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gastrointestinal pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815024/stem-cell-derived-organoids-to-model-gastrointestinal-facets-of-cystic-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Meike Hohwieler, Lukas Perkhofer, Stefan Liebau, Thomas Seufferlein, Martin M├╝ller, Anett Illing, Alexander Kleger
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most frequently occurring inherited human diseases caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) which lead to ample defects in anion transport and epithelial fluid secretion. Existing models lack both access to early stages of CF development and a coeval focus on the gastrointestinal CF phenotypes, which become increasingly important due increased life span of the affected individuals. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of gastrointestinal facets of CF and the opportunity to model these in various systems in an attempt to understand and treat CF...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814481/plausibility-criteria-for-putative-pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-consensus-of-experts
#2
Jan Tack, Maura Corsetti, Michael Camilleri, Eamonn Mm Quigley, Magnus Simren, Hidekazu Suzuki, Nicholas J Talley, Hans Tornblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are extremely common conditions associated with a considerable personal, social and health economic burden. Managing FGIDs in clinical practice is challenging because of the uncertainty of symptom-based diagnosis, the high frequency of overlap between these conditions and the limited efficacy of available therapies. It has often been argued that successful drug development and management of FGIDs requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology...
August 16, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805583/the-gut-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Lisa Klingelhoefer, Heinz Reichmann
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are one of the most common nonmotor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the whole GI tract (GIT) and being evident throughout the whole course of the disease. Furthermore, constipation serves as a risk factor for PD as well as an early prodromal NMS of PD. The gut as gateway to the environment with its enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the neurodegenerative process that leads to PD. Alpha-synucleinopathy as the pathological hallmark of PD could be found within the whole GIT in a rostrocaudal gradient interacting with the ENS, the gut microbiome, and enteric glial cells...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803487/a-mechanism-based-approach-to-management-of-children-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#5
Allah B Haafiz
Due to parallel advances in surgical and acute care disciplines, liver transplantation (LT) has revolutionized the outlook for children with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Contrary to advances in technical aspects of LT and the peri-operative care, pre-transplant management of ESLD remains quite a formidable challenge. Areas covered: This review provides mechanisms based management strategies to address common complications of ESLD including malnutrition, amended metabolic pathways, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and development of ascites...
August 14, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795875/animal-models-for-studying-epithelial-barriers-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-colorectal-cancer
#6
Tiaosi Xing, Rolando Camacho Salazar, Yan-Hua Chen
The intestinal epithelial cells line the luminal surface of the entire gastrointestinal tract which is crucial for the absorption of nutrients and prevention of pathogens entering from the external environment. The epithelial barrier plays an important role in organ development, disease pathogenesis, and aging. The major component of an epithelial barrier is the single columnar epithelium and tight junctions. Tight junctions are located at the most apical region of the junctional complex and contain many integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, the claudin family, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795840/a-complete-histologic-approach-to-gastrointestinal-biopsy-from-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-with-evidence-of-transplant-associated-gastrointestinal-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#7
Mikako Warren, Sonata Jodele, Christopher Dandoy, Kasiani C Myers, Gregory Wallace, Adam Nelson, Javier El-Bietar
CONTEXT: - Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy is a serious complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant that may progress to multi-organ dysfunction. Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy may involve the intestinal vasculature (intestinal transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy [iTMA]), causing patients to experience debilitating symptoms of ischemic colitis, including disproportionately severe abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding, requiring heavy narcotic use and frequent transfusion support...
August 10, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792444/role-of-microbial-modulation-in-management-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Lies Hulshof, Belinda Van't Land, Aline B Sprikkelman, Johan Garssen
The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is multifactorial and is a complex interrelationship between skin barrier, genetic predisposition, immunologic development, skin microbiome, environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and psychological factors. Several microbial modulations of the intestinal microbiome with pre- and/or probiotics have been used in AD management, with different clinical out-come (both positive, as well as null findings). This review provides an overview of the clinical evidence from trials in children from 2008 to 2017, aiming to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions with pre- and/or pro-biotics for the treatment of AD...
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781108/exenatide-once-weekly-versus-placebo-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Dilan Athauda, Kate Maclagan, Simon S Skene, Martha Bajwa-Joseph, Dawn Letchford, Kashfia Chowdhury, Steve Hibbert, Natalia Budnik, Luca Zampedri, John Dickson, Yazhou Li, Iciar Aviles-Olmos, Thomas T Warner, Patricia Limousin, Andrew J Lees, Nigel H Greig, Susan Tebbs, Thomas Foltynie
BACKGROUND: Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has neuroprotective effects in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease. We investigated whether these effects would be apparent in a clinical trial. METHODS: In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with moderate Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous injections of exenatide 2 mg or placebo once weekly for 48 weeks in addition to their regular medication, followed by a 12-week washout period...
August 3, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779865/neurological-complications-of-gastrointestinal-disease
#10
Melissa Shapiro, David A Blanco
There is a growing interest in the extraintestinal manifestations of common pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. This article specifically focuses on the neurological symptoms that manifest because of these disorders and their treatments. Many neurological symptoms have been reported in association with these diseases, including neuropathy, myopathy, ataxia, headache, and seizures, among others. It is currently believed that these neurological symptoms are largely overlooked by practitioners and could be a red flag for earlier diagnosis...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774868/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-microrna-interactions-in-gastrointestinal-pathophysiology
#11
Ivy Ka Man Law, David Miguel Padua, Dimitrios Ilopoulos, Charalabos Pothoulakis
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the largest transmembrane receptor superfamily in the human genome and are expressed in nearly all gastrointestinal (GI) cell types. Coupling of GPCRs and their respective ligands activates various phosphotransferase in the cytoplasm, and thus, activation of GPCR signaling in intestine regulates many cellular and physiological processes. Studies in microRNAs (miRNAs) demonstrate that they represent critical epigenetic regulators of different pathophysiologic responses in different organs and cell types in humans and animals...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770976/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765176/transient-clinical-improvement-of-a-mitochondrial-neurogastrointestinal-encephalomyopathy-like-syndrome-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Malcolm Kevin Baker, Clara Maria Schutte, Neelay Ranchhod, David Brittain, J E van Rensburg
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), usually an autosomal-recessive inherited condition, causes gastrointestinal dysmotility, ophthalmoplegia, ptosis, leukoencephalopathy and neuropathy. The chromosome 22 disorder, due to mutations in the nuclear gene TYMP encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP), leads to the accumulation of thymidine and deoxyuridine, with mitochondrial dysfunction.This report describes a patient with an MNGIE-like syndrome with a heterozygous TYMP mutation who showed marked, but transient improvement postallogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758209/distinct-projection-targets-define-subpopulations-of-mouse-brainstem-vagal-neurons-that-express-the-autism-associated-met-receptor-tyrosine-kinase
#14
Anna Kamitakahara, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Pat Levitt
Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757466/identification-of-serum-proteome-signature-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-potential-utility-of-the-tool-for-early-diagnosis-and-patient-s-stratification
#15
Athanasios Tsigaridas, Athanassios K Anagnostopoulos, Aggeliki Papadopoulou, Stamatia Ioakeim, Anna Vaiopoulou, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Nikos Viazis, George Karamanolis, Gerasimos J Mantzaris, George T Tsangaris, Maria Gazouli
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder with high incidence, and great heterogeneity of symptoms. Numerous factors are correlated with IBS development; however, the pathophysiology is not yet clear. In addition, there is no appropriate diagnostic tool available. The aim of this study was the identification of protein expression alterations in IBS patients compared to healthy individuals. Serum samples from 30 IBS patients (10 with IBS-Diarrhea, 10 IBS-Constipation and 10 IBS-Mixed) and 10 healthy individuals were subjected to proteomic analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756708/biomarkers-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-review-of-literature
#16
Bhawan Deep Garg, Deepak Sharma, Anju Bansal
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is among the most serious gastrointestinal emergency in very low birth weight (VLBW), extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGAN), affecting 7-14% of these neonates. Despite extensive research, the underlying aetiology of NEC still remains blurred. Due to high mortality, morbidity and its delayed presentation, early detection of NEC is considered to be lifesaving. A number of biomarkers has been studied for early detection and prediction of severity of NEC but till date, no ideal marker have been discovered...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752114/do-animal-models-of-acute-pancreatitis-reproduce-human%C3%A2-disease
#17
REVIEW
Fred S Gorelick, Markus M Lerch
Acute pancreatitis is currently the most common cause of hospital admission among all nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases. To understand the pathophysiology of the disease and as a potential step toward developing targeted therapies, attempts to induce the disease experimentally began more than 100 years ago. Recent decades have seen progress in developing new experimental pancreatitis models as well as elucidating many underlying cell biological and pathophysiological disease mechanisms. Some models have been developed to reflect specific causes of acute pancreatitis in human beings...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748672/is-there-an-association-between-migraine-and-gastrointestinal-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Christian Saleh, Stefan Beyenburg
Migraine is a primary episodic headache disorder that represents a substantial burden and disability worldwide. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and remains hitherto poorly elucidated. An interesting but less-well-known association is that between migraine and gastrointestinal disorders. We have reviewed the literature for relevant papers reporting on the clinical association between migraine and gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies have shown different gastrointestinal diseases to be associated with migraine, but the underlining pathophysiology remains elusive...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741970/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
Xueying Tan, Xiaojing Cao, Minzhi Zhou, Ping Zou, Jingbo Hu
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia resulting from progressive deficient of insulin in patients with a background of insulin resistance. Current treatment algorithms recommended by American Diabetes Association/The European Association for the Study of Diabetes promote a patient-centered approach that takes into account a comprehensive consideration of pharmacological properties of drugs, including glucose-lowering action, effects on body weight, correction on multiple pathophysiologic defects, tolerability, and long-term safety...
July 25, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739265/role-of-adam10-in-intestinal-crypt-homeostasis-and-tumorigenesis
#20
Peter J Dempsey
A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of mSultidomain, membrane-anchored proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis and other cell signaling events. Catalytically-active ADAMs act as ectodomain sheddases that proteolytically cleave type I and type II transmembrane proteins and some GPI-anchored proteins from the cellular surface. ADAMs can also modulate other cellular signaling events through a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP)...
July 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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