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Marco Hagen, Gerrit Schwiertz, Karl B Landorf, Hylton B Menz, George S Murley
The pronators and supinators play a key role in the medio-lateral stability of the ankle joint complex (i.e. talo-crural and subtalar joints). We hypothesized that each shank muscle has a specific activation pattern determined by its anatomical course around the axes of the subtalar and talo-crural joints. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of foot posture on these activation patterns. Forty-nine young adults (25 normal-arched feet, 24 flat-arched feet) performed maximum voluntary isometric contractions against manual resistance in four movement directions: plantarflexion (PF), dorsiflexion (DF), pronation (PRO) and supination (SUP)...
October 6, 2016: Human Movement Science
Christopher M Aguila, Gaëtan J-R Delcroix, David N Kaimrajh, Edward L Milne, H Thomas Temple, Loren L Latta
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the biomechanical properties of nonirradiated (NI) and irradiated (IR) peroneus tendons to determine if they would be suitable allografts, in regards to biomechanical properties, for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction after a dose of 1.5-2.5 Mrad. METHODS: Seven pairs of peroneus longus (PL) and ten pairs of peroneus brevis (PB) tendons were procured from human cadavers. The diameter of each allograft was measured...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Yohei Honkura, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe
The existence of hard tissue pulleys that act to change the direction of a muscle insertion tendon is well known in the human body. These include (1) the trochlea for the extraocular obliquus superior muscle, (2) the pterygoid hamulus for the tensor veli palatini muscle, (3) the deep sulcus on the plantar aspect of the cuboid bone for the peroneus longus tendon, (4) the lesser sciatic notch for the obturator internus muscle, and (5) the bony trochleariformis process for the tensor tympani muscle tendon. In addition, (6) the stapedius muscle tendon shows a lesser or greater angulation at the pyramidal eminence of the temporal bone...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
M Attias, A Bonnefoy-Mazure, G De Coulon, L Cheze, S Armand
Contracture is a permanent shortening of the muscle-tendon-ligament complex that limits joint mobility. Contracture is involved in many diseases (cerebral palsy, stroke, etc.) and can impair walking and other activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of an exoskeleton designed to emulate lower limb muscle contractures unilaterally and bilaterally during walking. An exoskeleton was built according to the following design criteria: adjustable to different morphologies; respect of the principal lines of muscular actions; placement of reflective markers on anatomical landmarks; and the ability to replicate the contractures of eight muscles of the lower limb unilaterally and bilaterally (psoas, rectus femoris, hamstring, hip adductors, gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis posterior, and peroneus)...
September 19, 2016: Gait & Posture
Alan R Needle, Thomas W Kaminski, Jochen Baumeister, Jill S Higginson, William B Farquhar, C Buz Swanik
CONTEXT: Rolling sensations at the ankle are common after injury and represent failure in neural regulation of joint stiffness. However, deficits following ankle injury are variable and strategies for optimizing stiffness may differ across patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if ankle stiffness and muscle activation differ between patients with varying history of ankle injury. PATIENTS: Fifty-nine individuals were stratified into groups of healthy (CON, n=20), functionally unstable (UNS, n=19), and coper (COP, n=20) groups...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Ki-Sik Yang, Kyungyeon Park, Bo-Ram Choi
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of a medio-lateral unstable sole on invertor and evertor activation while descending stairs. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 university students with no history of ankle sprain. They descended stairs while wearing the medio-lateral unstable sole or with bare feet. Electromyography was used to record the activity of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and brevis muscles and paired t-tests were used to assess statistical significance. [Results] The medio-lateral unstable sole group showed increased tibialis anterior and peroneus longus and brevis muscle activation compared to the barefoot group...
August 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Kathryn A Webster, Brian G Pietrosimone, Phillip A Gribble
CONTEXT:  Ankle instability is a common condition in physically active individuals. It often occurs during a jump landing or lateral motion, particularly when participants are fatigued. OBJECTIVE:  To compare muscle activation during a lateral hop prefatigue and postfatigue in individuals with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI). DESIGN:  Cross-sectional study. SETTING:  Sports medicine research laboratory...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Kim T M Opdam, Pim A D van Dijk, Sjoerd A S Stufkens, C Niek van Dijk
We present the case of a 64-year-old female who was referred to us with an unexplained clicking and locking phenomenon of the right ankle. The magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a longitudinal tear of the peroneus brevis tendon. During tendoscopy, not only was a Raikin type B intrasheath tendon subluxation visible, but also a peroneus quartus muscle. The peroneus brevis tear was tubularized and the peroneus quartus muscle resected, which resolved the patient's complaints.
September 10, 2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Conrad Rockel, Alireza Akbari, Dinesh A Kumbhare, Michael D Noseworthy
OBJECT: To assess post-exercise recovery of human calf muscles using dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (dDTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI data (6 directions, b = 0 and 400 s/mm(2)) were acquired every 35 s from seven healthy men using a 3T MRI, prior to (4 volumes) and immediately following exercise (13 volumes, ~7.5 min). Exercise consisted of 5-min in-bore repetitive dorsiflexion-eversion foot motion with 0.78 kg resistance. Diffusion tensors calculated at each time point produced maps of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and signal at b = 0 s/mm(2) (S0)...
September 13, 2016: Magma
Dean L Mayfield, Bradley S Launikonis, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
There are high mechanical demands placed on skeletal muscles in movements requiring rapid acceleration of the body or its limbs. Tendons are responsible for transmitting muscle forces, but, due to their elasticity, can manipulate the mechanics of the internal contractile apparatus. Shortening of the contractile apparatus against the stretch of tendon affects force generation according to known mechanical properties, however, the extent to which differences in tendon compliance alter force development in response to a burst of electrical impulses is unclear...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Giuseppe Restuccia, Alessandro Lippi, Francesco Casella, Gisberto Evangelisti, Carmine Citarelli, Maurizio Benifei
The peroneal tubercle is an osseous prominence present on the calcaneus bone at the junction between the middle and the anterior third of its lateral surface. It is a bony septum which divides the tendons of the peroneus brevis and the peroneus longus and offers insertion to the inferior peroneal retinaculum. A hypertrophy of this prominence causes pain in the lateral and the posterior part of the foot while wearing shoes, rarely peroneal tenosynovitis can even cause it to break. In the following pages, we will describe a case of peroneal tubercle hypertrophy, visible even at clinical examination, in a 26-year-old male patient without apparent causes nor previous trauma...
September 10, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Troy J Boffeli, Steven R Smith, Kyle W Abben
Nonhealing wounds along the fifth metatarsal associated with neuropathy and bone deformity frequently become complicated with osteomyelitis. Our surgical technique for complete fifth ray amputation with peroneal tendon transfer has been previously published. The present study evaluated the outcomes regarding success with initial healing and intermediate-term limb survival after this procedure, which is intended to resolve infection, remove bone deformity, heal and prevent recurrence of lateral column wounds, and maintain functional stability of the foot...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Kenji Hayashida, Hiroto Saijo, Masaki Fujioka
We describe the use of a composite flap composed of a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and a vascularized peroneus longus tendon for the reconstruction of severe composite forearm tissue defects in a patient. A 43-year-old man had his left arm caught in a conveyor belt resulting in a large soft-tissue defect of 18 × 11 cm over the dorsum forearm. The extensor carpi radialis, superficial radial nerve, and radial artery were severely damaged. A free neurofasciocutaneous composite flap measuring 16 × 11 cm was outlined on the patient's left lower leg to allow simultaneous skin, tendon, nerve, and artery reconstruction...
September 4, 2016: Microsurgery
Oliver Ludwig, Jens Kelm, Michael Fröhlich
BACKGROUND: Peroneus longus acts as a foot evertor and pronator, thus ensuring stability of the talocrural joint by curbing inversion movement of the rearfoot. Increased activation of the peroneus longus muscle in the stance phase could have a stabilising effect on the ankle joint. This study aimed to determine whether the activity of the peroneus longus muscle could be increased by the targeted use of a specially formed lateral pressure element in a customised orthopaedic insole. METHODS: This was a laboratory-based study that utilised a randomised crossover design...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Mitchel R Stacy, Christopher M Caracciolo, Maolin Qiu, Prasanta Pal, Tyler Varga, Robert Todd Constable, Albert J Sinusas
Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging permits noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. We hypothesized that BOLD imaging would allow for regional evaluation of differences in skeletal muscle oxygenation between athletes and sedentary control subjects, and dynamic BOLD responses to ischemia (i.e., proximal cuff occlusion) and reactive hyperemia (i.e., rapid cuff deflation) would relate to lower extremity function, as assessed by jumping ability. College football athletes (linemen, defensive backs/wide receivers) were compared to sedentary healthy controls...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
Manuel J Pellegrini, Richard R Glisson, Takumi Matsumoto, Adam Schiff, Lior Laver, Mark E Easley, James A Nunley
BACKGROUND: Irreparable peroneus brevis tendon tears are uncommon, and there is scant evidence on which to base operative treatment. Options include tendon transfer, segmental resection with tenodesis to the peroneus longus tendon, and allograft reconstruction. However, the relative effectiveness of the latter 2 procedures in restoring peroneus brevis function has not been established. METHODS: Custom-made strain gage-based tension transducers were implanted into the peroneus longus and brevis tendons near their distal insertions in 10 fresh-frozen cadaver feet...
August 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Francisco Abaete Chagas-Neto, Barbara Nogueira Caracas de Souza, Marcello Henrique Nogueira-Barbosa
Os peroneum is an accessory ossicle located within the peroneus longus tendon. The painful os peroneum syndrome (POPS) results from a wide spectrum of conditions, including fractures, diastases, and other causes. POPS can result in tenosynovitis or discontinuity of the peroneus longus tendon with a clinical presentation of pain in the lateral aspect of the midfoot. Authors report a typical case of POPS, illustrating this entity through different imaging methods (radiographs, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)...
2016: Case Reports in Radiology
Peter Kevin Thain, Gerwyn Trefor Gareth Hughes, Andrew Charles Stephen Mitchell
The use of a tilt platform to simulate a lateral ankle sprain and record muscle reaction time is a well-established procedure. However, a potential caveat is that repetitive ankle perturbation may cause a natural attenuation of the reflex latency and amplitude. This is an important area to investigate as many researchers examine the effect of an intervention on muscle reaction time. Muscle reaction time, peak and average amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain (combined inversion and plantar flexion movement) were calculated in twenty-two physically active participants...
October 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Lara Allet, Franziska Zumstein, Patric Eichelberger, Stéphane Armand, Ilona M Punt
BACKGROUND: Optimal neuromuscular control mechanisms are essential for preparing, maintaining, and restoring functional joint stability during jump landing and to prevent ankle injuries. In sub-acute ankle sprain patients, neither muscle activity nor kinematics during jump landing has previously been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To compare neuromuscular control mechanisms and kinematics between sub-acute ankle sprain patients and healthy persons before and during the initial contact phase of a 25-cm single-leg jump...
July 25, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Lars Donath, Eduard Kurz, Ralf Roth, Lukas Zahner, Oliver Faude
Ageing impairs body balance and increases older adults' fall risk. Balance training can improve intrinsic fall risk factors. However, age comparisons of muscle activity responses during balance tasks are lacking. This study investigated relative muscle activity, muscle coordination and postural sway during various recommended static balance training tasks. Muscle activity (%MVC), amplitude ratios (AR) and co-activity (CAI) were determined during standing tasks for 30s (1: double limb stance on a foam surface, eyes open; 2: double limb stance on firm ground, eyes closed; 3: double limb stance, feet in step position on a foam surface, eyes open; 4: double limb stance, feet in step position on firm ground, eyes closed; 5: single limb stance on firm ground, eyes open) in 20 healthy young adults (24±2 y) and 20 older adults (73±6 y)...
September 2016: Maturitas
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