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physiology of football

Ljiljana S Sulovic, Meho Mahmutovic, Snezana Lazic, Nenad Sulovic
: Aims "Athlete's heart" is a cardiac adaptation to long-term intensive training. The aims of this study were to show the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in teenagers who participate in sports, to define the different types of cardiac re-modelling, and to differentiate between physiological and pathological hypertrophy. METHOD: Echocardiographic measurements were obtained by M-mode, two dimensional, and Doppler techniques of participants from sports and control groups...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Clement Opoku-Okrah, Daniel Kwasi Sam, Bernard Nkum, Elliot Eli Dogbe, Lilian Antwi-Boateng, Benedict Sackey, Daniel Gyamfi, Kwabena Owusu Danquah
INTRODUCTION: Sports anaemia is a physiological activity that occurs amongst footballers and may be due to poor diet, over-training, as well as an increase in plasma volume in endurance training activities. High plasma volume leads to changes in haematological parameters that may impact on endurance of footballers. The objective of the study was to determine the correlation between haematological and an-thropometric indices and their role in sports anaemia in a tropical setting. METHODS: Venous blood was taken into EDTA for 12 soccer players of KNUST soccer team before training and after training for the first (W1) and fifth (W5) weeks of training sessions...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Matthew Chiwaridzo, Gillian D Ferguson, Bouwien C M Smits-Engelsman
BACKGROUND: Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention programmes. Although there are a number of tests available in the literature to measure physical or physiological variables and game-specific skills, there is limited information available on the psychometric properties of the tests...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Filipe Manuel Clemente, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis
The aim of this study was to analyse the variance of training load between male and female football and futsal players. The statistical analysis tested the variance between gender and type of sport during training sessions. Fifty-nine male and female amateur football and futsal amateur players were monitored during 48 training sessions. The heart rate (HR) responses and the percentage of time spent in zones of intensity were analysed during training sessions. Differences were found in football between the gender and the dependent variables of %HRmax (p value = 0...
2016: SpringerPlus
Micael S Couceiro, Gonçalo Dias, Duarte Araújo, Keith Davids
This paper discusses how an ecological dynamics framework can be implemented to interpret data, design practice tasks and interpret athletic performance in collective sports, exemplified here by research ideas within the Augmented peRCeption ANalysis framEwork for Football (ARCANE) project promoting an augmented perception of football teams for scientists and practitioners. An ecological dynamics rationale can provide an interpretation of athletes' positional and physiological data during performance, using new methods to assess athletes' behaviours in real-time and, to some extent, predict health and performance outcomes...
May 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Monir Shayestehfar, Tohid Seif-Barghi, Sahar Zarei, Amir Mehran
In a randomized controlled trial we examined the effect of acupuncture on anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 45 athletes were equally allocated to either acupuncture group, sham group, or wait-list control group. Thereafter, all participants were asked to complete an anxiety questionnaire before and after the intervention. Their heart rate and skin conductance were also examined before and after the intervention. The results of ANOVA on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p = 0...
2016: Scientifica
Marco Montini, Francesco Felici, Andrea NICOLò, Massimo Sacchetti, Ilenia Bazzucchi
BACKGROUND: The bulk of research investigating soccer player's performance has been concentrated on the metabolic demand, while only few studies focused on the neuromuscular activation. The present study aimed at investigating the activation profile of the leg muscles throughout a 90- minute soccer match. METHODS: Fifteen football players (18.3±0.7 years) performed: 1) an isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) before the game [MVCpre]; 2) a 90-minute soccer match (composed of two 45-minute periods separated by a 15-minute rest); 3) a second MVC after the match [MVCpost]...
March 25, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, David Viejo-Romero, Maite Gómez-López, Enrique Hernando, Pablo Burillo, Leonor Gallardo
The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical and physiological load imposed on amateur football players in a simulated game situation on different artificial turf systems. For that purpose, 20 football players (21.65±3.10 years old) were monitored with Global Positioning Systems and heart rate bands during 45 minute games on four selected artificial turf systems. The results show more covered distance in highintensity ranges on the system with lower levels of damping and higher rates of rotational traction (p<0...
March 12, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Monica Kelly, Paul B Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J Snow
This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34...
March 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Dominika Gawlak, Katarzyna Mańka-Malara, Tomasz Kamiński, Magdalena Łuniewska, Elżbieta Mierzwińska-Nastalska
BACKGROUND: Mouthguards provide an effective preventive method against the effects of injuries sustained during sports activities, in particular cycling, football, basketball, skiing or hockey. However, when placed in the oral cavity, they can induce disorders in basic physiological functions. AIM: The objective of this clinical study was to compare the effects of various custom mouthguards with generally available standard boil and bite mouthguards on the functions of the oral cavity...
October 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Scott McLean, Hugo Kerhervé, Geoff P Lovell, Adam D Gorman, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: Small sided games (SSG) of football are an effective and efficient format to simultaneously train the physiological, technical, and tactical components of football. The duration of the recovery period between bouts of SSG will affect the physiological response to subsequent bouts. It was hypothesised that decreasing the duration of recovery periods separating serial SSG bouts would increase physiological, and perceptual responses, and decrease high speed running, and distance during SSG bouts...
2016: PloS One
Luke W Hogarth, Brendan J Burkett, Mark R McKean
This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients...
2015: PloS One
Caroline Sunderland, Ryan Stevens, Bethan Everson, Christopher J Tyler
The present study evaluated the effect of neck-cooling during exercise on repeated sprint ability in a hot environment. Seven team-sport playing males completed two experimental trials involving repeated sprint exercise (5 × 6 s) before and after two 45 min bouts of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol in the heat (33.0 ± 0.2°C; 53 ± 2% relative humidity). Participants wore a neck-cooling collar in one of the trials (CC). Mean power output and peak power output declined over time in both trials but were higher in CC (540 ± 99 v 507 ± 122 W, d = 0...
2015: Frontiers in Physiology
Sixto González-Víllora, Jaime Serra-Olivares, Juan Carlos Pastor-Vicedo, Israel Teoldo da Costa
For sports assessment to be comprehensive, it must address all variables of sports development, such as psychological, social-emotional, physical and physiological, technical and tactical. Tactical assessment has been a neglected variable until the 1980s or 1990s. In the last two decades (1995-2015), the evolution of tactical assessment has grown considerably, given its importance in game performance. The aim of this paper is to compile and analyze different tactical measuring tools in team sports, particularly in soccer, through a bibliographical review...
2015: SpringerPlus
John P Higgins, Aldo Andino
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young competitive athletes (<35 years old) is a tragic event that has been brought to public attention in the past few decades. The incidence of SCD is reported to be 1-2/100,000 per year, with athletes at a 2.5 times higher risk. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, played by people of all ages. However, unfortunately it is cardiovascular diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy that have subtly missed screening and claimed the lives of soccer stars such as Marc Vivien Foe and Antonio Puerta during live action on the field and on an internationally televised stage...
2013: Journal of Sports Medicine (Hindawi Publishing Corporation)
Magni Mohr, Martin Thomassen, Olivier Girard, Sebastien Racinais, Lars Nybo
PURPOSE: To examine how match performance parameters in trained footballers relate to skeletal muscle parameters, sprint ability and intermittent exercise performance. METHODS: 19 male elite football players completed an experimental game with physical performance determined by video analysis and exercise capacity assessed by intermittent Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 tests, and a repeated sprint test (RST). Muscle tissue was obtained for analysis of metabolic enzyme maximal activity and key muscle protein expression...
February 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Tomoya Okamoto, Ryuichi Ishida, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Masako Tanabe-Ishida, Asami Haga, Hiroki Takahashi, Kyosuke Takahashi, Daisuke Goto, Ewa Grave, Hideaki Itoh
The Chaperonins comprise a family of molecular chaperones having a double-ring structure and similar sequence homology. These proteins play an essential role in biological reactions that mediate the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and partially denatured proteins. In the prokaryotic group I chaperonins, structural and reaction cycle analyses of GroEL and its co-chaperone GroES have been performed in detail. While in eukaryotes, there have been limited reports analyzing the group I chaperonin HSP60 and its co-chaperone HSP10...
November 15, 2015: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yang Wang, Lindsay D Nelson, Ashley A LaRoche, Adam Y Pfaller, Andrew S Nencka, Kevin M Koch, Michael A McCrea
Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major health problem, affecting millions of athletes each year. While the clinical effects of SRC (e.g., symptoms and functional impairments) typically resolve within several days, increasing evidence suggests persistent neurophysiological abnormalities beyond the point of clinical recovery after injury. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in acute SRC, as measured using advanced arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared CBF maps assessed in 18 concussed football players (age, 17...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Aaron D Wellman, Sam C Coad, Grant C Goulet, Christopher P McLellan
The aim of the present study was to examine the competitive physiological movement demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college football players using portable global positioning system (GPS) technology during games and to examine positional groups within offensive and defensive teams, to determine if a player's physiological requirements during games are influenced by playing position. Thirty-three NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision football players were monitored using GPS receivers with integrated accelerometers (GPSports) during 12 regular season games throughout the 2014 season...
January 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Magni Mohr, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Jose Carlos Barbero-Álvarez, Carlo Castagna, Ioannis Douroudos, Alexandra Avloniti, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Andreas D Flouris, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Peter Krustrup, Ioannis G Fatouros
PURPOSE: We examined effects of a three-game, 1-week microcycle (G1, G2, G3) on recovery of performance and inflammatory responses in professional male footballers. METHODS: Players were randomized into an experimental (EXP; N = 20) and a control group (CON; N = 20). Blood was drawn and repeated sprint ability (RSA), muscle soreness and knee range of motion (KJRM) were determined pre- and post-games and during recovery. RESULTS: High-intensity running during G2 was 7-14% less compared to G1 and G3...
January 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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