keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

gastrointestinal pathophysiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031410/harnessing-gut-microbes-for-mental-health-getting-from-here-to-there
#1
REVIEW
Annadora J Bruce-Keller, J Michael Salbaum, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
There has been an explosion of interest in the study of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (gut microbiota) and their impact on host health and physiology. Accumulating data suggest that altered communication between gut microbiota and host systems could participate in disorders such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and autoimmune disorders as well as neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, anxiety, and major depressive disorders. The conceptual development of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has facilitated understanding of the complex and bidirectional networks between gastrointestinal microbiota and their host, highlighting potential mechanisms through which this environment influences central nervous system physiology...
August 30, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029593/lymphatic-dysfunction-leukotrienes-and-lymphedema
#2
Xinguo Jiang, Mark R Nicolls, Wen Tian, Stanley G Rockson
The lymphatic system is essential for the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, gastrointestinal lipid absorption, and immune trafficking. Whereas lymphatic regeneration occurs physiologically in wound healing and tissue repair, pathological lymphangiogenesis has been implicated in a number of chronic diseases such as lymphedema, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Insight into the regulatory mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis and the manner in which uncontrolled inflammation promotes lymphatic dysfunction is urgently needed to guide the development of novel therapeutics: These would be designed to reverse lymphatic dysfunction, either primary or acquired...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028817/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-gastrointestinal-mucosa-of-children-with-autism-a-blinded-case-control-study
#3
Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, Katherine F Murray, Timothy Buie, Harland Winter, Richard Eugene Frye
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Imbalances in the enteric microbiome have been associated with ASD and can cause GI dysfunction potentially through disruption of mitochondrial function as microbiome metabolites modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is highly associated with GI symptoms. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in rectal and cecum biopsies under the assumption that certain microbiome metabolites, such as butyrate and propionic acid, are more abundant in the cecum as compared to the rectum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026623/a-case-of-vibrio-vulnificus-infection-complicated-with-fulminant-purpura-gene-and-biotype-analysis-of-the-pathogen
#4
Masatoshi Hori, Akifumi Nakayama, Daisuke Kitagawa, Hidetada Fukushima, Hideki Asai, Yasuyuki Kawai, Kazuo Okuchi
Introduction.Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) causes a severe infection that develops in the compromised host. Its pathophysiology is classified into three types: (1) primary septicaemia, (2) gastrointestinal illness pattern and (3) wound infection pattern. Of these, primary septicaemia is critical. V. vulnificus can be classified into three biotypes and two genotypes and its pathogenicity is type-dependent. Case presentation. A 47-year-old man presented to a local hospital with chief complaints of fever, bilateral lower limb pain and diarrhoea...
May 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020798/serum-bovine-immunoglobulin-for-chemotherapy-induced-gastrointestinal-mucositis
#5
Sowminya Arikapudi, Saima Rashid, Laith Adel Al Almomani, Jennifer Treece, Steven J Baumrucker
Cancer treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy treat cancer by targeting rapidly dividing cells. Although these forms of treatment damage rapidly dividing cancer cells, they are also toxic to the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to inflammation of the mucosal layer (mucositis) and causing nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Improvement in symptoms may allow patients to have better performance status permitting ongoing treatment and possibly a better prognosis. This article describes the pathophysiology of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and includes 3 case reports of treatment of mucositis with serum bovine immunoglobulin...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018988/circulating-chromogranin-a-and-its-fragments-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-disease-markers
#6
REVIEW
Angelo Corti, Fabrizio Marcucci, Tiziana Bachetti
Chromogranin A (CgA), a secretory protein released in the blood by neuroendocrine cells and neurons, is the precursor of various bioactive fragments involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, metabolism, innate immunity, angiogenesis, and tissue repair. After the original demonstration that circulating CgA can serve as a biomarker for a wide range of neuroendocrine tumors, several studies have shown that increased levels of CgA can be present also in the blood of patients with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory diseases with, in certain cases, important diagnostic and prognostic implications...
October 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994309/overview-of-small-bowel-angioectasias-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-options
#7
Stefania Chetcuti Zammit, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, David S Sanders, Mark E McAlindon, Emanuele Rondonotti, Diana E Yung, Reena Sidhu
Elderly patients with multiple co-morbidities are at an increased risk of developing small bowel angioectasias. Treating these lesions can be both challenging and costly with patients requiring extensive investigations and recurrent admissions for iron infusions and blood transfusions as well as invasive procedures. This review presents treatment options and describes in detail drugs that should be considered whilst taking into account their effectiveness and their safety profile. Areas covered: A PubMed search was carried out using the following keywords: small bowel angiodysplasias, small bowel angioectasias, small bowel bleeding and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding to assess existing evidence...
October 10, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990742/autoimmune-endocrine-diseases
#8
Rosaria M Ruggeri, Giuseppe Giuffrida, Alfredo Campennì
The endocrine system is interested by several autoimmune diseases, characterized by different impact and severity, according to the organs involved. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (i.e. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease) and type 1 diabetes mellitus are the most common autoimmune endocrine disorders, while hypophysitis, adrenalitis (90% of cases of primary hypocortisolism or Addison's disease), premature ovarian failure and hypoparathyroidism represent quite rare conditions. Autoimmune endocrine diseases can also coexist in the same individuals and cluster in families...
October 9, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990365/endocannabinoid-related-compounds-in-gastrointestinal-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Marcella Pesce, Alessandra D'Alessandro, Osvaldo Borrelli, Stefano Gigli, Luisa Seguella, Rosario Cuomo, Giuseppe Esposito, Giovanni Sarnelli
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an endogenous signalling pathway involved in the control of several gastrointestinal (GI) functions at both peripheral and central levels. In recent years, it has become apparent that the ECS is pivotal in the regulation of GI motility, secretion and sensitivity, but endocannabinoids (ECs) are also involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation and mucosal barrier permeability, suggesting their role in the pathophysiology of both functional and organic GI disorders...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986021/approach-to-chronic-abdominal-pain-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Sarah Shrager Lusman, Richard Grand
Abdominal pain in individuals with CF is challenging for the patient as well as the physician, as the differential diagnosis can be complex. Most gastrointestinal manifestations of CF present with regional abdominal pain. Pain localization, which requires knowledge of gut development and innervation, is crucial to understanding the pathophysiology of abdominal pain in CF. The location of the pain, together with the clinical presentation, shapes the differential diagnosis and thus guides the evaluation and management...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985731/screening-for-celiac-disease-in-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-worth-it-or-not
#11
Muhammed Kizilgul, Ozgur Ozcelik, Selvihan Beysel, Hakan Akinci, Seyfullah Kan, Bekir Ucan, Mahmut Apaydin, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that immune factors might have a role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inappropriate glycemic control in patients with T2DM is an important risk factor for the occurrence of diabetes complications. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) is high in type 1 diabetes mellitus however, there are scarce data about its prevalence in T2DM. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of celiac disease among insulin-using type 2 diabetes patients with inappropriate glycemic control...
October 6, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983454/organoid-and-organ-on-a-chip-systems-new-paradigms-for-modeling-neurological-and-gastrointestinal-disease
#12
Aslam Abbasi Akhtar, Samuel Sances, Robert Barrett, Joshua J Breunig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The modeling of biological processes in vitro provides an important tool to better understand mechanisms of development and disease, allowing for the rapid testing of therapeutics. However, a critical constraint in traditional monolayer culture systems is the absence of the multicellularity, spatial organization, and overall microenvironment present in vivo. This limitation has resulted in numerous therapeutics showing efficacy in vitro, but failing in patient trials...
June 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969540/recent-advances-in-the-development-of-pharmaceutical-agents-for-metabolic-disorders-a-computational-perspective
#13
Sridhara Janardhan, Varvara Konova, Alexey Lagunin, Venkateswara Rao, Narahari Sastry, Vladimir Poroikov
BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders comprise a set of different disorders varying from epidemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus to inborn metabolic orphan diseases such as phenylketonuria. Despite considerable evidence showing the importance of the computational methods in discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals, there are no systematic reviews outlining how they are utilized in the field of metabolic disorders. This review aims to discuss the necessity of the development of web-based tools and databases by integration of available information for solving Big Data problems in network pharmacology of metabolic disorders...
October 2, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968363/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#14
Peter D Donofrio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current state of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), including its clinical presentation, evaluation, pathophysiology, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: GBS is an acute/subacute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy typically presenting with sensory symptoms and weakness over several days, often leading to quadriparesis. Approximately 70% of patients report a recent preceding upper or lower respiratory tract infection or gastrointestinal illness...
October 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960466/chronic-gingivostomatitis-with-esophagitis-in-cats
#15
M I Kouki, S A Papadimitriou, D Psalla, A Kolokotronis, T S Rallis
BACKGROUND: Chronic gingivostomatitis in cats (FCG) is a debilitating disease with potentially deleterious effects on overall health. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the pathophysiology and overall impact of FCG. The aims of our study were to investigate whether gingivostomatitis occurs concurrently with esophagitis, if FCG treatment contributes to esophagitis and if esophagitis exacerbates signs of FCG. ANIMALS: Fifty-eight cats with clinical signs of FCG and 12 healthy control cats exhibiting no signs of oral disease, all client-owned...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953310/adverse-effects-of-crystalloid-and-colloid-fluids
#16
Robert G Hahn
Guidelines for infusion fluid therapy rarely take into account that adverse effects occur in a dose-dependent fashion. Adverse effects of crystalloid fluids are related to their preferential distribution to the interstitium of the subcutis, the gut, and the lungs. The gastrointestinal recovery time is prolonged by 2 days when more than 2 litres is administered. Infusion of 6-7 litres during open abdominal surgery results in poor wound healing, pulmonary oedema, and pneumonia. There is also a risk of fatal postoperative pulmonary oedema that might develop several days after the surgery...
September 27, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945764/high-incidence-of-extensive-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-in-patients-with-the-reg3a-rs7588571-non-gg-genotype
#17
Daisuke Koyama, Makoto Murata, Ryo Hanajiri, Shingo Okuno, Sonoko Kamoshita, Jakrawadee Julamanee, Erina Takagi, Daiki Hirano, Kotaro Miyao, Reona Sakemura, Tatsunori Goto, Fumihiko Hayakawa, Aika Seto, Yukiyasu Ozawa, Koichi Miyamura, Seitaro Terakura, Tetsuya Nishida, Hitoshi Kiyoi
Regenerating islet-derived protein 3 alpha (REG3A) is a biomarker of lower gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); however, the biological role of REG3A in the pathophysiology of GVHD is not understood. Here, we examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the REG3A gene, rs7588571, which is located upstream and within 2 kb of the REG3A gene, and transplant outcomes including the incidence of GVHD. The study population consisted of 126 adult Japanese patients who had undergone bone marrow transplantation from a HLA-matched sibling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943473/h2s-is-a-key-antisecretory-molecule-against-cholera-toxin-induced-diarrhoea-in-mice-evidence-for-non-involvement-of-the-ac-camp-pka-pathway-and-ampk
#18
Francisca B M Sousa, Luan K M Souza, Nayara A Sousa, Thiago S L Araújo, Simone de Araújo, Dvison M Pacífico, Irismara S Silva, Renan O Silva, Lucas A D Nicolau, Fabiana M Souza, Marcelo C Filgueiras, Jefferson S Oliveira, Marcellus H L P Souza, Jand Venes R Medeiros
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter that participates in various physiological and pathophysiological processes within the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the effects and possible mechanism of action of H2S in secretory diarrhoea caused by cholera toxin (CT). The possible mechanisms of action of H2S were investigated using an intestinal fluid secretion model in isolated intestinal loops on anaesthetized mice treated with CT. NaHS and Lawesson's reagent and l-cysteine showed antisecretory activity through reduction of intestinal fluid secretion and loss of Cl(-) induced by CT...
September 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937415/biomarkers-in-vasculitis
#19
Gulen Hatemi, Sinem N Esatoglu, Yusuf Yazici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are considered to be helpful in diagnosing, monitoring, predicting treatment response, and prognosis in clinical practice and as outcomes in clinical trials. In this article, we review the recent literature on new biomarkers and the expanding use of older ones in vasculitic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis patients antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody type may be useful as a predictor of relapse and response to rituximab...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936910/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-a-focus-on-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Lucinda A Harris, Noemi Baffy
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain and disordered bowel habits, is one of the most common functional bowel disorders. IBS is a substantial burden on both patient health-related quality of life and health care costs. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for the occurrence of IBS, including altered gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, changes in gut permeability, immune activation, gut-brain dysregulation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and changes in the gut microbiota...
September 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
keyword
keyword
80025
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"