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Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment

Alexandre Iarkov, Doreen Appunn, Valentina Echeverria
PURPOSE: Most cancer patients treated with systemic adjuvant chemotherapy endure long-lasting side effects including decrease in concentration, forgetfulness and slower thinking, which are globally termed "chemobrain." Cotinine, the main derivative of nicotine, improved visual and spatial working memory and decreased depressive-like behavior in an animal model of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of cotinine on weight gain, locomotor activity, cognitive abilities and depressive-like behavior in rats treated with the chemotherapy mix, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil...
October 5, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Caitlin Feiock, Masashi Yagi, Adam Maidman, Aaron Rendahl, Susanta Hui, Davis Seelig
The unintended side effects of cancer treatment are increasing recognized. Among these is a syndrome of long-term neurocognitive dysfunction called cancer/chemotherapy related cognitive impairment. To date, all studies examining the cognitive impact of cancer treatment have emphasized chemotherapy. Radiation-induced bystander effects have been described in cell culture and, to a limited extent, in rodent model systems. The purpose of this study was to examine, for the first time, the impact of non-brain directed radiation therapy on the brain in order to elucidate its potential relationship with cancer/chemotherapy related cognitive impairment...
2016: PloS One
Lauren E Himmel, Maryam B Lustberg, A Courtney DeVries, Ming Poi, Ching-Shih Chen, Samuel K Kulp
Minocycline is purported to have neuroprotective properties in experimental models of some human neurologic diseases, and has therefore been identified as a putative neuroprotectant for chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. However, because its mechanism of action is believed to be mediated through anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant pathways, co-administration of minocycline with chemotherapeutic agents has the potential to reduce the efficacy of anticancer drugs...
October 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Catarina Rendeiro, Andrew Sheriff, Tushar K Bhattacharya, Joseph V Gogola, Jeffrey H Baxter, Hong Chen, William G Helferich, Edward J Roy, Justin S Rhodes
The negative impact of chemotherapy on cognitive function in cancer patients has gained increasing attention in the last decade. Whilst the short-term acute effects on cognition are expected following chemotherapy, the persistence of such impairments in the long-term is still in question. This is despite clinical evidence indicating cognitive difficulties may persist well beyond treatment and affect quality of life. In the present study, we assessed the long-term (3 months) cognitive impact of chemotherapy in a mouse model intended to mimic the human female post-menopausal population receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer...
December 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Timothy J Wolf, Meghan Doherty, Dorina Kallogjeri, Rebecca S Coalson, Joyce Nicklaus, Cynthia X Ma, Bradley L Schlaggar, Jay Piccirillo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effect of metacognitive strategy training (MCST) on cognitive performance and on neural connectivity in the frontoparietal network in women with chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) following treatment for breast cancer. METHODS: A single-group pre/post study was conducted. After completing the baseline assessment battery and neuroimaging, the participants completed a 12-session MCST intervention...
2016: Oncology
Sophie Taillibert, Emilie Le Rhun, Marc C Chamberlain
Chemotherapy may have detrimental effects on either the central or peripheral nervous system. Central nervous system neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy manifests as a wide range of clinical syndromes including acute, subacute, and chronic encephalopathies, posterior reversible encephalopathy, acute cerebellar dysfunction, chronic cognitive impairment, myelopathy, meningitis, and neurovascular syndromes. These clinical entities vary by causative agent, degree of severity, evolution, and timing of occurrence...
September 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Filipa Fontes, Susana Pereira, José Manuel Castro-Lopes, Nuno Lunet
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the prevalence of neurological complications among breast cancer patients at one and three years after diagnosis, and to identify factors associated with neuropathic pain (NP) and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study including 475 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, recruited among those proposed for surgical treatment (Portuguese Institute of Oncology, Porto). Patients underwent a neurological evaluation and had their cognitive function assesses with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, before treatment and at one and three years after enrollment...
October 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Gordon Winocur, J Martin Wojtowicz, Christina M Merkley, Ian F Tannock
Clinical studies indicate that up to 70% of cancer patients who receive chemotherapy experience cognitive impairment. The present study investigated environmental enrichment as a protective factor against the adverse effects of anticancer drugs on cognitive and biological processes in an animal model. Adult rats were housed in group cages with environmental stimulation or in standard cages for 3 months, before receiving 3 weekly injections of methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil, or equal volumes of saline. Rats were then administered tests of learning and memory that are sensitive to hippocampal or frontal lobe dysfunction...
August 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Amelia Maria Gaman, Adriana Uzoni, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Anghel Andrei, Eugen-Bogdan Petcu
Chemobrain or chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment (CICI) represents a new clinical syndrome characterised by memory, learning and motor function impairment. As numerous patients with cancer are long-term survivors, CICI represent a significant factor which may interfere with their quality of life. However, this entity CICI must be distinguished from other cognitive syndromes and addressed accordingly. At the present time, experimental and clinical research suggests that CICI could be induced by numerous factors including oxidative stress...
May 2016: Aging and Disease
Masahiko Sumitani, Toru Ogata, Akina Natori, Jun Hozumi, Nobutake Shimojo, Kumiko Kida, Hideko Yamauchi, Teruo Yamauchi
The phosphorylated form of the high-molecular-weight neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) is a major structural protein in axons. The pNF-H level is elevated in the serum of certain patients with central nervous disorders, including chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. The present study was conducted to elucidate the potential role of pNF-H as a marker of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). A total of 71 patients with early breast cancer in various stages of treatment (following 1, 3 or 7 cycles of chemotherapy, or a previous history of breast cancer chemotherapy) were assessed with a self-administered PainDETECT questionnaire [pain location, pain intensity on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS), and various pain qualities] and a single serum pNF-H measurement...
June 2016: Biomedical Reports
Enrica Bianchi, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Laura Micheli, Mersedez Farzad, Margherita Aglianò, Carla Ghelardini
Aspects of memory involved in cognitive mechanisms were investigated in rat after oxaliplatin (OX) chemotherapy using animal behavioural assessment of passive avoidance and social learning paradigms, which are both hippocampus-sensitive. Rodents, previously subjected to two-week OX treatment, showed passive avoidance and social learning impairment and apoptotic processes in hippocampus. Apoptosis rate significantly increased in cultured hippocampal cells exposed to OX at increasing doses, and this effect was dose-dependent...
June 6, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Sam V Kaplan, Ryan A Limbocker, Rachel C Gehringer, Jenny L Divis, Gregory L Osterhaus, Maxwell D Newby, Michael J Sofis, David P Jarmolowicz, Brooke D Newman, Tiffany A Mathews, Michael A Johnson
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, known also as "chemobrain", is a medical complication of cancer treatment that is characterized by a general decline in cognition affecting visual and verbal memory, attention, complex problem solving skills, and motor function. It is estimated that one-third of patients who undergo chemotherapy treatment will experience cognitive impairment. Alterations in the release and uptake of dopamine and serotonin, central nervous system neurotransmitters that play important roles in cognition, could potentially contribute to impaired intellectual performance in those impacted by chemobrain...
June 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Azam Tajik, Ameneh Rezayof, Zahra Ghasemzadeh, Maryam Sardari
Tamoxifen (TAM), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has frequently been used in the treatment of breast cancer. In view of the fact that cognitive deficits in women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is a common health problem, using female animal models for investigating the cognitive effects of TAM administration may improve our knowledge of TAM therapy. Therefore, the present study assessed the role of dorsal hippocampal cholinergic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in the effect of TAM administration on memory retrieval in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX female rats using a passive avoidance learning task...
July 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Véronique Morel, Dominique Joly, Christine Villatte, Claude Dubray, Xavier Durando, Laurence Daulhac, Catherine Coudert, Delphine Roux, Bruno Pereira, Gisèle Pickering
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life...
2016: PloS One
Valerie Jenkins, Ryan Thwaites, Mara Cercignani, Sandra Sacre, Neil Harrison, Hefina Whiteley-Jones, Lisa Mullen, Giselle Chamberlain, Kevin Davies, Charles Zammit, Lucy Matthews, Helena Harder
BACKGROUND: Women receiving chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer may experience problems with their memory and attention (cognition), which is distressing and interferes with quality of life. It is unclear what causes or contributes to the problems they report: psychological distress, fatigue, coping style, or specific biological changes for example to pro inflammatory cytokines. Research shows however, that approximately a third of women with breast cancer perform poorly on tests of cognition before commencing chemotherapy...
2016: SpringerPlus
Wenjun Zhou, Annemieke Kavelaars, Cobi J Heijnen
RATIONALE: Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as 'chemobrain', is now widely recognized as a frequent adverse side effect of cancer treatment that often persists into survivorship. There are no drugs available to prevent or treat chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to establish a mouse model of cisplatin-induced cognitive deficits and to determine the potential preventive effects of the anti-diabetic drug metformin. RESULTS: Treatment of C57/BL6J mice with cisplatin (cumulative dose 34...
2016: PloS One
Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Krzysztof Krzemieniecki, Irena Romanska, Jerzy Michaluk, Anna Krygowska-Wajs
BACKGROUND: The clinical studies have shown that chemotherapy may impair cognitive functions especially in the patients treated for breast cancer. It should be mention that only few studies have made use of animals to investigate the effects of chemotherapy on the brain function. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is an anthracycline antibiotic commonly used for chemotherapy of breast cancer. METHODS: This study examined the effect of doxorubicin (1.5 and 3.0mg/kg ip) after acute administration on the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and their metabolites in the rat brain structures connected with cognition and psychiatric disorders...
June 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Emilie Le Rhun, James R Perry
Vascular complications in patients with glioma most commonly include venous and arterial thromboembolism; however, treatment-induced vasculopathies are also problematic, especially in long-term survivors. The interactions between treatment such as radiation and chemotherapy, the coagulation cascade, endothelium, and regulators of angiogenesis are complex, drive glioma growth and invasion, and create common management problems in the clinic. We review the incidence of thrombotic complications in glioma, the biology of the coagulome as related to glioma progression, prevention and treatment of thrombosis, the role of anticoagulants as anticancer therapy, and vascular complications such as ischemic stroke and intracranial bleeding...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Michael H Irwin, Walter H Moos, Douglas V Faller, Kosta Steliou, Carl A Pinkert
Preclinical Research In this review, we discuss epigenetic-driven methods for treating neurodegenerative disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, focusing on carnitinoid antioxidant-histone deacetylase inhibitors that show an ability to reinvigorate synaptic plasticity and protect against neuromotor decline in vivo. Aging remains a major risk factor in patients who progress to dementia, a clinical syndrome typified by decreased mental capacity, including impairments in memory, language skills, and executive function...
May 2016: Drug Development Research
Zhi-Gang Jiang, Steven A Fuller, Hossein A Ghanbari
Chemotherapy often results in cognitive impairment, and no neuroprotective drug is now available. This study aimed to understand underlying neurotoxicological mechanisms of anticancer drugs and to evaluate neuroprotective effects of PAN-811. Primary neurons in different concentrations of antioxidants (AOs) were insulted for 3 days with methotrexate (MTX), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), or cisplatin (CDDP) in the absence or presence of PAN-811·Cl·H2O. The effect of PAN-811 on the anticancer activity of tested drugs was also examined using mouse and human cancer cells (BNLT3 and H460) to assess any negative interference...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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