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strength physiology

Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Steven Morrison, Karl M Newell
This study was designed to examine the effect of increasing age and type 2 diabetes on the average responses and inter- and intraindividual variability of falls risk, reaction time, strength, and walking speed for healthy older adults and older persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Seventy-five older individuals (controls) and 75 persons with T2DM aged between 50 and 79 years participated in the study. Assessments of falls risk, reaction time (RT), knee extension strength, and walking speed were conducted. The results revealed that advancing age for both control and T2DM groups was reflected by a progressive increase in falls risk, decreased leg strength and a decline (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Ifigeneia Kalampouka, Angel van Bekhoven, Bradley T Elliott
Ageing is associated with a general reduction of physiological function and a reduction of muscle mass and strength. Endocrine factors such as myostatin, activin A, growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF-11) and their inhibitory peptides influence muscle mass in health and disease. We hypothesised that myocytes cultured in plasma from older and younger individuals would show an ageing effect, with reduced proliferation and differentiation in older environments. C2C12 myoblasts were grown as standard and stimulated with media conditioned with 5% plasma from healthy male participants that were either younger ( n = 6, 18-35 years of age) or older ( n = 6, >57 years of age)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jaelson G Ortiz, Juliano F da Silva, Lorival J Carminatti, Luiz G A Guglielmo, Fernando Diefenthaeler
This study aims to analyze the physiological, neuromuscular, and biochemical responses in untrained women after eight weeks of regular participation in small-sided soccer games compared to aerobic training. Twenty-seven healthy untrained women were divided into two groups [soccer group (SG = 17) and running group (RG = 10)]. Both groups trained three times per week for eight weeks. The variables measured in this study were maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), relative velocity at VO2 max (vVO2 max), peak velocity, relative intensity at lactate threshold (vLT), relative intensity at onset of blood lactate accumulation (vOBLA), peak force, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and cholesterol ratio (LDL/HDL)...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Adejoke N Kolawole, Valentine T Akinladejo, Olusola O Elekofehinti, Afolabi C Akinmoladun, Ayodele O Kolawole
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a diverse family of enzymes that catalyze the NAD(P)+ -dependent detoxification of toxic aldehyde compounds. ALDHs are also involved in non-enzymatic ligand binding to endobiotics and xenobiotics. Here, the enzyme crucial non-canonical and non-catalytic interaction with kolaflavanone, a component of kolaviron, and a major bioflavonoid isolated from Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) was characterized by various spectroscopic and in silico approaches under stimulated physiological condition...
February 27, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
J F Tornero-Aguilera, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Previous studies have shown that actuate stress have a negative effect on working memory, visio-spatial ability and symptoms of disassociation. We conducted the present research with the aim of to analyse the effect of experience and training in psychophysiological response, attention and memory of soldiers in combat. Variables of blood lactate, blood glucose, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature, heart rate, lower body muscular strength manifestation, autonomic modulation, cortical arousal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, and memory by a post mission questionnaire were analysed before and after a combat simulation in 49 soldiers of Spanish Army...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Orestis G Andriotis, Sylvia Desissaire, Philipp J Thurner
Tissue hydration is well known to influence tissue mechanics and can be tuned via osmotic pressure. Collagen fibrils are nature's nanoscale building blocks to achieve biomechanical function in a broad range of biological tissues and across many species. Intrafibrillar covalent cross-links have long been thought to play pivotal role for collagen fibril elasticity, but predominantly at large, far from physiological, strains. Performing nanotensile experiments of collagen fibrils at varying hydration levels by adjusting osmotic pressure in situ during atomic force microscopy experiments, we show the power the intrafibrillar non-covalent interactions have for defining collagen fibril tensile elasticity at low fibril strains...
March 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Hitomi Mukaibo, Tonghui Wang, Victor H Perez-Gonzalez, Jirachai Getpreecharsawas, Jack T Wurzer, Blanca Lapizco-Encinas, James L McGrath
Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a simple, scalable mechanism that can be used for directly manipulating particle trajectories in pore-based filtration and separation processes. However, iDEP manipulation of nanoparticles presents unique challenges as the dielectrophoretic force (<b><i>F</i></b><sub>DEP</sub>) exerted on the nanoparticles can easily be overshadowed by opposing kinetic forces. In this study, a molecularly thin, SiN-based nanoporous membrane (NPN) is explored as a breakthrough technology that enhances <b><i>F</i></b><sub>DEP</sub>...
March 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
Elena Makovac, Jonathan Smallwood, David R Watson, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley, Cristina Ottaviani
Background: The Cognitive Avoidance Theory of Worry argues that worry is a cognitive strategy adopted to control the physiological arousal associated with anxiety. According to this theory, pathological worry, as in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is verbal in nature, negative and abstract, rather than concrete. Neuroimaging studies link the expression of worry to characteristic modes of brain functional connectivity, especially in relation to the amygdala. However, the distinctive features of worry (verbal, abstract, negative), and their relationship to physiological arousal, have not so far been mapped to brain function...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nigel Harris, Andrew Kilding, Shivani Sethi, Fabrice Merien, Jinger Gottschall
OBJECTIVES: Given apparent consumer interest in calorie counting and arguably inadequate understanding of the differential effects of exercise modality despite equivalent caloric expenditure, we sought to quantify and compare the acute physiological responses within and between a BODYPUMP™ (BP) group-fitness class and steady-state cycling (CARDIO), matched for caloric cost (iso-caloric) and time (iso-time). DESIGN: Acute cross-over study design. METHODS: Twelve healthy recreationally active females (30...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Chinchin Wang, Christopher Q Lan
Cultivation of microalgae requires consideration of shear stress, which is generated by operations such as mixing, circulation, aeration and pumping that are designed to facilitate mass and heat transfer as well as light distribution in cultures. Excessive shear stress can cause increased cell mortality, decreased growth rate and cell viability, or even cell lysis. This review examines the sources of shear stress in different cultivation systems, shear stress tolerance of different microalgal species and the physiological factors and environmental conditions that may affect shear sensitivity, and potential approaches to mitigate the detrimental effects of shear stress...
March 7, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Valentina Prando, Francesca Da Broi, Mauro Franzoso, Anna Pia Plazzo, Nicola Pianca, Maura Francolini, Cristina Basso, Matthew W Kay, Tania Zaglia, Marco Mongillo
AIM: Cardiac sympathetic neurons (SNs) finely tune the rate and strength of heart contractions to match the blood demand, both at rest and during acute stresses, through the release of norepinephrine (NE). Junctional sites at the interface between the two cell types have been observed, but whether direct neuro-cardiac coupling has a role in heart physiology has not thus far been clearly demonstrated. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the dynamics of SN/cardiomyocyte intercellular signalling, both by FRET-based imaging of cAMP in co-cultures, as a readout of cardiac β-AR activation, and in vivo, using optogenetics in transgenic mice with SN-specific expression of Channelrhodopsin-2...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Antoine Vigouroux, Enno Oldewurtel, Lun Cui, David Bikard, Sven van Teeffelen
Over the past few years, tools that make use of the Cas9 nuclease have led to many breakthroughs, including in the control of gene expression. The catalytically dead variant of Cas9 known as dCas9 can be guided by small RNAs to block transcription of target genes, in a strategy also known as CRISPRi. Here, we reveal that the level of complementarity between the guide RNA and the target controls the rate at which RNA polymerase "kicks out" dCas9 from the target and completes transcription. We use this mechanism to precisely and robustly reduce gene expression by defined relative amounts...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
S E Turecamo, T A Walji, T J Broekelmann, J W Williams, S Ivanov, N K Wee, J D Procknow, M R McManus, G J Randolph, E L Scheller, R P Mecham, C S Craft
Microfibril-associated glycoprotein-1 (MAGP1) is an extracellular matrix protein that interacts with fibrillin and is involved in regulating the bioavailability of signaling molecules such as TGFβ. Mice with germline MAGP1 deficiency (Mfap2-/- ) develop increased adiposity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, bone marrow adipose tissue expansion, reduced cancellous bone mass, cortical bone thinning and bone fragility. The goal of this study was to assess whether the Mfap2-/- bone phenotypes were due to loss of MAGP1 locally or secondary to a change in whole body physiology (metabolic dysfunction)...
March 5, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Danny Jazmati, Ute Neubacher, Klaus Funke
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to modify cortical excitability. Rat rTMS studies revealed a modulation of inhibitory systems, in particular that of the parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons, when using intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). OBJECTIVE: The potential disinhibitory action of iTBS raises the questions of how neocortical circuits stabilize excitatory-inhibitory balance within a physiological range. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) appears to be one candidate...
February 24, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Rhian Collings, Briony Hill, Helen Skouteris
Background During the first postpartum year 20% of women retain excessive weight from pregnancy (postpartum weight retention; PPWR), which predicts long-term overweight/obesity. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychological factors (depression, anxiety and stress symptoms and body attitudes) in late gestation and at 12-months postpartum with PPWR one-year post-birth. Methods Pregnant women (N = 176) completed questionnaires in early-mid pregnancy (Time 1; mean (SD) = 16...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Xiaokang Shu, Shugeng Chen, Lin Yao, Xinjun Sheng, Dingguo Zhang, Ning Jiang, Jie Jia, Xiangyang Zhu
Motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has been developed as an alternative therapy for stroke rehabilitation. However, experimental evidence demonstrates that a significant portion (10-50%) of subjects are BCI-inefficient users (accuracy less than 70%). Thus, predicting BCI performance prior to clinical BCI usage would facilitate the selection of suitable end-users and improve the efficiency of stroke rehabilitation. In the current study, we proposed two physiological variables, i.e., laterality index (LI) and cortical activation strength (CAS), to predict MI-BCI performance...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Umesh Srinivasan, Paul R Elsen, Morgan W Tingley, David S Wilcove
Longstanding theory predicts that competitive interactions set species' range limits in relatively aseasonal, species-rich regions, while temperature limits distributions in more seasonal, species-poor areas. More recent theory holds that species evolve narrow physiological tolerances in aseasonal regions, with temperature being an important determining factor in such zones. We tested how abiotic (temperature) and biotic (competition) factors set range limits and structure bird communities along strong, opposing, temperature-seasonality and species-richness gradients in the Himalayas, in two regions separated by 1500 km...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles, Glennon M Floyd, Elizabeth S Cahn, Veronica L Chaitan, Marisel Ponton
BACKGROUND: The US has seen an increase in the popularity of highly concentrated forms of cannabis (hereafter concentrates) and too little is known about the potential risks associated with their use. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to better understand the patterns and outcomes of concentrates use through the perspectives of young adult users. METHODS: Participants (N = 234, 27.9% female) aged 18-35 years were recruited using SurveyMonkey Audience® and had ingested concentrates at least once in the past 6 months...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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