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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344967/predictive-neuromechanical-simulations-indicate-why-walking-performance-declines-with-aging
#1
Seungmoon Song, Hartmut Geyer
Healthy elderly people walk slower and energetically less efficiently than young adults. This decline in walking performance lowers the quality of life for a growing aging population, and understanding its physiological origin is critical for devising interventions that can delay or revert it. However, the origin of the decline in walking performance remains unknown, as aging produces a range of physiological changes whose individual effects on gait are difficult to separate in experiments with human subjects...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342932/interstitial-glucose-and-physical-exercise-in-type-1-diabetes-integrative-physiology-technology-and-the-gap-in-between
#2
REVIEW
Othmar Moser, Jane E Yardley, Richard M Bracken
Continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems measure interstitial fluid glucose concentrations within a body compartment that is dramatically altered by posture and is responsive to the physiological and metabolic changes that enable exercise performance in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Body fluid redistribution within the interstitial compartment, alterations in interstitial fluid volume, changes in rate and direction of fluid flow between the vasculature, interstitium and lymphatics, as well as alterations in the rate of glucose production and uptake by exercising tissues, make for caution when interpreting device read-outs in a rapidly changing internal environment during acute exercise...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341828/biosensors-for-spatiotemporal-detection-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-cells-and-tissues
#3
Marie Erard, Sophie Dupre-Crochet, Oliver Nusse
Redox biology has become a major issue in numerous areas of physiology. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a broad range of roles from signal transduction to growth control and cell death. To understand the nature of these roles, accurate measurement of the reactive compounds is required. An increasing number of tools for ROS detection is available; however, specificity and sensitivity of these tools are often insufficient. Furthermore, their specificity has been rarely evaluated in complex physiological conditions...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338209/injectable-self-healing-zwitterionic-hydrogels-based-on-dynamic-benzoxaborole-sugar-interactions-with-tunable-mechanical-properties
#4
Yangjun Chen, Wenda Wang, Di Wu, Masanori Nagao, Dennis G Hall, Thomas Thundat, Ravin Narain
Dynamic hydrogels based on arylboronic esters have been considered as ideal platforms for biomedical applications given their self-healing and injectable characteristics. However, there still exist some critical issues that need to be addressed or improved, including hydrogel biocompatibility, physiological usability, and tunability of mechanical properties. Here, two kinds of phospholipid bioinspired MPC copolymers, one is zwitterionic copolymer (PMB) containing a fixed 15 mol% of benzoxaborole (pKa ≈ 7...
January 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337857/low-molecular-weight-chitosan-insulin-complexes-solubilized-in-a-mixture-of-self-assembled-labrosol-and-plurol-oleaque-and-their-glucose-reduction-activity-in-rats
#5
Amani M Elsayed, Aseel H Khaled, Mayyas M Al Remawi, Nidal A Qinna, Hussam Abu Farsakh, Adnan A Badwan
Oral insulin delivery that better mimics physiological pathways is a necessity as it ensures patient comfort and compliance. A system which is based on a vehicle of nano order where positively charged chitosan interacts with negatively charged insulin and forms a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) solubilizate, which is then solubilized into an oily phase of oleic acid, labrasol, and plurol oleaque-protects insulin against enzymatic gastrointestinal reduction. The use of an anionic fatty acid in the oily phase, such as oleic acid, is thought to allow an interaction with cationic chitosan, hence reducing particle size...
January 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337289/antioxidant-activity-of-hydrated-carboxylated-nanodiamonds-and-its-influence-on-water-%C3%AE-radiolysis
#6
Karla Santacruz-Gomez, Andrei Sarabia-Sainz, Monica Acosta-Elias, Manuel Sarabia-Sainz, Woraphong Janetanakit, Nathan Khosla, Rodrigo Melendrez, Martin Pedroza-Montero, Ratnesh Lal
Water radiolysis involves the chemical decomposition of the water molecule into free radicals after the exposure with ionizing radiation. These free radicals have deleterious effects on normal cell physiology. Carboxylated nanodiamonds (cNDs) appear to modulate the deleterious effects of γ-irradiation on red blood cells (RBCs) pathophysiology. In the present work, the antioxidant activity of hydrated-cNDs (h-cNDs) on limiting the oxidative damage (water radiolysis effect) by γ-irradiation was confirmed. Our results show that h-cNDs has remarkable free radicals scavenging ability and preserves the catalase enzymatic activity after γ-irradiation...
January 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334283/effects-of-an-exercise-program-on-the-physiological-biological-and-psychological-profiles-in-patients-with-mood-disorders-a-pilot-study
#7
Mario Leone, Daniel Lalande, Linda Thériault, Émilia Kalinova, Audrey Fortin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the impact of an 8-week physical training program on physiological, biological and psychological profiles in individual with mood disorders. METHODS: Seven patients participated in the study. Patients were trained twice weekly (75 min/session) for 8 weeks. The training program aimed to improve muscular and cardiorespiratory reserves as well as functional capacity. Bioassays were also measured (lipid profile, blood glucose and cortisol)...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331095/household-food-insecurity-and-its-association-with-morbidity-report-among-school-adolescent-in-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#8
Dessalegn Tamiru, Tefera Belachew
Background Household food insecurity has a substantial contribution to poor health outcomes among young children and adolescents. Food insecurity also affects optimal cognitive development and physiological function of these vulnerable groups. There is a gap of documented data regarding the association of food insecurity and morbidity among school adolescents in Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the interrelationship of household food insecurity and morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330692/a-new-method-for-the-in-vitro-determination-of-the-bile-tolerance-of-potentially-probiotic-lactobacilli
#9
Peng-Li Hu, Ya-Hong Yuan, Tian-Li Yue, Chun-Feng Guo
A new in vitro method was developed to determine the bile tolerance of potentially probiotic lactobacilli. The overnight culture of various lactobacilli strains was inoculated into sterile, half-strength MRS broth supplemented with and without 0.3% (wt/vol) oxgall, buffered with 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer at a final pH of 7.3, and incubated at 37 °C for 12 h under anaerobic conditions. The bile tolerance ability of the lactobacilli strains was expressed as the percentage of the propagation generations of the bacterial cells in the presence of oxgall to those in the absence of oxgall...
January 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329515/engaging-clinicians-and-patients-to-assess-and-improve-frailty-measurement-in-adults-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#10
Sarah Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Jonathan Konel, Fatima Warsame, Hao Ying, Brian Buta, Christine Haugen, Elizabeth King, Sandra DiBrito, Ravi Varadhan, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Jeremy D Walston, Dorry L Segev, Mara A McAdams-DeMarco
BACKGROUND: The Fried frailty phenotype, a measure of physiologic reserve defined by 5 components (exhaustion, unintentional weight loss, low physical activity, slow walking speed, and poor grip strength), is associated with poor outcomes among ESRD patients. However, these 5 components may not fully capture physiologic reserve in this population. We aimed to ascertain opinions of ESRD clinicians and patients about the usefulness of the Fried frailty phenotype and interventions to improve frailty in ESRD patients, and to identify novel components to further characterize frailty in ESRD...
January 12, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325930/integrated-study-on-comparative-transcriptome-and-skeletal-muscle-function-in-aged-rats
#11
Jing Zhou, Zhiyin Liao, Jinliang Chen, Kexiang Zhao, Qian Xiao
The present study aimed to reveal aging-related changes in the skeletal muscle of SD rats by comparing transcriptome analysis, integrated with muscle physiological parameters. Ten rats aged 25 months were set as the old group (OG) and ten rats aged 6 months were set as the young group (YG). After 6 weeks of feeding, the body mass, grip strength, and gastrocnemius muscle mass were determined, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed by transcriptome sequencing, followed by GO enrichment analysis and KEGG analysis...
January 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324829/electrode-placement-on-the-forearm-for-selective-stimulation-of-finger-extension-flexion
#12
Xueliang Bao, Yuxuan Zhou, Yunlong Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaoying Lü, Zhigong Wang
It is still challenging to achieve a complex grasp or fine finger control by using surface functional electrical stimulation (FES), which usually requires a precise electrode configuration under laboratory or clinical settings. The goals of this study are as follows: 1) to study the possibility of selectively activating individual fingers; 2) to investigate whether the current activation threshold and selective range of individual fingers are affected by two factors: changes in the electrode position and forearm rotation (pronation, neutral and supination); and 3) to explore a theoretical model for guidance of the electrode placement used for selective activation of individual fingers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321846/weak-whole-plant-trait-coordination-in-a-seasonally-dry-south-american-stressful-environment
#14
José L A Silva, Alexandre F Souza, Adriano Caliman, Eduardo L Voigt, Juliana E Lichston
A core question involving both plant physiology and community ecology is whether traits from different organs are coordinated across species, beyond pairwise trait correlations. The strength of within-community trait coordination has been hypothesized to increase along gradients of environmental harshness, due to the cost of adopting ecological strategies out of the viable niche space supported by the abiotic conditions. We evaluated the strength of trait relationship and coordination in a stressful environment using 21 leaf and stem traits of 21 deciduous and evergreen woody species from a heath vegetation growing on coastal sandy plain in northeastern South America...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320878/exercise-training-for-improving-outcomes-post-burns-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Orlando Flores, Zephanie Tyack, Kellie Stockton, Robert Ware, Jennifer D Paratz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of different modalities of exercise and to evaluate the safety of exercise-based interventions post-burns. DATA SOURCES: Six databases were searched from inception to October 2017 using "burn," "exercise" and synonyms as keywords. Relevant authors, key journals and reference lists of included studies were hand-searched. REVIEW METHODS: Articles reporting on exercise interventions in patients post-burn and considering physical, physiological or psychological outcomes were considered...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317953/frailty-testing-pilot-study-pros-and-pitfalls
#16
Taylor Adlam, Elizabeth Ulrich, Missy Kent, Lauren Malinzak
Background: Frailty can be defined as an inflammatory state with a loss of physiologic reserve in multiple systems that manifests as a decreased ability to respond to stressors that ultimately leads to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the ease of frailty testing in a pre-kidney transplant clinic and the resources required to do so. A secondary goal was to better understand the utility of frailty testing when evaluating potential kidney transplant recipients...
February 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316362/concise-review-fabrication-customization-and-application-of-cell-mimicking-microparticles-in-stem-cell-science
#17
REVIEW
Nicholas R Labriola, Aharon Azagury, Robert Gutierrez, Edith Mathiowitz, Eric M Darling
Stem and non-stem cell behavior is heavily influenced by the surrounding microenvironment, which includes other cells, matrix, and potentially biomaterials. Researchers have been successful in developing scaffolds and encapsulation techniques to provide stem cells with mechanical, topographical, and chemical cues to selectively direct them toward a desired differentiation pathway. However, most of these systems fail to present truly physiological replications of the in vivo microenvironments that stem cells are typically exposed to in tissues...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315676/aging-impairs-regulation-of-ryanodine-receptors-from-edl-but-not-soleus-muscles
#18
Angela J Gaboardi, Jochen Kressler, Teresa K Snow, Edward M Balog
INTRODUCTION: Because impaired excitation-contraction coupling and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release may contribute to the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle strength, we investigated the effect of aging on RyR1 regulation by physiological channel ligands. METHODS: [3 H]Ryanodine binding to membranes from 8 and 26 month old Fischer 344 extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles was used to investigate the effects of age on RyR1 modulation by Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM)...
January 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315164/effects-of-strength-training-on-postpubertal-adolescent-distance-runners
#19
Richard C Blagrove, Louis P Howe, Emily J Cushion, Adam Spence, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar, Philip R Hayes
PURPOSE: Strength training activities have consistently been shown to improve running economy (RE) and neuromuscular characteristics, such as force producing ability and maximal speed, in adult distance runners. However the effects on adolescent (<18 years) runners remains elusive. This randomized control trial aimed to examine the effect of strength training on several important physiological and neuromuscular qualities associated with distance running performance. METHODS: Participants (n=25, 13 female, 17...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310889/how-hot-are-they-neural-correlates-of-genital-arousal-an-infrared-thermographic-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-sexual-arousal-in-men-and-women
#20
Mayte Parada, Marina Gérard, Kevin Larcher, Alain Dagher, Yitzchak M Binik
BACKGROUND: The few studies that have examined the neural correlates of genital arousal have focused on men and are methodologically hard to compare. AIM: To investigate the neural correlates of peripheral physiologic sexual arousal using identical methodology for men and women. METHODS: 2 groups (20 men, 20 women) viewed movie clips (erotic, humor) while genital temperature was continuously measured using infrared thermal imaging. Participants also continuously evaluated changes in their subjective arousal and answered discrete questions about liking the movies and wanting sexual stimulation...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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