as part of the Physiome Project. This has long been recognized in cardiology but has only recently gained attention for the gastrointestinal(GI) tract. The term "esophagiome" implies a holistic assessment of esophageal function, from cellular and muscle physiology to the mechanical responses that transport and mix fluid contents...
June 10, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882798/microbiome-gut-brain-axis-and-toll-like-receptors-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Valentina Caputi, Maria Cecilia Giron
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressively debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by α-synucleinopathy, which involves all districts of the brain-gut axis, including the central, autonomic and enteric nervous systems. The highly bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is markedly influenced by the microbiome through integrated immunological, neuroendocrine and neurological processes. The gut microbiota and its relevant metabolites interact with the host via a series of biochemical and functional inputs, thereby affecting host homeostasis and health...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882158/localization-of-cannabinoid-receptors-cb1-cb2-gpr55-and-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-canine-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Giorgia Galiazzo, Fiorella Giancola, Agnese Stanzani, Federico Fracassi, Chiara Bernardini, Monica Forni, Marco Pietra, Roberto Chiocchetti
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes involved in endocannabinoid turnover. Modulating the activity of the ECS may influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that activation of cannabinoid receptors by endogenous, plant-derived, or synthetic cannabinoids may exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation and visceral pain. The present ex vivo study aimed to investigate immunohistochemically the distribution of cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), and peroxisome proliferation activation receptor alpha (PPARα) in the canine gastrointestinal tract...
June 7, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880963/how-the-change-in-ibs-criteria-from-rome-iii-to-rome-iv-impacts-on-clinical-characteristics-and-key-pathophysiological-factors
#16
Imran Aziz, Hans Törnblom, Olafur S Palsson, William E Whitehead, Magnus Simrén
OBJECTIVES: The diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have recently been updated from Rome III to Rome IV. Whereas in Rome III a diagnosis of IBS entailed chronic abdominal pain or discomfort at least 3 days per month, in Rome IV the term discomfort has been removed and the frequency of abdominal pain increased to at least 1 day per week. We examined how this change in IBS criteria impacts on clinical characteristics and pathophysiological factors. METHODS: A total of 542 Swedish subjects with Rome III IBS completed a baseline questionnaire enquiring for the number of abdominal pain days in the last 10 days; this was subsequently used as a surrogate marker to identify Rome IV IBS, in that (a) those with 0 or 1 day of pain were classed as Rome IV-negative, and (b) those with ≥2 days of pain were classed as Rome IV-positive...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877952/pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-intestinal-pseudo-obstruction
#17
Thomas J Downes, Manikandar S Cheruvu, Tennekoon B Karunaratne, Roberto De Giorgio, Adam D Farmer
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterized by an impairment of coordinated propulsive activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which clinically mimics mechanical intestinal obstruction. CIPO is the most severe and debilitating form of GI dysmotility. CIPO may be primary or be secondary to pathology at any level of the brain-gut axis as well as systemic disease. The clinical features of CIPO are pleomorphic and largely depend on the site and extent of the segment of the GI tract involved...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875423/aminoacyl-trna-synthetase-deficiencies-in-search-of-common-themes
#18
Sabine A Fuchs, Imre F Schene, Gautam Kok, Jurriaan M Jansen, Peter G J Nikkels, Koen L I van Gassen, Suzanne W J Terheggen-Lagro, Saskia N van der Crabben, Sanne E Hoeks, Laetitia E M Niers, Nicole I Wolf, Maaike C de Vries, David A Koolen, Roderick H J Houwen, Margot F Mulder, Peter M van Hasselt
PURPOSE: Pathogenic variations in genes encoding aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are increasingly associated with human disease. Clinical features of autosomal recessive ARS deficiencies appear very diverse and without apparent logic. We searched for common clinical patterns to improve disease recognition, insight into pathophysiology, and clinical care. METHODS: Symptoms were analyzed in all patients with recessive ARS deficiencies reported in literature, supplemented with unreported patients evaluated in our hospital...
June 6, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874475/the-contemporary-management-of-systemic-sclerosis
#19
Maysoon Eldoma, Janet Pope
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disease (CTD) characterized by vascular dysfunction, fibrosis, inflammation and autoantibodies. The pathophysiology of SSc is not completely understood, and many patients acquire organ or tissue damage despite advances in treatment. Current treatments target affected organs with modest improvements. Areas covered: This review evaluates several treatment strategies for SSc based on involved organs including skin, pulmonary, cardiac, renal, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal...
June 6, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871473/functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-newborns-nutritional-perspectives
#20
Roberto Bellù, Manuela Condò
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) definition in children has changed over the years trying to facilitate clinicians, because the diagnostic process is complicated by the interpretation variability of symptoms described by children or by their caregivers for newborns and toddlers. This review refers to the Rome IV classification system, drafted in 2016. FGIDs pathophysiology is multifactorial and still poor understood, with limitations for the therapeutic process, which results often in unnecessary and alternative treatments trying to reduce the relevant caregiver distress, but with increased costs for families and for the National Health Service...
May 23, 2018: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
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