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Epigenetics and diagnostic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231576/molecular-markers-involved-in-tumorigenesis-of-thyroid-carcinoma-focus-on-aggressive-histotypes
#1
Gustavo C Penna, Fernanda Vaisman, Mario Vaisman, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Thyroid cancer derived from follicular cells (TCDFC) comprises well-differentiated (papillary and follicular) carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine cancer, and its incidence is steadily increasing. Lethality and aggressiveness of TCDFC is inversely correlated with differentiation degree. In this review, an emphasis has been put on molecular markers involved in tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma with a focus on aggressive histotypes and the role of such biomarkers in predicting thyroid cancer outcome...
February 24, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212714/droplet-based-digital-pcr-application-in-cancer-research
#2
G Perkins, H Lu, F Garlan, V Taly
The efficient characterization of genetic and epigenetic alterations in oncology, virology, or prenatal diagnostics requires highly sensitive and specific high-throughput approaches. Nevertheless, with the use of conventional methods, sensitivity and specificity were largely limited. By partitioning individual target molecules within distinct compartments, digital PCR (dPCR) could overcome these limitations and detect very rare sequences with unprecedented precision and sensitivity. In dPCR, the sample is diluted such that each individual partition will contain no more than one target sequence...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193462/both-canonical-and-noncanonical-wnt-signalling-may-be-required-for-detoxification-following-etp-class-mycotoxin-exposure
#3
Jinbi Zhang, Zengxiang Pan, Allan Sheppard
Fungal infections (mycotoxicoses) are a growing global threat for both health and food production, and the available tools for effective detection, monitoring and treatment remain limited. Mycotoxins of the so-called ETP class can cause disease in humans (notably immunocompromised clinical patients) and otherwise healthy ruminant production animals. Understanding the molecular responses caused by ETP toxicity responses will inform diagnostics and guide possible interventions. Here we provide empirical evidence that exposure of hepatic cells to the ETP mycotoxin Sporidesmin A may trigger both canonical and noncanonical Wnt signalling, mediated through miRNA regulation, and regulate the particular expression of CYP2C family members...
February 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191457/the-copper-transport-associated-protein-ctr4-can-form-prion-like-epigenetic-determinants-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#4
Theodora Sideri, Yoko Yashiroda, David A Ellis, María Rodríguez-López, Minoru Yoshida, Mick F Tuite, Jürg Bähler
Prions are protein-based infectious entities associated with fatal brain diseases in animals, but also modify a range of host-cell phenotypes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many questions remain about the evolution and biology of prions. Although several functionally distinct prion-forming proteins exist in S. cerevisiae, [HET-s] of Podospora anserina is the only other known fungal prion. Here we investigated prion-like, protein-based epigenetic transmission in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186085/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-mediated-non-coding-rna-aberrations-in-the-development-of-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Bei Zhang, Siqi Han, Bing Feng, Xiaoyuan Chu, Longbang Chen, Rui Wang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has an important role in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accumulated evidence has shown that HBV-encoded X protein (HBx) can induce both genetic alterations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, as well as epigenetic aberrations in HCC pathogens. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) mainly include microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although ncRNAs cannot code proteins, growing evidence has shown that they have various important biological functions in cell proliferation, cell cycle control, anti-apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor invasion and metastasis...
February 10, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176656/outlook-on-epigenetic-therapeutic-approaches-for-treatment-of-gastric-cancer
#6
Petra Hudler
The incidence of gastric cancer has been declining globally in the last decades. Despite the improvements in the diagnostic procedures, most cases are still detected at advanced stages due to lack of specific symptoms associated with early phases of tumour development. Consequently, gastric cancer poses a major health burden worldwide due to high mortality rates. Continuing advances in high-throughput technologies are revealing an intricate network of genetic and epigenetic changes associated with carcinogenesis...
February 3, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143614/mir-193b-promoter-methylation-accurately-detects-prostate-cancer-in-urine-sediments-and-mir-34b-c-or-mir-129-2-promoter-methylation-define-subsets-of-clinically-aggressive-tumors
#7
Jorge Torres-Ferreira, João Ramalho-Carvalho, Antonio Gomez, Francisco Duarte Menezes, Rui Freitas, Jorge Oliveira, Luís Antunes, Maria José Bento, Manel Esteller, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Contemporary challenges of prostate cancer (PCa) include overdiagnosis and overtreatment, entailing the need for novel clinical tools to improve risk stratification and therapy selection. PCa diagnosis and prognostication might be perfected using epigenetic biomarkers, among which aberrant DNA methylation of microRNA promoters has not been systematically explored. Herein, we identified aberrantly methylated microRNAs promoters in PCa and assessed its diagnostic and prognostic biomarker potential...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143553/epigenetics-of-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-opportunities-for-novel-chemotherapeutic-targets
#8
REVIEW
Cameron Lindsay, Hadi Seikaly, Vincent L Biron
Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression that do not directly alter DNA sequence. These modifications include DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, small and non-coding RNAs. Alterations in epigenetic profiles cause deregulation of fundamental gene expression pathways associated with carcinogenesis. The role of epigenetics in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has recently been recognized, with implications for novel biomarkers, molecular diagnostics and chemotherapeutics...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141602/genetic-signature-and-profiling-of-head-and-neck-cancer-where-do-we-stand
#9
Julia Paczkowska, Krzysztof Szyfter, Maciej Giefing, Malgorzata Wierzbicka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To focus on two novel aspects of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) genetics of special interest: the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, an initial step in tumor progression that finally leads to metastasis formation, by explaining how genes as well as epigenetic factors control this process, and the new diagnostic options based on the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) that could revolutionize diagnosis in the coming years...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135659/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Joanna Oświęcimska, Agnieszka Szymlak, Wojciech Roczniak, Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Jarosław Kwiecień
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), characterized by abdominal pain and a change in stool form that cannot be explained by structural abnormalities. Its prevalence ranges from 9 to 23% of the worldwide population. The pathophysiology of IBS is diverse and not well understood. Biopsychosocial concept assumes that the disease is a product of psychosocial factors and altered at multiple levels of gut physiology interactions. Some aetiological factors have been identified, yet...
January 27, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133736/epigenetics-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-pancreatic-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
M M Träger, S A Dhayat
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with late diagnosis, rapid progression, high invasiveness and early metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) is a crucial step in metastasis that enables polarized immotile epithelial cells to gain fibroblast-like mesenchymal abilities such as enhanced motility. The dynamic process of EMT in PDAC with its powerful influence on disease progression and especially metastasis is of vigorous interest in biomedical research to elucidate its signaling pathways and regulation mechanisms...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123700/circulating-nucleic-acids-an-analysis-of-their-occurrence-in-malignancies
#12
Shankar Suraj, Chirag Dhar, Sweta Srivastava
Through a regulated or fortuitous phenomenon, small portions of cell nucleic acids are thrown into circulation. Since the discovery of these circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) in 1948, numerous studies have been published to elucidate their clinical implications in multifarious diseases. Scientists have now discovered disease-specific genetic aberrations, such as mutations, microsatellite alterations, epigenetic modulations (including aberrant methylation), as well as viral DNA/RNA from nucleic acids in plasma and serum...
January 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121474/elevated-levels-of-dna-methylation-at-the-oprm1-promoter-region-in-men-with-opioid-use-disorder
#13
Ghasem Ebrahimi, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Hamed Akbari, Mohammad Hadi Nematollahi, Moslem Abolhassani, Gholamabbas Shahabinejad, Leyla Khodadadnejad, Mohammad Hashemi
BACKGROUND: The mu-opioid receptor, encoded by mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), has an important role in the development of addiction to opioids. Its aberrant reduction on the cell membrane is responsible, at least in part, for tolerance and physical dependence. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to identify the relationship between opium consumption and epigenetic mechanisms involved in opium addiction. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 66 men with opium use disorder and 57 healthy men as a control group...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105243/detection-of-aberrant-methylated-sept9-and-ntrk3-genes-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-patients-as-a-potential-diagnostic-biomarker
#14
Shahin Behrouz Sharif, Shahriar Hashemzadeh, Reza Mousavi Ardehaie, Amirtaher Eftekharsadat, Mortaza Ghojazadeh, Amir Hossein Mehrtash, Mehrdad Asghari Estiar, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Ebrahim Sakhinia
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies, and the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Timely detection of CRC in patients with earlier stages provides the highest rate of survival. Epigenetic alterations are important in the occurrence and progression of CRC, and represent the primary modifications of cancer cells. Therefore, detection of these alterations in CRC cases are thought to hold great promise as diagnostic biomarkers. It has been shown that the SEPT9 and NTRK3 genes are aberrantly methylated and their detection can be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of CRC...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102705/the-acetyl-code-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-other-rheumatic-diseases
#15
Chiara Angiolilli, Dominique L Baeten, Timothy R Radstake, Kris A Reedquist
Growing evidence supports the idea that aberrancies in epigenetic processes contribute to the onset and progression of human immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epigenetic regulators of histone tail modifications play a role in chromatin accessibility and transcriptional responses to inflammatory stimuli. Among these, histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate the acetylation status of histones and nonhistone proteins, essential for immune responses. Broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors are well-known anti-inflammatory agents and reduce disease severity in animal models of arthritis; however, selective HDAC inhibitors remain poorly studied...
January 19, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101829/autism-spectrum-disorders%C3%A2-diagnosis-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Sharmila Banerjee Mukherjee
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder commonly seen in children. It is characterized by age inappropriate, impaired social communication and the presence of stereotypic behavior. This disorder is hypothesized to result from cerebral dysfunction arising from a complex interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. ASD should be suspected in children failing ASD specific screening tests, in the presence of red flags in social, language and/or play domains, in children with developmental or language delay, abnormal behavior, poor school performance or in those who are at high risk...
January 19, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099272/mixed-phenotype-acute-leukemia-current-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#17
Ofir Wolach, Richard M Stone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare disease that poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Patients with MPAL are considered to have poor outcomes. The difficulties in classifying this leukemia, the lack of prospectively collected data concerning therapeutic outcomes, and rare incidence result in much uncertainty as to the best approach for patients with MPAL. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies demonstrated that most MPALs are associated with cytogenetic abnormalities; genetic sequencing studies disclose a high frequency of somatic mutations in genes encoding epigenetic regulators, tumor suppressors, and transcription factors...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097877/the-epigenetics-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-looking-for-novel-disease-biomarkers
#18
Ana Laura Costa, João Lobo, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are a group of heterogeneous, biologically diverse and clinically challenging neoplasms. Despite the relatively low incidence and mortality rates, a subgroup of patients with disseminated disease relapse after conventional therapy and have a dismal prognosis. Moreover, TGCT afflict mostly young men and have therapeutic peculiarities, with some patients showing resistance to cisplatin-based treatments and others being troubled by irreversible side effects, such as infertility...
January 18, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096697/mir-486-3p-mir-139-5p-and-mir-21-as-biomarkers-for-the-detection-of-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Zujian Chen, Tianwei Yu, Robert J Cabay, Yi Jin, Ishrat Mahjabeen, Xianghong Luan, Lei Huang, Yang Dai, Xiaofeng Zhou
Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a complex disease with extensive genetic and epigenetic defects, including microRNA deregulation. The aims of the present study were to test the feasibility of performing the microRNA profiling analysis on archived TSCC specimens and to assess the potential diagnostic utility of the identified microRNA biomarkers for the detection of TSCC. TaqMan array-based microRNA profiling analysis was performed on 10 archived TSCC samples and their matching normal tissues. A panel of 12 differentially expressed microRNAs was identified...
2017: Biomarkers in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092102/micrornas-potential-candidates-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Abdullah Moridikia, Hamed Mirzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Jafar Salimian
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third common cancer worldwide and an important public health problem in different populations. Several genetics and environmental risk factors are involved in the development and progression of CRC including chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic alterations, and unhealthy lifestyle. Identification of risk factors and biomarkers could lead to a better understanding of molecular pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulatory molecules which could affect a variety of cellular and molecular targets in CRC...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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