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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156567/the-role-of-infected-cell-proliferation-in-the-clearance-of-acute-hbv-infection-in-humans
#1
Ashish Goyal, Ruy M Ribeiro, Alan S Perelson
Around 90-95% of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected adults do not progress to the chronic phase and, instead, recover naturally. The strengths of the cytolytic and non-cytolytic immune responses are key players that decide the fate of acute HBV infection. In addition, it has been hypothesized that proliferation of infected cells resulting in uninfected progeny and/or cytokine-mediated degradation of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) leading to the cure of infected cells are two major mechanisms assisting the adaptive immune response in the clearance of acute HBV infection in humans...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155925/exposure-biomarkers-indicate-more-than-just-exposure
#2
David A Savitz, Gregory A Wellenius
Biomarkers of environmental exposures have notable strengths in integrating across diverse sources and routes of exposure and providing a marker reflecting biological dose. However, the physiologic determinants of biomarker toxicokinetics and measured levels may also affect or be affected by disease determinants and thus introduce confounding. Sagiv et al. (1) sought empirical evidence on the role of renal clearance in biasing the association between perfluoroalkyl compounds measured in plasma during pregnancy and infant birth weight and found little empirical support for such bias...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154022/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-rankl-inhibition-in-malignant-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
A F de Groot, N M Appelman-Dijkstra, S H van der Burg, J R Kroep
At present, accumulating evidence suggests that inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) does not only induce an increase in bone mass and strength, but also has anti-tumor effects. Denosumab, an antibody targeting RANKL, is used to treat osteoporosis and to prevent skeletal related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases originating from solid tumors. However, expression of RANKL and its receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) is not solely restricted to cells involved in homeostasis of the bone and RANKL-RANK signalling appears to play a substantial role in many other processes in the body like mammary physiology, mammary tumorigenesis and the immune system...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150719/preoperative-optimization-for-major-hepatic-resection
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Walcott-Sapp, Kevin G Billingsley
PURPOSE: Major hepatic resections are performed for primary hepatobiliary malignancies, metastatic disease, and benign lesions. Patients with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and steatosis, are at an elevated risk of malnutrition and impaired strength and exercise capacity, deficits which cause increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality. The aims of this report are to discuss the pathophysiology of changes in nutrition, exercise capacity, and muscle strength in patient populations likely to require major hepatectomy, and review recommendations for preoperative evaluation and optimization...
November 18, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150516/drna-seq-implicates-sulfide-as-master-regulator-of-s-0-metabolism-in-chlorobaculum-tepidum-and-other-green-sulfur-bacteria
#5
Jacob M Hilzinger, Vidhyavathi Raman, Kevin E Shuman, Brian J Eddie, Thomas E Hanson
The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are anaerobes that use electrons from reduced sulfur compounds (sulfide, S(0), and thiosulfate) as electron donors for photoautotrophic growth. Chlorobaculum tepidum, the model system for the Chlorobiaceae, both produces and consumes extracellular S(0) globules depending on the availability of sulfide in the environment. These physiological changes imply significant changes in gene regulation, which has been observed when sulfide is added to Cba. tepidum growing on thiosulfate...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148897/oxidative-stress-response-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-short-term-1800%C3%A2-mhz-radiofrequency-radiation
#6
Ana Marija Marjanovic Cermak, Ivan Pavicic, Ivancica Trosic
The exact mechanism that could explain the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure at non-thermal level is still unknown. Increasing evidence suggests a possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and development of oxidative stress. To test the proposed hypothesis, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1800 MHz short-term RF exposure for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Electric field strength within Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic cell (GTEM) was 30 V m(-1) and specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 1...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147919/alterations-to-swallowing-physiology-as-the-result-of-effortful-swallowing-in-healthy-seniors
#7
Sonja M Molfenter, Chuan-Ya Hsu, Ying Lu, Cathy L Lazarus
A significant proportion of healthy seniors report difficulty swallowing, thought to result from age-related decline in muscle bulk/function. Effortful Swallowing (ES) is used both as a compensatory maneuver to improve pharyngeal propulsion/clearance and has been proposed as an exercise to improve pharyngeal strength. This study sought to quantify the immediate kinematic, temporal, and functional changes during an ES maneuver to quantify its exercise potential to combat age-related changes in swallowing. Videofluoroscopy data were collected from 44 healthy seniors (21 male) over 65 years old (mean = 76...
November 17, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147146/relationships-between-short-and-fast-brain-timescales
#8
Eva Déli, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution. In order to further investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations)...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143889/beyond-pathologizing-harm-understanding-ptsd-in-the-context-of-war-experience
#9
Patricia Benner, Jodi Halpern, Deborah R Gordon, Catherine Long Popell, Patricia W Kelley
An alternative to objectifying approaches to understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology is presented. Nurses who provided care for soldiers injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and sixty-seven wounded male servicemen in the rehabilitation phase of their recovery were interviewed. PTSD is the one major psychiatric diagnosis where social causation is established, yet PTSD is predominantly viewed in terms of the usual neuro-physiological causal models with traumatic social events viewed as pathogens with dose related effects...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143128/the-evolution-of-androgen-receptor-expression-and-behavior-in-anolis-lizard-forelimb-muscles
#10
Michele A Johnson, Bonnie K Kircher, Diego J Castro
The motor systems that produce behavioral movements are among the primary targets for the action of steroid hormones, including androgens. Androgens such as testosterone bind to androgen receptors (AR) to induce physiological changes in the size, strength, and energetic capacity of skeletal muscles, which can directly influence the performance of behaviors in which those muscles are used. Because tissues differentially express AR, resulting in tissue-specific sensitivity to androgens, AR expression may be a major target of selection for the evolution of behavior...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140913/sex-differences-in-aerobic-fitness-in-top-class-soccer-referees
#11
Carlo Castagna, Mario Bizzini, Stefano DʼOttavio, Susana C Araújo Póvoas
Castagna, C, Bizzini, M, D'Ottavio, S, and Araújo Póvoas, SC. Gender differences in aerobic fitness in top-class soccer referees. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The aim of this study was to assess the aerobic-fitness differences between male and female top-class soccer field referees (FRs). This with the purpose to provide cutoff values useful for training prescription in female FRs. Forty female top-class FRs (age 34.18 ± 3.50 years and 5 ± 3.9 years international refereeing experience) and 52 male FRs (age 38...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137724/simplified-boundary-conditions-alter-cortical-trabecular-load-sharing-at-the-distal-radius-a-multiscale-finite-element-analysis
#12
Joshua E Johnson, Karen L Troy
High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) derived micro-finite element (FE) modeling is used to evaluate mechanical behavior at the distal radius microstructure. However, these analyses typically simulate non-physiologic simplified platen-compression boundary conditions on a small section of the distal radius. Cortical and trabecular regions contribute uniquely to distal radius mechanical behavior, and various factors affect these regions distinctly. Generalized strength predictions from standardized platen-compression analyses may not adequately capture region specific responses in bone...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134974/differences-in-physical-physiological-and-motor-performance-traits-between-volleyball-and-basketball-athletes-in-a-university-in-ghana
#13
A Obour, M O Moses, B Baffour-Awuah, B Asamoah, P K Sarpong, F Osei, L G Akwa, E J Appiah
Physical, physiological and motor performance traits play substantial role in both volleyball (VB) and basketball(BB) competitions. The differences in these traits among University athletes in Ghana have not been reported. Hence, thisstudy documents and compares the physical, physiological and motor performance traits of VB and BB university athletes.Purposive sampling technique involving thirty-five university athletes (24 males and 11 females) with mean age of 21.77 ±2.03years was used. Height, weightn, waist and hip circumferences, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), heartrate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), shoulder muscular endurance (SME), abdominal muscular endurance (AME), left and right Arm Strength, Leg Power, Reaction time, Agility and Speed traits were measured...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134741/contemporary-evolution-of-a-lepidopteran-species-heliothis-virescens-in-response-to-modern-agricultural-practices
#14
Megan L Fritz, Alexandra M DeYonke, Alexie Papanicolaou, Stephen Micinski, John Westbrook, Fred Gould
Adaptation to human-induced environmental change has the potential to profoundly influence the genomic architecture of affected species. This is particularly true in agricultural ecosystems, where anthropogenic selection pressure is strong. Heliothis virescens primarily feeds on cotton in its larval stages and US populations have been declining since the widespread planting of transgenic cotton, which endogenously expresses proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). No physiological adaptation to Bt toxin has been found in the field, so adaptation in this altered environment could involve: 1) shifts in host plant selection mechanisms to avoid cotton, 2) changes in detoxification mechanisms required for cotton-feeding versus feeding on other hosts, or 3) loss of resistance to previously used management practices including insecticides...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134237/neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-regulates-leptin-sensitivity-and-bone-mass
#15
Xin Yan, Natalia L Kononenko, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Matthew N Poy
The central nervous system is widely known to exert control over our systemic physiology via several mechanisms including the regulation of skeletal metabolism. Neuronal circuits within the hypothalamus have been shown to impact bone mass via leptin-dependent and independent mechanisms; however, the full extent to which the brain controls bone homeostasis is not known. We previously identified cell adhesion molecule1 (Cadm1) as a regulator of body weight and energy homeostasis via its expression in multiple regions of the brain...
November 13, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130047/bending-properties-of-fiber-reinforced-composites-retainers-bonded-with-spot-composite-coverage
#16
Maria Francesca Sfondrini, Paola Gandini, Paola Tessera, Pekka K Vallittu, Lippo Lassila, Andrea Scribante
Orthodontic and periodontal splints are prepared with round or flat metallic wires. As these devices cannot be used in patients with allergy to metals or with aesthetic demands, fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retainers have been introduced. Stiffness of FRC materials could reduce physiologic tooth movement. In order to lower rigidity of conventional FRC retainers, a modified construction technique that provided a partial (spot) composite coverage of the fiber has been tested and compared with metallic splints and full-bonded FRCs...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128533/fabrication-of-dense-anisotropic-collagen-scaffolds-using-biaxial-compression
#17
Jared L Zitnay, Shawn P Reese, Garvin Tran, Niloofar Farhang, Robert D Bowles, Jeffrey A Weiss
We developed a new method to manufacture dense, aligned, and porous collagen scaffolds using biaxial plastic compression of type I collagen gels. Using a novel compression apparatus that constricts like an iris diaphragm, low density collagen gels were compressed to yield a permanently densified, highly aligned collagen material. Micro-porosity scaffolds was created using hydrophilic elastomer porogens that can be selectively removed following biaxial compression, with porosity modulated by using different porogen concentrations...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126027/strong-differences-between-two-congeneric-species-in-sensitivity-to-pesticides-in-a-warming-world
#18
Lin Op de Beeck, Julie Verheyen, Robby Stoks
To predict the impact of pesticides in a warming world we need to know how species differ in the interaction pathways between pesticides and warming. Trait-based approaches have been successful in identifying the 'pace of life' and body size as predictors of sensitivity to pesticides among distantly related species. However, it remains to be tested whether these traits allow predicting differences in sensitivity to pesticides between closely related species, and in the strength of the interaction pathways between pesticides and warming...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118694/implications-of-schwann-cells-biomechanics-and-mechanosensitivity-for-peripheral-nervous-system-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#19
REVIEW
Gonzalo Rosso, Peter Young, Victor Shahin
The presence of bones around the central nervous system (CNS) provides it with highly effective physiologically crucial mechanical protection. The peripheral nervous system (PNS), in contrast, lacks this barrier. Consequently, the long held belief is that the PNS is mechanically vulnerable. On the other hand, the PNS is exposed to a variety of physiological mechanical stresses during regular daily activities. This fact prompts us to question the dogma of PNS mechanical vulnerability. As a matter of fact, impaired mechanics of PNS nerves is associated with neuropathies with the liability to mechanical stresses paralleled by significant impairment of PNS physiological functions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116367/double-blind-comparison-of-the-two-hallucinogens-psilocybin-and-dextromethorphan-similarities-and-differences-in-subjective-experiences
#20
Theresa M Carbonaro, Matthew W Johnson, Ethan Hurwitz, Roland R Griffiths
RATIONALE: Although psilocybin and dextromethorphan (DXM) are hallucinogens, they have different receptor mechanisms of action and have not been directly compared. OBJECTIVE: This study compared subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of psilocybin and dextromethorphan under conditions that minimized expectancy effects. METHODS: Single, acute oral doses of psilocybin (10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg), DXM (400 mg/70 kg), and placebo were administered under double-blind conditions to 20 healthy participants with histories of hallucinogen use...
November 7, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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