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Hendrik Berth, Philipp Matthias Rohleder
INTRODUCTION: The emergency service is a challenging field of activity. The Effort-Reward Imbalance model explains on the basis of the ratio between reward/effort the appearance of occupational stress. For the first time, this study examines the extent of Effort-Reward Imbalance in rescue services in Germany. METHODS: Full-time emergency service employees of a German Red Cross District Association were consulted. N=82 employees (78.8%) participated (M age=37.78 years, 73...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Dagmar Beyrau, Helmut Schaaf, Gerhard Hesse
The diagnosis and treatment of tinnitus requires professional competence in neuro-otology and also an appropriate and comprehensible clarification for the individual patient.According to the Tinnitus-Guidelines of 2015 the counselling by the physician in charge is essential regarding the individual aetiopathogenesis, as well as the patient's individual coping mechanism with tinnitus, the prognosis, exacerbating factors and also as to the damaging impact on the ear.Therefore the therapeutic aim is to depathologize the symptom tinnitus and to provide an explanation and a context in the contemporary approved and scientific conception...
July 19, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Yvan Hutin, Muazzam Nasrullah, Philippa Easterbrook, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Esteban Burrone, Francisco Averhoff, Marc Bulterys
Worldwide, an estimated 257 million persons are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (1). To achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) goals for elimination of HBV infection worldwide by 2030, defined by WHO as 90% reduction in incidence and 65% reduction in mortality, access to treatment will be crucial. WHO estimated the care cascade* for HBV infection, globally and by WHO Region. The patent and licensing status of entecavir and tenofovir, two WHO-recommended medicines for HBV treatment, were examined using the Medicines Patent Pool MedsPaL† database...
July 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Sangkyu Kim, S Michal Jazwinski
The gut microbiota shows a wide inter-individual variation, but its within-individual variation is relatively stable over time. A functional core microbiome, provided by abundant bacterial taxa, seems to be common to various human hosts regardless of their gender, geographic location, and age. With advancing chronological age, the gut microbiota becomes more diverse and variable. However, when measures of biological age are used with adjustment for chronological age, overall richness decreases, while a certain group of bacteria associated with frailty increases...
July 19, 2018: Gerontology
Rasha Khatib, Yurany A Arevalo, Mark A Berendsen, Shyam Prabhakaran, Mark D Huffman
AIMS: We performed a systematic review to evaluate stroke presentation, evaluation, management, and outcomes among studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Elsevier), and the Global Health (EBSCOhost) databases between January 2005 and June 2017 for studies conducted in LMICs defined by the World Bank. We pooled prevalence estimates using an inverse-variance weighting method and stratified by the country income group...
July 19, 2018: Neuroepidemiology
Na-Ra Han, Phil-Dong Moon, Min-Sun Yoo, Ka-Jung Ryu, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
The aim of this study is to determine whether AST2017-01 which consists of Rumex crispus and Cordyceps militaris would improve atopic dermatitis (AD). We analyzed anti-AD effects of AST2017-01 and chrysophanol, a bioactive compound of AST2017-01, using a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD murine model. AST2017-01 and chrysophanol relieved clinical severity in AD-like skin lesions and significantly decreased scratching behavior. The thickness of epidermis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in AD-like skin lesions were reduced by AST2017-01 or chrysophanol...
July 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Elizabeth Sweet
The need to more explicitly incorporate political economy and neoliberalism into research on social inequalities in health has been acknowledged across disciplines. This paper explores neoliberalism as it relates to consumer financial debt and internalized feelings of personal responsibility and failure for adults in Boston, Massachusetts. Using data from a mixed-methods study (n = 286), findings show that endorsing a neoliberalized view of personal debt as failure is associated with significantly worse health across a range of measures, including blood pressure, adiposity, self-reported physical and emotional symptoms, depression, anxiety, and perceived stress, even when controlling for several socio-demographic confounders...
July 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Ines Weinhold, Sebastian Gurtner
In light of the rising regional inequalities in primary care provider supply, to ensure equitable access is a pressing issue in health policy. Most policy approaches fall short in considering the patient perspective when defining shortage areas. As a consequence, implementations of new service delivery models might fail to be responsive to patients' expectations. To explore regional differences in the relative importance of structure and process attributes as drivers of patient satisfaction with local primary care, we collected data from residents of three objectively well-supplied urban and six objectively worse-supplied rural areas in Germany and tested a multi-group structural equation model...
June 21, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Margarita Jiménez-Tototzintle, Izabel Jales Ferreira, Sheila da Silva Duque, Paulo Rubens Guimarães Barrocas, Enrico Mendes Saggioro
The dispersion of pollutants and proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment are an emerging health concern worldwide. In this sense, it is essential to develop new technologies to increase the quality of wastewater treatment, which is spread throughout the environment. The present study has demonstrated evidence of the existence of antibiotic and mercury-resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment. The application of heterogeneous photocatalysis with UVA/TiO2 P25 slurry (200 mg L-1 ), UVA/TiO2 -immobilized, and UVA/TiO2 -immobilized/H2 O2 were evaluated for the simultaneous elimination of a mixture of contaminants of emerging concern (acetamiprid (ACP), imazalil (IMZ) and bisphenol A (BPA)) and inactivation of antibiotic and mercury-resistant bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis)...
July 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Sara Leitão, Vera J C Mc Carthy, Birgit A Greiner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Health and Safety Practitioners (HSPs), as frontline professionals advocating for health and safety (HS) working conditions, have crucial roles for the wellbeing of employees. However, research studying HSPs psychosocial working conditions - i.e. job demands, control and support (JDCS) -, safety climate (SC) and their impact on HSPs health and wellbeing is scarce. This novel study aims to examine the link of JDCS and SC with HSPs' health, wellbeing and efficacy. METHODS: A web-survey was completed by 879 HSPs, members of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) in Ireland and the UK...
July 16, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
L F Estrella, V B Ferreira, C Gallistl, M G R Alves, W Vetter, O Malm, F D B Abadio Finco, J P M Torres
Natural compounds from the metabolism of marine organisms have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples which are not the producers of these compounds. These natural substances are known as halogenated natural products (HNPs). HNPs are possibly toxic halogenated compounds analogous to POPs that may bioaccumulate and biomagnify along the food web and pose a further risk to human and environmental health. The present study analyzed the occurrence of HNPs in the edible muscle of the three most consumed commercial fish species in the state of Rio de Janeiro: sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis), whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and mullet (Mugil liza) from the highly polluted Guanabara Bay (GB) and the less polluted Ilha Grande Bay (IGB)...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Keyong Huang, Qingyang Xiao, Xia Meng, Guannan Geng, Yujie Wang, Alexei Lyapustin, Dongfeng Gu, Yang Liu
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) remains a worldwide public health issue. However, epidemiological studies on the chronic health impacts of PM2.5 in the developing countries are hindered by the lack of monitoring data. Despite the recent development of using satellite remote sensing to predict ground-level PM2.5 concentrations in China, methods for generating reliable historical PM2.5 exposure, especially prior to the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network in 2013, are still very rare. In this study, a high-performance machine-learning model was developed directly at monthly level to estimate PM2...
July 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dominique Belpomme, Lennart Hardell, Igor Belyaev, Ernesto Burgio, David O Carpenter
Exposure to low frequency and radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at low intensities poses a significant health hazard that has not been adequately addressed by national and international organizations such as the World Health Organization. There is strong evidence that excessive exposure to mobile phone-frequencies over long periods of time increases the risk of brain cancer both in humans and animals. The mechanism(s) responsible include induction of reactive oxygen species, gene expression alteration and DNA damage through both epigenetic and genetic processes...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Erik Hanson-Viana, Mónica González-Rodríguez, Diego García-Vivanco, Mariel González-Calatayud
INTRODUCTION: Popliteal injuries are significant health risk that could induce permanent functional impairment, limb loss, and in some cases death. Currently, there is a controversy about the required treatment between amputation and a limb salvage surgery, which in some cases could cause more prominent functional impairment than the amputation. Different indicators help to predict, in some extent, the risk of amputation, however most of them were described two decades ago. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A patient with a prolonged hot ischemia and in critical conditions, which had no favorable clinical indicators for revascularization is shown and discussed...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jaedon P Avey, Lisa G Dirks, Denise A Dillard, Spero M Manson, Melissa Merrick, Julia J Smith, Guilford C Prickette, Sonda Tetpon, Donna Galbreath, Brianna Triplett, Renee F Robinson
BACKGROUND: Depression remains the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Symptoms of depression are expressed and experienced differently across cultural groups, impacting treatment decisions. Patient preferences predict service utilization, treatment selection and persistence, as well as health outcomes for medical and behavioral health conditions, including depression. We identified depression management preferences of Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people who receive care within a comprehensive, integrated, tribally owned and operated healthcare facility in Anchorage, Alaska...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Daisuke Nishi, Ryoko Susukida, Kentaro Usuda, Ramin Mojtabai, Yoshio Yamanouchi
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding trends of psychological distress and use of mental health services in Japan during recent years. METHODS: This study examined trends in severe and moderate psychological distress and the use of mental health services among adults (≥18 years old), using the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in Japan from 2007, 2010, 2013, and 2016 (Total N = 2,159,005, all survey years combined). We defined a score of ≥13 on Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) as severe distress and a K6 score between 5 and 12 as moderate distress...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Claudia Leite de Moraes, Paula Florence Sampaio, Michael Eduardo Reichenheim, Gloria Valéria da Veiga
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for mental health problems. Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) are known risk factors for some of them, it is not clear if the negative consequences on mental health also occur in families where CAN and a warm parent-child relationship coexist. The aim of this study is to explore this gap and investigate the effects of different types of CAN according to levels of warmth in the parent-child relationship on common mental disorders (CMD) in adolescence. This is a cross-sectional study encompassing 487 adolescents attending the ninth grade at 2 public and 4 private schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Aya Isumi, Takeo Fujiwara, Nobutoshi Nawa, Manami Ochi, Tsuguhiko Kato
Child poverty is well known as a major risk factor for child maltreatment. However, it is not known whether parental psychological distress and individual-level social capital mediate the association. We examined the mediation effect of these two factors on the association between child poverty and maltreatment. In the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) Study, a questionnaire was administered to all caregivers of first-grade children in every public elementary school in Adachi City between July and November 2015, and valid responses were used for analysis (N = 3944)...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Susann Regber, Jovanna Dahlgren, Staffan Janson
OBJECTIVE: To explore key person's perspectives of foster home placement or notification of risk of harm to Social Services of children with severe obesity. METHODS: This case study research was performed in the southwest of Sweden and based on interviews with nine informants: a foster home youth, two foster parents, a social worker, two hospital social workers, a pediatric physician, a pediatric nurse, and a psychologist. Content analysis was used for narrative evaluations, within- and cross case analyses and displays...
July 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Dennis Chan, Meredith Shafto, Rogier Kievit, Fiona Matthews, Molly Spink, Michael Valenzuela, Rik N Henson
This study tested the hypothesis that mid-life intellectual, physical, and social activities contribute to cognitive reserve (CR). Two hundred five individuals (196 with magnetic resonance imaging) aged 66-88 years from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience ( were studied, with cognitive ability and structural brain health measured as fluid IQ and total gray matter volume, respectively. Mid-life activities (MAs) were measured using the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression found that MAs made a unique contribution to late-life cognitive ability independent of education, occupation, and late-life activities...
July 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
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