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gastrointestinal pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#1
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908518/gastrointestinal-angiodysplasia-diagnosis-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Christian S Jackson, Richard Strong
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia (GIAD) are red flat arborized lesions that are found throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. GIAD can vary in size and have a range of presentation from occult to life-threatening bleeding. The typical presentation is intermittent bleeding in the setting of iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopy is the primary means of diagnosis and endoscopic therapy is noted to be initially effective. However, rebleeding can be as high as 40% to 50% in patients with small bowel GIAD. This review describes the pathophysiology for the development of GIAD and the current roles of endoscopic, medical, and surgical therapy in its treatment...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906101/characterization-of-a-dmd-egfp-reporter-mouse-as-a-tool-to-investigate-dystrophin-expression
#3
Mina V Petkova, Susanne Morales-Gonzales, Karima Relizani, Esther Gill, Franziska Seifert, Josefine Radke, Werner Stenzel, Luis Garcia, Helge Amthor, Markus Schuelke
BACKGROUND: Dystrophin is a rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein that provides sarcolemmal stability as a structural link between the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix via the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). Mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene cause X-linked dystrophinopathies with variable phenotypes, the most severe being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) characterized by progressive muscle wasting and fibrosis. However, dystrophin deficiency does not only impair the function of skeletal and heart muscle but may also affect other organ systems such as the brain, eye, and gastrointestinal tract...
July 5, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#4
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898350/cronkhite-canada-syndrome-complicated-by-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report
#5
Neha L Nemade, Urvi B Shukla, Gajanan D Wagholikar
INTRODUCTION: Cronkhite Canada Syndrome (CCS) is a rare syndrome, described in 1955 by Americans, Leonard Wolsey Cronkhite and Wilma Jeanne Canada in the New England Journal of Medicine [1]. About 450 cases have been reported. Complications, like malignant transformation, unprovoked thromboembolism is known. Since there is wide variability in medical presentation, no definitive diagnostic and treatment protocol s have been set. The mortality remains at 55%. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 50 year old male patient presenting with diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, ectodermal features...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895892/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-mast-cell-transcriptome-and-the-pathophysiological-responses-to-immunological-and-psychological-stress
#6
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891695/downregulation-of-neuronal-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#7
F Giancola, F Torresan, R Repossi, F Bianco, R Latorre, A Ioannou, M Guarino, U Volta, P Clavenzani, M Mazzoni, R Chiocchetti, F Bazzoli, R A Travagli, C Sternini, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890867/obesity-related-digestive-diseases-and-their-pathophysiology
#8
REVIEW
Su Youn Nam
Obesity is a growing medical and public health problem worldwide. Many digestive diseases are related to obesity. In this article, the current state of our knowledge of obesity-related digestive diseases, their pathogenesis, and the medical and metabolic consequences of weight reduction are discussed. Obesity-related digestive diseases include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, colon polyp and cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis C-related disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstone, cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancer...
November 29, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#9
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878613/intermittent-low-dose-bevacizumab-in-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-a%C3%A2-case-report
#10
Florian Huemer, Martin Dejaco, Christoph Grabmer, Thomas Melchardt, Daniel Neureiter, Georg Mayer, Alexander Egle, Richard Greil, Lukas Weiss
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an inherited autosomal dominant disease presenting with recurrent bleeding episodes and iron deficiency anemia due to vascular malformations. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is associated with an increased risk of stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding and pulmonary hypertension and life expectancy is significantly reduced. Excess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report about a male patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia presenting with pulmonary and central nervous system involvement experiencing repetitive nosebleeds, necessitating frequent local cauterization and transfusion of more than 100 units of packed red blood cells...
November 23, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865667/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-prevalence-aetiology-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Claire McDonald, Kristian Winge, David J Burn
Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), effecting 27-85% of patients with PD. Irritative symptoms predominate and urodynamic studies confirm high prevalence of detrusor overactivity in PD. LUTS are present early in PD and are more common in PD than in age matched controls. The assessment of LUTS in PD is complicated by coexisting bradykinesia and cognitive impairment. Although LUTS become more troublesome as PD progresses it remains unclear if LUTS severity correlates with motor symptoms and/or duration of PD...
November 1, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862490/symptom-clusters-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#12
REVIEW
Xiaoyi Cao, Lang Tian, Lin Chen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the common composition and the analytical methods performed to derive symptom clusters in patients receiving hemodialysis, and to examine their common predictive and outcome variables. BACKGROUND: Patients receiving hemodialysis may suffer from multiple and interactive symptoms simultaneously, which may impact their mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The composition of these symptom clusters varies depending on the different assessment tools, the variant evaluation timing points and the various statistical methodologies...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861204/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-inhibitor-etanercept-does-not-alter-methotrexate-induced-gastrointestinal-mucositis-in-rats
#13
Nicoline S S Kuiken, Edmond H H M Rings, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Rick Havinga, Angelika Jurdzinski, Albert K Groen, Wim J E Tissing
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal (GI) mucositis is a severe side effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of GI mucositis. We aimed to determine the effect of the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitor Etanercept on the severity of mucositis in a previously established methotrexate (MTX)-induced GI mucositis rat model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received 60 mg/kg MTX at day 0 iv...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857691/chemotherapy-induced-constipation-and-diarrhea-pathophysiology-current-and-emerging-treatments
#14
REVIEW
Rachel M McQuade, Vanesa Stojanovska, Raquel Abalo, Joel C Bornstein, Kulmira Nurgali
Gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of chemotherapy are a debilitating and often overlooked clinical hurdle in cancer management. Chemotherapy-induced constipation (CIC) and Diarrhea (CID) present a constant challenge in the efficient and tolerable treatment of cancer and are amongst the primary contributors to dose reductions, delays and cessation of treatment. Although prevalence of CIC is hard to estimate, it is believed to affect approximately 16% of cancer patients, whilst incidence of CID has been estimated to be as high as 80%...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849120/review-gut-microbiota-and-functional-diseases-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Nicola Imperatore, Raffaella Tortora, Filomena Morisco, Nicola Caporaso
INTRODUCTION: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a common group of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases defined by symptom-based diagnostic criteria, which consider chronic or recurrent symptoms of the GI tract in the absence of other organic or biochemical reasons. Recent evidences have been highlighted the role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of the FGIDs. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We focused our attention on critically analysis of the existing literature on the role of gut microbiota in FGIDs, by evaluating the differences of composition, functions and role of intestinal flora in FGIDs of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract...
November 16, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848185/pediatric-intestinal-beh%C3%A3-et-disease-complicated-by-myeloid-malignancies
#16
Kiichiro Kanamitsu, Akira Shimada, Ritsuo Nishiuchi, Tomonari Shigemura, Yozo Nakazawa, Kenichi Koike, Yuichi Kodama, Yuichi Shinkoda, Yoshifumi Kawano, Kozo Yasui, Koji Sasaki, Ryosuke Kajiwara, Hirokazu Tsukahara, Atsushi Manabe
Behçet disease (BD) is rarely seen in children. Its clinical manifestations are believed to differ between pediatric and adult patients. The characteristics of BD complicated by myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are well established for adult patients; however, because only a few cases of pediatric-onset BD complicated by MDS have been reported, its clinical characteristics remain unknown. We here retrospectively review pediatric-onset BD complicated by myeloid malignancies in Japan, having identified five such patients...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#17
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844039/increased-prevalence-of-autoimmune-disease-within-c9-and-ftd-mnd-cohorts-completing-the-picture
#18
Zachary A Miller, Virginia E Sturm, Gamze Balci Camsari, Anna Karydas, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Lea T Grinberg, Adam L Boxer, Howard J Rosen, Katherine P Rankin, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, William W Seeley, Neill R Graff-Radford, Bruce L Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoimmune disease in symptomatic C9ORF72 (C9) mutation carriers and frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (FTD/MND) cohorts. METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed the clinical histories of 66 patients with FTD/MND and 57 symptomatic C9 carriers (24 overlapping cases), a total of 99 charts, for history of autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in C9 and FTD/MND cohorts was determined by χ(2) and Fisher exact comparisons between the combined C9 and FTD/MND group with normal control, Alzheimer disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy cohorts, as well as comparisons within C9 and FTD/MND cohorts...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825144/genetic-variants-associated-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-fabry-disease
#19
Maria Teresa Di Martino, Francesca Scionti, Simona Sestito, Angela Nicoletti, Mariamena Arbitrio, Pietro Hiram Guzzi, Valentina Talarico, Federica Altomare, Maria Teresa Sanseviero, Giuseppe Agapito, Antonio Pisani, Eleonora Riccio, Osvaldo Borrelli, Daniela Concolino, Licia Pensabene
Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are often among the earliest presenting events in Fabry disease (FD), an X-linked lysosomal disorder caused by the deficiency of α-galactosidase A. Despite recent advances in clinical and molecular characterization of FD, the pathophysiology of the GIS is still poorly understood. To shed light either on differential clinical presentation or on intervariability of GIS in FD, we genotyped 1936 genetic markers across 231 genes that encode for drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transport proteins in 49 FD patients, using the DMET Plus platform...
November 5, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822074/diagnosis-of-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-current-insights
#20
REVIEW
Valerio Pravettoni, Cristoforo Incorvaia
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
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