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Epigenetics and diagnostic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092102/micrornas-potential-candidates-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Abdullah Moridikia, Hamed Mirzaei, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Jafar Salimian
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third common cancer worldwide and an important public health problem in different populations. Several genetics and environmental risk factors are involved in the development and progression of CRC including chromosomal abnormalities, epigenetic alterations, and unhealthy lifestyle. Identification of risk factors and biomarkers could lead to a better understanding of molecular pathways involved in CRC pathogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulatory molecules which could affect a variety of cellular and molecular targets in CRC...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091414/acute-myeloid-leukemia-advancements-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Meng-Ge Yu, Hu-Yong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Among all subtypes, a lack of consensus exists regarding the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patient survival rates have remained modest for the past three decades in AML. Recently, targeted therapy has emerged as a promising treatment. DATA SOURCES: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research papers on diagnostic development, target therapy, and other novel therapies of AML...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089111/the-molecular-landscape-of-colitis-associated-carcinogenesis
#3
Deborah Saraggi, Matteo Fassan, Claudia Mescoli, Marco Scarpa, Nicola Valeri, Andrea Michielan, Renata D'Incá, Massimo Rugge
In spite of the well-established histopathological phenotyping of IBD-associated preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, their molecular landscape remains to be fully elucidated. Several studies have pinpointed the initiating role of longstanding/relapsing inflammatory insult on the intestinal mucosa, with the activation of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ), chemokines and metabolites of arachidonic acid resulting in the activation of key transcription factors such as NF-κB. Longstanding inflammation may also modify the intestinal microbiota, prompting the overgrowth of genotoxic microorganisms, which may act as further cancer promoters...
December 21, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081549/microrna-promoter-methylation-a-new-tool-for-accurate-detection-of-urothelial-carcinoma
#4
Nuno André Padrão, Sara Monteiro-Reis, Jorge Torres-Ferreira, Luís Antunes, Luís Leça, Diana Montezuma, João Ramalho-Carvalho, Paula C Dias, Paula Monteiro, Jorge Oliveira, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common cancer affecting the urinary system, worldwide. Lack of accurate early detection tools entails delayed diagnosis, precluding more efficient and timely treatment. In a previous study, we found that miR-129-2 and miR-663a were differentially methylated in UC compared with other genitourinary tract malignancies. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of those microRNAs in urine. METHODS: Promoter methylation levels of miR-129-2 and miR-663a were assessed, using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR, in UC tissue samples (using normal urothelium as control) and, subsequently, in urine samples from UC and other genitourinary malignancies...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078645/parp-inhibitors-in-reproductive-system-cancers-current-use-and-developments
#5
REVIEW
Geraldine O'Sullivan Coyne, Alice P Chen, Robert Meehan, James H Doroshow
The repair of DNA damage is a critical cellular process governed by multiple biochemical pathways that are often found to be defective in cancer cells. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of proteins controls response to single-strand DNA breaks by detecting these damaged sites and recruiting the proper factors for repair. Blocking this pathway forces cells to utilize complementary mechanisms to repair DNA damage. While PARP inhibition may not, in itself, be sufficient to cause tumor cell death, inhibition of DNA repair with PARP inhibitors is an effective cytotoxic strategy when it is used in patients who carry other defective DNA-repair mechanisms, such as mutations in the genes BRCA 1 and 2...
January 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065846/the-association-of-heart-failure-related-micrornas-with-neurohormonal-signaling
#6
Yei-Tsung Chen, Juan Wang, Kai Sing Tong, Lee Lee Wong, Oi Wah Liew, Arthur Mark Richards
Heart failure (HF) is a widely prevalent syndrome imposing a significant burden of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Differential circulating microRNA profiles observed in HF cohorts suggest the diagnostic utility of microRNAs as biomarkers. Given their function in fine tuning gene expression, alternations in microRNA landscape could reflecting the underlying mechanisms of disease and present potential therapeutic targets. Using multiple computational target predicting algorithms together with the luciferase-based reporting platform, the interactions between HF-related microRNAs and the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of neurohormone associated genes were examined and compared...
January 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061475/potential-roles-of-micrornas-and-ros-in-colorectal-cancer-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#7
Jingmei Lin, Chia-Chen Chuang, Li Zuo
As one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, colorectal adenocarcinoma often occurs sporadically in individuals aged 50 or above and there is an increase among younger patients under 50. Routine screenings are recommended for this age group to improve early detection. The multifactorial etiology of colorectal cancer consists of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Recently, studies have shown that the development and progression of colorectal cancer can be attributed to aberrant expression of microRNA...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056336/the-clinical-role-of-circulating-free-tumor-dna-in-gastrointestinal-malignancy
#8
REVIEW
Jessica A Howell, Shahid A Khan, Susanne Knapp, Mark R Thursz, Rohini Sharma
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is DNA released from necrotic or apoptotic cells into the bloodstream. While both healthy cells and cancer cells release cfDNA, tumors are associated with higher levels of tumor-derived circulating cell-free DNA (ctDNA) detectable in blood. Absolute levels of ctDNA and its genetic mutations and epigenetic changes show promise as potentially useful biomarkers of tumor biology, progression, and response to therapy. Moreover, studies have demonstrated the discriminative accuracy of ctDNA levels for diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer compared with benign inflammatory diseases...
December 22, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054407/from-genetics-to-epigenetics-new-insights-into-keloid-scarring
#9
REVIEW
Yongjing He, Zhenjun Deng, Mansour Alghamdi, Lechun Lu, Mark W Fear, Li He
Keloid scarring is a dermal fibroproliferative response characterized by excessive and progressive deposition of collagen; aetiology and molecular pathology underlying keloid formation and progression remain unclear. Genetic predisposition is important in the pathogenic processes of keloid formation, however, environmental factors and epigenetic mechanisms may also play pivotal roles. Epigenetic modification is a recent area of investigation in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of keloid scarring and there is increasing evidence that epigenetic changes may play a role in induction and persistent activation of fibroblasts in keloid scars...
January 5, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049748/maternal-nutrition-opportunities-in-the-prevention-of-gestational-diabetes
#10
Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Tinu Mary Samuel, Jörg Spieldenner
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently defined as glucose intolerance that is of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study, including 25 000 nondiabetic pregnant women in 15 centers across the world, reported that an average of 17.8% of pregnancies are affected by GDM and its frequency can be as high as 25.5% in some countries, based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Nevertheless, true global prevalence estimates of GDM are currently lacking due to the high level of heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and differences in the characteristics of the populations that were studied...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049580/epigenetic-regulation-on-the-gene-expression-signature-in-esophagus-adenocarcinoma
#11
Ting Xi, Guizhi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular mechanisms represents an important step in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic measures of esophagus adenocarcinoma (NOS). The objective of this study is to identify the epigenetic regulation on gene expression in NOS, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms of NOS. METHODS: In this study, 78 patients with NOS were included and the data of mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation of were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
December 19, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040600/predictive-and-prognostic-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-recent-advances-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Vishal Das, Jatin Kalita, Mintu Pal
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Since CRC is largely asymptomatic until alarm features develop to advanced stages, the implementation of the screening programme is very much essential to reduce cancer incidence and mortality rates. CRC occurs predominantly from accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells, which later gets transformed into adenocarcinomas. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current challenges of screening paradigm and diagnostic ranges are from semi-invasive methods like colonoscopy to non-invasive stool-based test, have resulted in over-diagnosis and over-treatment of CRC...
December 29, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036298/clinical-and-biological-significance-of-mir-23b-and-mir-193a-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Ilaria Grossi, Bruna Arici, Nazario Portolani, Giuseppina De Petro, Alessandro Salvi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common cancer of the liver with a very poor prognosis. The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRs) is indeed implicated in HCC onset and progression. In this study, we have evaluated the expression of miR-23b and miR-193a in a large cohort of 59 and 67 HCC patients, respectively. miR-23b and miR-193a resulted significantly down-regulated in primary HCCs compared to their matched peritumoral counterparts. Furthermore, patients with higher miR-193a expression exhibited longer OS and DFS, suggesting that miR-193a may be a molecular prognostic factor for HCC patients...
December 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032662/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-is-a-nuclear-biomarker-to-assess-biological-potential-in-histologically-ambiguous-heavily-pigmented-melanocytic-neoplasms
#14
Jonathan J Lee, Ricardo E Vilain, Scott R Granter, Nina R Hu, Scott C Bresler, Shuyun Xu, Alexander H Frank, Martin C Mihm, Robyn P M Saw, Christopher D Fletcher, Richard A Scolyer, George F Murphy, Christine G Lian
BACKGROUND: 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic marker detectable through immunohistochemistry (IHC) that has been shown to distinguish benign nevi from melanoma with high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of the study was to explore its diagnostic utility in a subset of histologically challenging, heavily pigmented cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms. METHODS: 5-hmC IHC was performed on 54 heavily pigmented melanocytic tumors. Semi-quantitative analysis of immunoreactivity was correlated with clinical, pathologic, and follow-up data...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028025/genomics-of-chronic-neutrophilic-leukemia
#15
Julia E Maxson, Jeffrey W Tyner
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a distinct myeloproliferative neoplasm with a high prevalence (>80%) of mutations in the Colony Stimulating Factor 3 Receptor (CSF3R). These mutations activate the receptor, leading to the proliferation of neutrophils that are a hallmark of CNL. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines have been updated to include CSF3R mutations as a part of the diagnostic criteria for CNL. Due to the high prevalence of CSF3R mutations in CNL, it is tempting to think of this disease as being solely driven by this genetic lesion...
December 27, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018146/pancreatic-cancer-a-mis-interpreter-of-the-epigenetic-language
#16
REVIEW
Eriko Iguchi, Stephanie L Safgren, David L Marks, Rachel L Olson, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the U.S. with close to 40,000 deaths per year. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents approximately 90 percent of all pancreatic cancer cases and is the most lethal form of the disease. Current therapies for PDAC are ineffective and most patients cannot be treated by surgical resection. Most research efforts have primarily focused on how genetic alterations cause, alter progression, contribute to diagnosis, and influence PDAC management...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018100/reprogramming-of-glucose-metabolism-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progress-and-prospects
#17
REVIEW
Run-Ze Shang, Shi-Bin Qu, De-Sheng Wang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers, and its rate of incidence is rising annually. Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment, the overall prognoses of HCC patients remain dismal due to the difficulties in early diagnosis and the high level of tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. It is urgent to explore the underlying mechanism of HCC carcinogenesis and progression to find out the specific biomarkers for HCC early diagnosis and the promising target for HCC chemotherapy...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008934/driver-gene-classification-reveals-a-substantial-overrepresentation-of-tumor-suppressors-among-very-large-chromatin-regulating-proteins
#18
Zeev Waks, Omer Weissbrod, Boaz Carmeli, Raquel Norel, Filippo Utro, Yaara Goldschmidt
Compiling a comprehensive list of cancer driver genes is imperative for oncology diagnostics and drug development. While driver genes are typically discovered by analysis of tumor genomes, infrequently mutated driver genes often evade detection due to limited sample sizes. Here, we address sample size limitations by integrating tumor genomics data with a wide spectrum of gene-specific properties to search for rare drivers, functionally classify them, and detect features characteristic of driver genes. We show that our approach, CAnceR geNe similarity-based Annotator and Finder (CARNAF), enables detection of potentially novel drivers that eluded over a dozen pan-cancer/multi-tumor type studies...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999365/alterations-of-epigenetic-regulators-in-pancreatic-cancer-and-their-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Brittany R Silverman, Jiaqi Shi
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancer types with a five-year survival less than 7%. Emerging evidence revealed that many genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer target epigenetic regulators. Some of these mutations are driver mutations in cancer development. Several most important mechanisms of epigenetic regulations include DNA methylation, histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination), chromatin remodeling, and non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs). These modifications can alter chromatin structure and promoter accessibility, and thus lead to aberrant gene expression...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998510/stress-burnout-and-depression-a-systematic-review-on-dna-methylation-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Jelena Bakusic, Wilmar Schaufeli, Stephan Claes, Lode Godderis
Despite that burnout presents a serious burden for modern society, there are no diagnostic criteria. Additional difficulty is the differential diagnosis with depression. Consequently, there is a need to dispose of a burnout biomarker. Epigenetic studies suggest that DNA methylation is a possible mediator linking individual response to stress and psychopathology and could be considered as a potential biomarker of stress-related mental disorders. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of DNA methylation mechanisms in stress, burnout and depression...
January 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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