keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

gastrointestinal pathophysiology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222761/new-evidences-on-the-altered-gut-microbiota-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Francesco Strati, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Claudio De Felice, Claudio Donati, Joussef Hayek, Olivier Jousson, Silvia Leoncini, Daniela Renzi, Antonio Calabrò, Carlotta De Filippo
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social and behavioural impairments. In addition to neurological symptoms, ASD subjects frequently suffer from gastrointestinal abnormalities, thus implying a role of the gut microbiota in ASD gastrointestinal pathophysiology. RESULTS: Here, we characterized the bacterial and fungal gut microbiota in a cohort of autistic individuals demonstrating the presence of an altered microbial community structure...
February 22, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211545/the-effect-of-gut-microbiome-on-tolerance-to-morphine-mediated-antinociception-in-mice
#2
Minho Kang, Ryan A Mischel, Sukhada Bhave, Essie Komla, Alvin Cho, Charity Huang, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
There is growing appreciation for the importance of gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While morphine and other narcotics are the most widely prescribed therapy for moderate to severe pain clinically, they have been noted to alter microbial composition and promote bacterial translocation to other tissues. Here we examined the pharmacodynamic properties of chronic morphine in mice following bacterial depletion with oral gavage of an antibiotic cocktail (ABX). ABX significantly reduced gut bacteria and prevented chronic morphine induced increases in gut permeability, colonic mucosal destruction, and colonic IL-1β expression...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202366/modulation-of-the-trpv4-ion-channel-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-disease
#3
REVIEW
Megan S Grace, Sara J Bonvini, Maria G Belvisi, Peter McIntyre
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a broadly expressed, polymodally gated ion channel that plays an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. TRPV4 knockout mice and several synthetic pharmacological compounds that selectively target TRPV4 are now available, which has allowed detailed investigation in to the therapeutic potential of this ion channel. Results from animal studies suggest that TRPV4 antagonism has therapeutic potential in oedema, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, and lung diseases such as cough, bronchoconstriction, pulmonary hypertension, and acute lung injury...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195358/parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-medications-have-distinct-signatures-of-the-gut-microbiome
#4
Erin M Hill-Burns, Justine W Debelius, James T Morton, William T Wissemann, Matthew R Lewis, Zachary D Wallen, Shyamal D Peddada, Stewart A Factor, Eric Molho, Cyrus P Zabetian, Rob Knight, Haydeh Payami
BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for a connection between the gut and Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could explain several features of PD. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if PD involves dysbiosis of gut microbiome, disentangle effects of confounders, and identify candidate taxa and functional pathways to guide research. METHODS: A total of 197 PD cases and 130 controls were studied. Microbial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from stool...
February 14, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195060/pathophysiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-pain-in-most-common-locations-in-cancer-patients
#5
W Leppert, R Zajaczkowska, J Wordliczek, J Dobrogowski, J Woron, M Krzakowski
Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients, especially in advanced disease. However, pain also accompanies a significant percentage of patients during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In some patients pain may be the first symptom of the disease. The causes of pain in cancer patients are often multifactorial including direct and indirect cancer effects, anticancer therapy and co-morbidities. Moreover, pain in cancer patients often has mixed pathophysiology including both nociceptive and neuropathic components, especially in patients with bone metastases...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191693/gene-expression-profiles-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-correlate-with-salience-network-activity-in-chronic-visceral-pain-a-pilot-study
#6
A Gupta, S Cole, J S Labus, S Joshi, T J Nguyen, L A Kilpatrick, K Tillisch, B D Naliboff, L Chang, E A Mayer
BACKGROUND: Distinct gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) consistent with increased sympathetic nervous system activity have been described in different populations under chronic stress. Neuroinflammatory brain changes, possibly related to the migration of primed monocytes to the brain, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic pain. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder associated with altered brain-gut interactions and increased sympathetic/vagal tone and anxiety...
February 12, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182340/evaluation-of-ischemia-modified-albumin-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Gulcan Guntas, Abdurrahman Sahin, Sermin Duran, Resul Kahraman, Ilyas Duran, Cigdem Sonmez, Turhan Calhan, Haci Mehmet Sokmen
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of IBD. We aimed to investigate the effect of the ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and CRP levels on the pathophysiology and activities of IBD and its subgroups. METHODS: The study included 39 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 41 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176664/role-of-lactic-acid-probiotic-bacteria-in-ibd
#8
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Rajaraman Eri
BACKGROUND: IBD is considered as one of the major public health concerns worldwide. The pathophysiology and gut microbial alteration during inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are still not completely understood. Gut microbiota is implicated in most of the gastro-intestinal (GI) diseases including IBD. From the time of gut microbiota establishment and through aging, it undergoes a lot of changes in the composition. METHODS: In a healthy state, the composition of beneficial microbes in the gut is comparatively higher and due to factors such as malnutrition, use of antibiotics and any underlying diseases allow the colonization and invasion of pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#9
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170426/chronic-social-stress-in-pigs-impairs-intestinal-barrier-and-nutrient-transporter-function-and-alters-neuro-immune-mediator-and-receptor-expression
#10
Yihang Li, Zehe Song, Katelyn A Kerr, Adam J Moeser
Psychosocial stress is a major factor driving gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology and disease susceptibility in humans and animals. The mechanisms governing susceptibility to stress-induced GI disease remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) in pigs, induced by 7 d of chronic mixing/crowding stress, on intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling and immunological responses. Results from this study showed that CSS resulted in a significant impairment of ileal and colonic barrier function indicated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in the ileum and increased FD4 flux in the ileum (by 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161834/cannabinoid-receptors-in-regulating-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#11
Ulrike Taschler, Carina Hasenoehrl, Martin Storr, Rudolf Schicho
Cannabinoid receptors are fundamentally involved in all aspects of intestinal physiology, such as motility, secretion, and epithelial barrier function. They are part of a broader entity, the so-called endocannabinoid system which also includes their endocannabinoid ligands and the ligands' synthesizing/degrading enzymes. The system has a strong impact on the pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract and is believed to maintain homeostasis in the gut by controlling hypercontractility and by promoting regeneration after injury...
February 5, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155088/the-enigmatic-gut-in-cystic-fibrosis-linking-inflammation-dysbiosis-and-the-increased-risk-of-malignancy
#12
REVIEW
Millie Garg, Chee Y Ooi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intestinal inflammation, dysbiosis, and increased gastrointestinal malignancy risks are well-described in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, there is limited understanding of their pathophysiology. This review aims to discuss these issues and assess potential links between them. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence of links between intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis (an imbalance in intestinal microbial populations) exist. Recent studies have demonstrated reduction in intestinal inflammation with probiotic administration...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152551/serum-response-factor-regulates-smooth-muscle-contractility-via-myotonic-dystrophy-protein-kinases-and-l-type-calcium-channels
#13
Moon Young Lee, Chanjae Park, Se Eun Ha, Paul J Park, Robyn M Berent, Brian G Jorgensen, Robert D Corrigan, Nathan Grainger, Peter J Blair, Orazio J Slivano, Joseph M Miano, Sean M Ward, Terence K Smith, Kenton M Sanders, Seungil Ro
Serum response factor (SRF) transcriptionally regulates expression of contractile genes in smooth muscle cells (SMC). Lack or decrease of SRF is directly linked to a phenotypic change of SMC, leading to hypomotility of smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, the molecular mechanism behind SRF-induced hypomotility in GI smooth muscle is largely unknown. We describe here how SRF plays a functional role in the regulation of the SMC contractility via myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) and L-type calcium channel CACNA1C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141554/evaluation-of-effect-cat-262c-t-sod-35a-c-gpx1-pro197leu-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-ibd-in-the-polish-population
#14
Jerzy Mrowicki, Małgorzata Mrowicka, Ireneusz Majsterek, Michał Mik, Adam Dziki, Łukasz Dziki
: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders in the course dominated by chronic, recurrent gastrointestinal inflammation. It is believed that the activation of IBD occurs in patients with a genetic predisposition to their development. Chronic inflammation develops as a result of an excessive reaction of the immune system principally under the influence of environmental risk factors. Among them, it has been shown that the mechanism of oxidative stress is associated with the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease, responsible for the commencement and progress of these diseases...
December 1, 2016: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135659/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Joanna Oświęcimska, Agnieszka Szymlak, Wojciech Roczniak, Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Jarosław Kwiecień
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), characterized by abdominal pain and a change in stool form that cannot be explained by structural abnormalities. Its prevalence ranges from 9 to 23% of the worldwide population. The pathophysiology of IBS is diverse and not well understood. Biopsychosocial concept assumes that the disease is a product of psychosocial factors and altered at multiple levels of gut physiology interactions. Some aetiological factors have been identified, yet...
January 27, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134688/progress-with-treating-the-microbial-dysbiosis-associated-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
James S Pearson, Peter J Whorwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial dysbiosis is receiving increasing attention as possibly being important in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. This review will summarize the most recent literature addressing attempts to explore and target the microbiome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome is receiving increasing attention. Traditionally, dietary manipulation has been utilized...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118112/development-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-combined-radiation-and-peripheral-tissue-trauma-injuries
#17
Vlado Antonic, Isabel L Jackson, Gurung Ganga, Terez Shea-Donohue, Zeljko Vujaskovic
Detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear bomb in an urban setting would result in >1 million casualties, the majority of which would present with combined injuries. Combined injuries, such as peripheral tissue trauma and radiation exposure, trigger inflammatory events that lead to multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) and death, with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary involvement playing crucial roles. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model of combined injuries, peripheral tissue trauma (TBX animal model) combined with total body irradiation with 5% bone marrow shielding (TBI/BM5) to investigate if peripheral tissue trauma contributes to reduced survival...
January 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110300/irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-diet
#18
REVIEW
Piero Portincasa, Leonilde Bonfrate, Ornella de Bari, Anthony Lembo, Sarah Ballou
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. The impact of IBS on the general population is large due to its high prevalence, suboptimal medical treatments and significant economic burden. The pathophysiology of IBS is complex and treatments are often symptom-specific. The most common therapeutic approaches for IBS include education and reassurance, lifestyles (especially nutrition-based interventions), peripherally acting medications (which typically target motility), centrally acting medications (which target visceral hypersensitivity and pain) and psychological interventions (which aim to reduce the effects of stress or symptom-specific anxiety)...
January 20, 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105529/upper-gi-disorders-pathophysiology-and-current-therapeutic-approaches
#19
Henry P Parkman
Symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract are associated with abnormalities of upper gastric neuromuscular function including abnormalities of motility, sensation, and absorption. Of the upper digestive tract, the stomach is of particular importance in its role in symptom generation, and is highlighted in this chapter. Gastric symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical activity and contractility...
January 20, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#20
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
keyword
keyword
80025
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"