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Dementia research

Simon Pini, Emma Ingleson, Molly Megson, Linda Clare, Penny Wright, Jan R Oyebode
Background and Objectives: Approximately half the care for people with dementia is provided by families. It is therefore imperative that research informs ways of maintaining such care. In this study, we propose that a needs-led approach can provide a useful, novel means of conceptualizing the impact of caring on the lives of family carers. Our aim was to develop and present a needs-led framework for understanding how providing care impacts on carers' fulfilment of needs. Design and Methods: In this qualitative study, we conducted 42 semistructured interviews with a purposively diverse sample of family carers to generate nuanced contextualized accounts of how caring impacted on carers' lives...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
Joseph E Gaugler, Mark Reese, Mary S Mittelman
Purpose of the Study: A noted limitation of dementia caregiver intervention research is a lack of focus on the mechanisms of successful programs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of the New York University Caregiver Intervention-Adult Child (NYUCI-AC) to describe its delivery and determine which of its components were associated with key outcomes (caregiver stress and well-being; care recipient residential care admission). Design and Methods: Adult child caregivers randomly assigned to receive the NYUCI-AC intervention (n = 54) were included...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
Ngoc Huong Lien Ha, Mei Sian Chong, Robin Wai Munn Choo, Wai Jia Tam, Philip Lin Kiat Yap
BACKGROUND: Although foreign domestic workers (FDWs) play a significant role in caring for frail seniors in Singapore and are vulnerable to caregiving burden, there has been little research conducted hitherto. We explored caregiver burden and its determinants in this study. METHODS: FDWs (N = 221, M age = 32.3, SD = 6.23) recruited from a hospital geriatric unit completed the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) administered in English, Bahasa Melayu, or Burmese. Univariate and multivariate regression were employed to investigate factors influencing caregiving burden in FDWs...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Cyril Pottier, Evadnie Rampersaud, Matt Baker, Gang Wu, Joanne Wuu, Jacob L McCauley, Stephan Zuchner, Rebecca Schule, Christin Bermudez, Sumaira Hussain, Anne Cooley, Marielle Wallace, Jinghui Zhang, J Paul Taylor, Michael Benatar, Rosa Rademakers
Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in optineurin (OPTN) are a rare cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whereas heterozygous loss-of-function mutations have been suggested to increase ALS disease risk. We report a patient with ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) from the Clinical Research in ALS and Related Disorders for Therapeutic Development (CReATe) Consortium carrying compound heterozygous loss-of-function variants in OPTN. Quantitative real-time mRNA expression analyses revealed a 75-80% reduction in OPTN expression in blood in the OPTN carrier as compared to controls, suggesting at least partial nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant transcripts...
March 20, 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
James D Weinstein
Despite decades of research, at present there is no curative therapy for Alzheimer's disease. Changes in the way new drugs are tested appear to be necessary. Three changes are presented here and will be discussed. The first change is that Alzheimer's disease must be considered a disease of four major pathological processes, not one. The four processes are: 1) vascular hypoperfusion of the brain with associated mitochondrial dysfunction, 2) destructive protein inclusions, 3) uncontrolled oxidative stress, and 4) proinflammatory immune processes secondary to microglial and astrocytic dysfunction in the brain...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Andreas Braun, Daksha P Trivedi, Angela Dickinson, Laura Hamilton, Claire Goodman, Heather Gage, Kunle Ashaye, Steve Iliffe, Jill Manthorpe
Background People living with dementia often develop distressing behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) that can affect their quality of life and the capacity of family carers and staff providing support at home. This systematic review of qualitative studies considers the views and experiences of people living with dementia and care providers about these symptoms and what helps to reduce their impact. Methods The two-stage review involved (a) An initial mapping of the literature to understand the range of BPSD, and how it is operationalised by different groups, to develop a search strategy; (b) A search of electronic databases from January 2000 to March 2015, updated in October 2016...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Daksha P Trivedi, Andreas Braun, Angela Dickinson, Heather Gage, Laura Hamilton, Claire Goodman, Kunle Ashaye, Steve Iliffe, Jill Manthorpe
Background Two-thirds of people living with dementia live at home in the UK and many experience distressing behavioural and psychological symptoms. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms among community-dwelling people living with dementia. Methods This two-stage review undertook an initial mapping of the literature followed by a systematic review of relevant randomised controlled trials. We searched electronic databases for pertinent studies reporting outcomes from interventions from January 2000 to March 2015 and updated searches in October 2016...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Dona M P Jayakody, Peter L Friedland, Ralph N Martins, Hamid R Sohrabi
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, is a chronic health condition that affects approximately one-third of the world's population. The peripheral and central hearing alterations associated with age-related hearing loss have a profound impact on perception of verbal and non-verbal auditory stimuli. The high prevalence of hearing loss in the older adults corresponds to the increased frequency of dementia in this population. Therefore, researchers have focused their attention on age-related central effects that occur independent of the peripheral hearing loss as well as central effects of peripheral hearing loss and its association with cognitive decline and dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sven J van der Lee, Frank J Wolters, M Kamran Ikram, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M van Duijn
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is one of the most heritable diseases in elderly people and the most common type of dementia. In addition to the major genetic determinant of Alzheimer's disease, the APOE gene, 23 genetic variants have been associated with the disease. We assessed the effects of these variants and APOE on cumulative risk and age at onset of Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia. METHODS: We studied incident dementia in cognitively healthy participants (aged >45 years) from the community-based Rotterdam Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, focusing on neurological, cardiovascular, endocrine, and ophthalmological disorders, and other diseases in elderly people...
March 16, 2018: Lancet Neurology
Paula August Boyd, Scott E Wilks, Jennifer R Geiger
The purpose of this study was to conduct psychometric reevaluation of the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADL) among a population logistically difficult to observe beyond cross-sectional analysis: nursing home residents with advanced dementia (AD). Data from observation-based measures were collected by nursing home staff at two intervals within a three-month time frame among 43 residents identified with AD via medical records and nursing home staff. Three broad properties of BADL were examined: factor structure, reliability, and validity...
March 15, 2018: Health & Social Work
Katina Swan, Marie Hopper, Rachel Wenke, Claire Jackson, Tracy Till, Erin Conway
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the evidence for direct and indirect interventions for communication in people with moderate-severe dementia. Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted, as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysed guidelines, across 8 electronic databases. Studies were included if they included direct or indirect interventions, which could be administered by a speech-language pathologist to people with moderate-severe dementia (defined as having Mini-Mental State Examination of ≤ 15; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975)...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jun-Jun Yeh, Yu-Feng Wei, Cheng-Li Lin, Wu-Huei Hsu
Background: To evaluate the association of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease syndrome (ACOS) with neurodegenerative diseases (stroke, Parkinson's disease and dementia) and the role of the steroids in the neurodegenerative diseases among the ACOS cohort. Materials and Methods: Comparison of the ACOS cohort ( N = 10,260) with the non-ACOS cohort ( n = 20,513) based on the patients aged ≧40 years in the National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
John R Best, Janice J Eng, Jennifer C Davis, Robin Hsiung, Peter A Hall, Laura E Middleton, Peter Graf, Charles H Goldsmith, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular disease-such as stroke-is the second most common cause of dementia (ie, vascular dementia). Specifically, a stroke increases one's risk for dementia by a factor of two. Thus, stroke survivors represent a target population in need of intervention strategies to promote cognitive function and prevent dementia. The current standard of care in stroke rehabilitation does not adequately address the significant cognitive consequences of stroke, especially for those who are in the chronic phase (ie, >12 months since an index stroke)...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Amrita Aranake-Chrisinger, Jenny Zhao Cheng, Maxwell R Muench, Rose Tang, Angela Mickle, Hannah Maybrier, Nan Lin, Troy Wildes, Eric Lenze, Michael Simon Avidan
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication in elderly patients, characterised by a fluctuating course of altered consciousness, disordered thinking and inattention. Preliminary research has linked POD with persistent cognitive impairment and decreased quality of life. However, these findings maybe confounded by patient comorbidities, postoperative complications and frailty. Our objective is to determine whether POD is an independent risk factor for persistent impairments in attention and executive function after elective surgery...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Raymond Smith, Vari Drennan, Ann Mackenzie, Nan Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Volunteer led befriending and peer support is provided to a wide range of people with varying needs. Despite large numbers of such schemes for carers of people with dementia, there is little evidence for any benefits they may offer. The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of befriending and peer support on carers of people with dementia and to explore their experiences of receiving the interventions using a mixed methods approach. METHODS: Nineteen carers of people with dementia were recruited from befriending and peer support services...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Anat Elmann, Alona Telerman, Rivka Ofir, Yoel Kashman, Orly Lazarov
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in adults. Current available drugs for AD transiently alleviate some of the symptoms, but do not modify the disease mechanism or cure it. Therefore, new drugs are desperately needed. Key contributors to AD are amyloid beta (Aβ)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cytotoxicities. Plant-derived substances have been shown to affect various potential targets in various diseases including AD. Therefore, phytochemicals which can protect neuronal cells against these insults might help in preventing and treating this disease...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Chenhui Mao, Jing Gao, Liri Jin, Bin Peng, Yupu Guo
Neurosyphilis occurs in the late stage of systemic syphilis infection; early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the prognosis. We review 3 autopsy cases with different subtypes of neurosyphilis, that is cases with meningovascular, general paresis, and a combination of the 2, respectively. We investigated the gross morphology and leptomeninges, vessels, cerebral cortex, white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and spinal cord microscopically. We found that meningovascular inflammation exists in both early and late phases of neurosyphilis, not only in the meningovascular subtype...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Ann M Steffen, Dolores Gallagher-Thompson, Katherine M Arenella, Alma Au, Sheung-Tak Cheng, María Crespo, Victoria Cristancho-Lacroix, Javier López, Andrés Losada-Baltar, María Márquez-González, Celia Nogales-González, Rosa Romero-Moreno
Background and Objectives: This article reviews an instrument used in cross-national research with dementia family caregivers-the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy (RSCSE). Although the RSCSE has been translated into multiple languages, few studies have examined scale performance across samples. We examine congruence of psychometric, reliability, and validity data to inform research and practice. Methods: We conducted citation searches using Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PsycINFO...
March 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Julia E Gerson, Kathleen M Farmer, Natalie Henson, Diana L Castillo-Carranza, Mariana Carretero Murillo, Urmi Sengupta, Alan Barrett, Rakez Kayed
BACKGROUND: We have evaluated the efficacy of targeting the toxic, oligomeric form of tau protein by passive immunotherapy in a mouse model of synucleinopathy. Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia are two of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and are primarily characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. However, evidence shows that smaller, oligomeric aggregates are likely the most toxic form of the protein. Moreover, a large body of research suggests that α-synuclein interacts with tau in disease and may act in a synergistic mechanism, implicating tau oligomers as a potential therapeutic target...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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