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Dementia research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748448/adding-a-brief-self-report-cognitive-tool-to-the-ihds-improves-effectiveness-of-identifying-patients-with-hiv-associated-dementia-in-south-africa
#1
Hetta Gouse, Martine Casson-Crook, Eric H Decloedt, John A Joska, Kevin G F Thomas
We compared the diagnostic accuracy of two brief screening tools (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and the IHDS combined with a novel self-report instrument, the HIV Cognitive Symptom Questionnaire (HCSQ)) with that of three brief neuropsychological screening batteries (a 2-, a 3-, and a 4-test battery, each consisting of standardized cognitive tests) in discriminating individuals with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) from those with milder forms of cognitive impairment. We analyzed data from 94 isiXhosa-speaking South African HIV-infected participants who were screened as part of a clinical trial evaluating adjunctive treatment in patients with moderate to severe HIV-associated cognitive impairment...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747225/epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-people-with-dementia-delirium-and-unspecified-cognitive-impairment-in-the-general-hospital-prospective-cohort-study-of-10-014-admissions
#2
Emma L Reynish, Simona M Hapca, Nicosha De Souza, Vera Cvoro, Peter T Donnan, Bruce Guthrie
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment of various kinds is common in older people admitted to hospital, but previous research has usually focused on single conditions in highly-selected groups and has rarely examined associations with outcomes. This study examined prevalence and outcomes of cognitive impairment in a large unselected cohort of people aged 65+ with an emergency medical admission. METHODS: Between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, admissions to a single general hospital acute medical unit aged 65+ underwent a structured specialist nurse assessment (n = 10,014)...
July 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747066/mental-wellbeing-in-people-with-dementia-following-cognitive-stimulation-therapy-innovative-practice
#3
Catherine Allward, Rosie Dunn, Gemma Forshaw, Chris Rewston, Nicola Wass
The benefits of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy in supporting cognitive functioning for people with dementia are well recognised. It has been proposed that Cognitive Stimulation Therapy may offer additional benefits in terms of a person's sense of general wellbeing. A service evaluation of 60 participants attending Cognitive Stimulation Therapy groups was conducted using the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale. Although this evaluation did not demonstrate a significant difference between pre- and post-treatment scores (t = -1...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746708/effectiveness-and-safety-of-dementia-care-management-in-primary-care-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Jochen René Thyrian, Johannes Hertel, Diana Wucherer, Tilly Eichler, Bernhard Michalowsky, Adina Dreier-Wolfgramm, Ina Zwingmann, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan Teipel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
Importance: Dementia care management (DCM) can increase the quality of care for people with dementia. Methodologically rigorous clinical trials on DCM are lacking. Objective: To test the effectiveness and safety of DCM in the treatment and care of people with dementia living at home and caregiver burden (when available). Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic, general practitioner-based, cluster-randomized intervention trial compared the intervention with care as usual at baseline and at 12-month follow-up...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745074/dementia-looming
#5
Lisette Oliemeulen
Background I, the 45-year-old scientist, the PhD, the sublime researcher, now subject to dementia? I felt confused, very ashamed and told no one, until they found out. I suffer from brain atrophy, associated with multiple sclerosis I am suffering from for years. My cognitive impairment is the result of my shrinking brain! Objectives With my personal view 'Dementia Looming!', I hope to contribute to and support healthcare professionals and scientists in understanding the meaning of dementia. Although not scientific, my paper gives a unique behind-the-scenes view into what it means to experience dementia symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744708/topics-of-nuclear-medicine-research-in-europe
#6
REVIEW
Masayuki Inubushi, Tomohiro Kaneta, Takayoshi Ishimori, Etsuko Imabayashi, Atsutaka Okizaki, Naohiko Oku
Last year in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, we introduced some recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan. This was favorably received by European readers in the main. This year we wish to focus on the Annals of Nuclear Medicine on some of the fine nuclear medicine research work executed in Europe recently. In the current review article, we take up five topics: prostate-specific membrane antigen imaging, recent advances in radionuclide therapy, [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (PET) for dementia, quantitative PET assessment of myocardial perfusion, and iodine-124 ((124)I)...
July 25, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743253/a-qualitative-study-of-carers-experiences-of-dementia-caf%C3%A3-s-a-place-to-feel-supported-and-be-yourself
#7
Nan Greenwood, Raymond Smith, Farrukh Akhtar, Angela Richardson
BACKGROUND: Unpaid, informal carers or caregivers play an important role in supporting people living with dementia but the role can be challenging and carers themselves may benefit from support. Alzheimer's, dementia or memory cafés are one such form of support . These cafés are usually provided in the voluntary sector and are a place where people with dementia and those supporting them, usually family carers, can meet with others in similar situations. METHODS: Using semi-structured interviews, this qualitative study explored the experiences of 11 carers from five dementia cafés in and around London, England...
July 25, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742910/clinicopathological-evaluation-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-players-of-american-football
#8
Jesse Mez, Daniel H Daneshvar, Patrick T Kiernan, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Todd M Solomon, Christopher J Nowinski, Lisa McHale, Kerry A Cormier, Caroline A Kubilus, Brett M Martin, Lauren Murphy, Christine M Baugh, Phillip H Montenigro, Christine E Chaisson, Yorghos Tripodis, Neil W Kowall, Jennifer Weuve, Michael D McClean, Robert C Cantu, Lee E Goldstein, Douglas I Katz, Robert A Stern, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee
Importance: Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Objective: To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742742/practical-applications-of-physical-activity-for-successful-cognitive-aging
#9
Kelly Conner, Cameron Young Sweeney, Tayla Brown, Lauren Childs, Samantha Rogers, Tanya Gregory
As patients lose cognitive function, they lose autonomy and increasingly use fiscal, social, and medical resources. Healthcare costs for Americans older than age 65 years are three to five times higher than for the remaining population, and dementia is the third most costly disease in the United States. Interventions that promote successful aging can help patients and reduce the financial, workforce, and treatment resource burdens on the population. Because a relationship between physical activity, particularly aerobic exercise, and cognitive decline has been established, physical activity interventions may prove practical, affordable, and effective...
August 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742105/long-term-risk-of-dementia-after-acute-respiratory-failure-requiring-intensive-care-unit-admission
#10
Chih-Cheng Lai, Chung-Han Ho, Chin-Ming Chen, Shyh-Ren Chiang, Chien-Ming Chao, Wei-Lun Liu, Yu-Chieh Lin, Jhi-Joung Wang, Kuo-Chen Cheng
This retrospective, population-based cohort study aims to investigate the long-term risk of newly diagnosed dementia in patients discharged for acute respiratory failure that required mechanical ventilation (MV) and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, first-time ICU patients using MV between June 1, 1998, and December 31, 2012, were enrolled, and they were followed-up until the earliest onset of one of our two endpoints: a new diagnosis of dementia (primary endpoint), or the end of the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741278/italian-intersociety-consensus-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-delirium-in-hospitalized-older-persons
#11
Giuseppe Bellelli, Alessandro Morandi, Marco Trabucchi, Guido Caironi, Daniele Coen, Carlo Fraticelli, Ciro Paolillo, Carolina Prevaldi, Angela Riccardi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Corrado Carabellese, Salvatore Putignano, Stefania Maggi, Antonio Cherubini, Paola Gnerre, Andrea Fontanella, Nicola Latronico, Concezione Tommasino, Antonio Corcione, Giovanni Ricevuti, Nicola Ferrara, Francesco De Filippi, Alberto Ferrari, Mario Guarino, Maria Pia Ruggieri, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Carlo Locatelli, Patrizia Hrelia, Marco Otto Toscano, Emi Bondi, Antonio Tarasconi, Luca Ansaloni, Francesco Perticone
Delirium is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by inattention and global cognitive dysfunction in the setting of an acute medical illness, medical complication, drug intoxication, or drug withdrawal. The most important risk factors are advanced age and dementia, whereas pain, dehydration, infections, stroke, metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Although delirium is a common clinical syndrome in different settings of care (acute care hospitals, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, and hospices), it often remains under-recognized, poorly understood, and inadequately managed...
July 24, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741078/-analysis-of-2000-surgically-treated-proximal-femoral-fractures-multiple-variables-influence-mortality
#12
Franz Müller, Michael Galler, Tanja Kottmann, Michael Zellner, Christian Bäuml, Bernd Füchtmeier
BACKGROUND: Due to demographic change, more proximal femoral fractures can be expected in the future. However, accurate growth rates as well as follow-up research extending more than 1 year postsurgery are still lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we defined inclusion and exclusion criteria for the retrospective cohort study. Based on these, we collected all surgical interventions conducted between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2015. For a total of 2000 consecutive procedures, we retrieved and analysed a total of 12 variables influencing mortality...
July 24, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740732/low-molecular-weight-ngf-mimetic-corrects-the-cognitive-deficit-and-depression-like-behavior-in-experimental-diabetes
#13
R U Ostrovskaya, S S Yagubova, T A Gudasheva, S B Seredenin
Based on the comorbidity of diabetes, depression, and dementia and recognizing that a deficiency of the nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in all of these kinds of pathologies, we studied the effect of the mimetic of dimeric dipeptide NGF loop 4, GK-2, on a model of streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in C57Bl/6 mice. GK-2 [hexamethylenediamide bis-(N-monosuccinyl-glutamyl-lysine)] was synthesized at the V.V. Zakusov Scientific Research Institute of Pharmacology. The study revealed the ability of GK-2 to ameliorate hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocine (STZ 100 mg/kg i...
April 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738770/effects-of-resveratrol-and-other-polyphenols-on-the-most-common-brain-age-related-diseases
#14
Fiorella Sarubbo, David Moranta, Victor Jose Asensio, Antonio Miralles, Susana Esteban
With the global increase in the elderly population, modern societies must meet the challenge to find strategies to reduce the consequences of aging process; thereby decreasing the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Over the last two decades, oxidative stress and recently inflammation, have been pointed out as the leading causes of brain aging. As a suggested treatment, the consumption or administration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as polyphenols, present in food, is recommended as a beneficial strategy for preventing brain aging and several brain age-related diseases...
July 24, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738379/neurodegeneration-neuroregeneration-and-neuroprotection-in-psychiatric-disorders
#15
Siu W Tang, Daiga M Helmeste, Brian E Leonard
Prevention of deterioration of brain function over time is important in the long-term management of chronic brain disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Although the possibility of neurogenesis in the adult human brain is attractive, and there are psychiatric drugs proven to be effective inducers of neurogenesis in animals, we have yet to see their utility in clinical practice. The terms neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration are often used in a nonspecific manner. Neuroregeneration may mean neurogenesis, dendritogenesis, spinogenesis, or axonogenesis...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738363/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-driving-cessation-a-3-year-longitudinal-study
#16
Michael H Connors, David Ames, Michael Woodward, Henry Brodaty
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Driving cessation is associated with significant morbidity in older people. People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may be at particular risk of this. Very little research has examined driving in this population. Given this, we sought to identify predictors of driving cessation in people with MCI. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-five people with MCI were recruited from 9 memory clinics around Australia. People with MCI and their carers reported their driving status and completed measures of cognition, function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and medication use at regular intervals over a 3-year period...
July 22, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738338/cognitive-impairment-is-reflected-by-an-increased-difference-between-real-and-imagined-timed-up-and-go-test-performance
#17
Stefanie Rüdiger, Tim Stuckenschneider, Tobias Vogt, Vera Abeln, Brian Lawlor, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Stefan Schneider
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests using an imaginary version of the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) for a first assessment of cognitive impairment. By using the time difference between a real (TUGr) and an imagined (TUGi) TUG task, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive impairment on motor imagery ability. METHODS: Fifty-two participants (mean age 69.3 ± 4.0 years) with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive impairment were included in this study...
July 22, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736867/volunteer-peer-support-and-befriending-for-carers-of-people-living-with-dementia-an-exploration-of-volunteers-experiences
#18
Raymond Smith, Vari Drennan, Ann Mackenzie, Nan Greenwood
With ageing populations and greater reliance on the voluntary sector, the number of volunteer-led peer support and befriending services for carers of people with dementia in England is set to increase. However, little is known about the experiences of the volunteers who deliver these interventions, many of whom are former carers. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 10 volunteer peer supporters and befrienders, this exploratory study investigated volunteers' experiences of delivering the support, the types of relationships they form with carers and their perceptions of its impact upon them and on carers...
July 24, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734783/dementia-prevalence-and-incidence-in-a-federation-of-european-electronic-health-record-databases-the-european-medical-informatics-framework-resource
#19
Gayan Perera, Lars Pedersen, David Ansel, Myriam Alexander, H Michael Arrighi, Paul Avillach, Nadia Foskett, Rosa Gini, Mark F Gordon, Usha Gungabissoon, Miguel-Angel Mayer, Gerald Novak, Peter Rijnbeek, Gianluca Trifirò, Johan van der Lei, Pieter J Visser, Robert Stewart
INTRODUCTION: The European Medical Information Framework consortium has assembled electronic health record (EHR) databases for dementia research. We calculated dementia prevalence and incidence in 25 million persons from 2004 to 2012. METHODS: Six EHR databases (three primary care and three secondary care) from five countries were interrogated. Dementia was ascertained by consensus harmonization of clinical/diagnostic codes. Annual period prevalences and incidences by age and gender were calculated and meta-analyzed...
July 20, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734699/an-update-on-the-genetics-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#20
REVIEW
Leonie J M Vergouw, Inger van Steenoven, Wilma D J van de Berg, Charlotte E Teunissen, John C van Swieten, Vincenzo Bonifati, Afina W Lemstra, Frank Jan de Jong
The genetic architecture of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is increasingly taking shape. Initially, genetic research focused mainly on linkage and candidate gene studies in small series of DLB patients. More recently, association and exome sequencing studies in larger groups have been conducted, and have shown that several variants in GBA and the APOE ε4 allele are important genetic risk factors for DLB. However, genetic research in DLB is still in its infancy. So far, many genetic studies have been biased and performed in clinically and pathologically heterogeneous populations...
July 13, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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