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Translational immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908930/translating-science-into-survival-report-on-the-second-international-cancer-immunotherapy-conference
#1
Arthur N Brodsky, Vanessa M Hubbard-Lucey
On September 25-28, 2016, in New York City, the Second International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference was cohosted by the Cancer Research Institute, the American Association for Cancer Research, the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy, and the European Academy of Tumor Immunology. This exciting conference brought together more than 1,400 participants, including scientists, clinicians, investors, and regulators, to discuss the latest scientific advances within the field of cancer immunotherapy. This conference report reviews the chief themes that emerged during the 4-day meeting...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891129/immunological-and-translational-aspects-of-nk-cell-based-antitumor-immunotherapies
#2
REVIEW
Maxim Shevtsov, Gabriele Multhoff
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in the first line of defense against cancer. NK cells that are deficient in CD3 and a clonal T cell receptor (TCR) can be subdivided into two major subtypes, CD56(dim)CD16(+) cytotoxic and CD56(bright)CD16(-) immunoregulatory NK cells. Cytotoxic NK cells not only directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes or via death receptor interactions, but also act as regulatory cells for the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876058/a-novel-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-murine-model-closer-to-the-standard-clinical-scenario
#3
Thais Bascuas, María Moreno, Amy Mónaco, Laura Reyes, Andrea Paolino, Patricia Oliver, María G Kramer, Henry Engler, José P Pacheco, Sofía Grille, José A Chabalgoity
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most frequent hemato-oncological malignancies. Despite recent major advances in treatment, a substantial proportion of patients relapses highlighting the need for new therapeutic modalities. Promissory results obtained in pre-clinical studies are usually not translated when moving into clinical trials. Pre-clinical studies are mainly conducted in animals with high tumor burden; instead patients undergo chemotherapy as first line of treatment and most likely are under remission when immunotherapies are applied...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871877/journal-allergy-clinical-immunology-perspective-clinical-potential-for-imaging-in-asthma-and-other-lung-disorders
#4
Emily M DeBoer, David R Spielberg, Alan S Brody
The ability of lung imaging to phenotype patients, determine prognosis, and to predict response to treatments is expanding in clinical and translational research. The purpose of this perspective is to describe current imaging modalities that may be useful clinical tools in asthma and other lung disorders and to explore some of the new developments in imaging modalities of the lung. These imaging modalities include chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), bronchoscopy, and others...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858404/advances-in-multimodal-molecular-imaging
#5
Luigi Auletta, Matteo Gramanzini, Gargiulo Sara, Sandra Albanese, Marco Salvatore, Adelaide Greco
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical molecular imaging is an emerging field. Improving the ability of scientists to study the molecular basis of human pathology in animals is of the utmost importance for future advances in all fields of human medicine. Moreover, the possibility of developing new imaging techniques or of implementing old ones adapted to the clinic is a significant area. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Cardiology, neurology, immunology and oncology have all been studied with preclinical molecular imaging...
November 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856350/achilles-is-a-circadian-clock-controlled-gene-that-regulates-immune-function-in-drosophila
#6
Jiajia Li, Erin E Terry, Edith Fejer, Diana Gamba, Natalie Hartmann, Joseph Logsdon, Daniel Michalski, Lisa E Rois, Maria J Scuderi, Michael Kunst, Michael E Hughes
The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of anti-microbial peptides in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854317/modulating-the-gut-micro-environment-in-the-treatment-of-intestinal-parasites
#7
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Tessa Nikov, Isabelle Ibrahim, Sean Hall
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854226/neo-epitope-peptides-as-biomarkers-of-disease-progression-for-muscular-dystrophies-and-other-myopathies
#8
A Arvanitidis, K Henriksen, M A Karsdal, A Nedergaard
For several decades, serological biomarkers of neuromuscular diseases as dystrophies, myopathies and myositis have been limited to routine clinical biochemistry panels. Gauging the pathological progression is a prerequisite for proper treatment and therefore identifying accessible, easy to monitor biomarkers that can predict the disease progression would be an important advancement. Most muscle diseases involve accelerated muscle fiber degradation, inflammation, fatty tissue substitution and/or fibrosis. All these pathological traits have been shown to give rise to serological peptide biomarkers in other tissues, underlining the potential application of existing biomarkers of such traits in muscle disorders...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#9
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833439/molecular-characterization-and-analysis-of-tlr-1-in-rabbit-tissues
#10
Wael M K Elfeil, Abdelazeem M Algammal, Reham R Abouelmaatti, Ahmed Gerdouh, Mohamed Abdeldaim
The rabbit has great commercial importance as a source of meat and fur, as well as its uses as a laboratory animal for the production of antibodies, used to detect the presence or absence of disease and for research in infectious diseases and immunology. One of the most critical problems in immunology is to understand how the immune system detects the presence of infectious agents and disposes the invader without destroying the self-tissues. Genetic characterization of Toll-like receptors has established that innate immunity is a skillful system that detects invasion of microbial pathogens...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826123/novel-strategies-of-adoptive-immunotherapy-how-natural-killer-cells-may-change-the-treatment-of-elderly-patients-with-acute-myeloblastic-leukemia
#11
REVIEW
Roberto M Lemoli, Sarah Parisi, Antonio Curti
Although many attempts have been made to identify novel molecular-targeted therapies for patients with acute myeloid leukemia, their translation into the clinic have had limited impact. In particular, the question of effective and curative treatments for elderly patients, who are not eligible for stem cell transplantation, remains an unmet medical need. To answer this question, a wide range of immunologic therapeutic strategies, mostly T cell based, have been proposed and investigated. At present, however, the clinical results have been largely unsatisfactory...
November 5, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822205/antibody-production-in-response-to-staphylococcal-ms-1-phage-cocktail-in-patients-undergoing-phage-therapy
#12
Maciej Żaczek, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Barbara Owczarek, Agnieszka Kopciuch, Wojciech Fortuna, Paweł Rogóż, Andrzej Górski
In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814656/alpha-enolase-eno1-a-potential-target-in-novel-immunotherapies
#13
Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Sara Bulfamante, Francesco Novelli
Alpha-enolase (ENO1) is a metabolic enzyme involved in the synthesis of pyruvate. It also acts as a plasminogen receptor and mediates the activation of plasmin and extracellular matrix degradation. In tumor cells, ENO1 is up-regulated and supports the Warburg effect; it is expressed at the cell surface, where it promotes cancer invasion, and is subjected to a specific array of post-translational modifications, namely acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation. ENO1 overexpression and post-translational modifications could be of diagnostic and prognostic value in many cancer types...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794078/clemens-von-pirquet-a-remarkable-life-and-career
#14
REVIEW
Stanford T Shulman
From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. He held that position in Vienna until his shocking double suicide at age 54 with his wife in 1929...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784307/mammalian-microrna-an-important-modulator-of-host-pathogen-interactions-in-human-viral-infections
#15
REVIEW
Chet Raj Ojha, Myosotys Rodriguez, Seth M Dever, Rita Mukhopadhyay, Nazira El-Hage
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs expressed by almost all metazoans, have key roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, organism development and gene expression. Thousands of miRNAs regulating approximately 60 % of the total human genome have been identified. They regulate genetic expression either by direct cleavage or by translational repression of the target mRNAs recognized through partial complementary base pairing. The active and functional unit of miRNA is its complex with Argonaute proteins known as the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757300/mrna-transfected-dendritic-cell-vaccine-in-combination-with-metronomic-cyclophosphamide-as-treatment-for-patients-with-advanced-malignant-melanoma
#16
Troels Holz Borch, Lotte Engell-Noerregaard, Trine Zeeberg Iversen, Eva Ellebaek, Özcan Met, Morten Hansen, Mads Hald Andersen, Per Thor Straten, Inge Marie Svane
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) has generally not fulfilled its promise in cancer immunotherapy due to ineffective translation of immune responses into clinical responses. A proposed reason for this is intrinsic immune regulatory mechanisms, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs). A metronomic regimen of cyclophosphamide (mCy) has been shown to selectively deplete Tregs. To test this in a clinical setting, we conducted a phase I trial to evaluate the feasibility and safety of vaccination with DCs transfected with mRNA in combination with mCy in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MM)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743643/nodo-paranodopathy-internodopathy-and-cleftopathy-target-based-reclassification-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-immune-mediated-polyradiculoneuropathies-in-dogs-and-cats
#17
Simone Gross, Andrea Fischer, Marco Rosati, Lara Matiasek, Daniele Corlazzoli, Rodolfo Cappello, Laura Porcarelli, Tom Harcourt-Brown, Konrad Jurina, Laurent Garosi, Thomas Flegel, Pia Quitt, Jessica Molin, Velia-Isabel Huelsmeyer, Henning Schenk, Gualtiero Gandini, Kirsten Gnirs, Stéphane Blot, Aurélien Jeandel, Massimo Baroni, Shenja Loderstedt, Gianluca Abbiati, Carola Leithaeuser, Sabine Schulze, Marion Kornberg, Mark Lowrie, Kaspar Matiasek
Recent views on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) question the accuracy of classification into axonal and demyelinating subtypes that represent convergent neurophysiological phenotypes rather than immunological targets. Instead it has been proposed to clarify the primarily affected fibre subunit in nerve biopsies. As nerve biopsies rarely are part of routine work-up in human patients we evaluated tissues taken from companion animals affected by GBS-like polyradiculoneuropathy to screen for distribution of immune cells, targeted fibre components and segregating non-inflammatory lesions...
September 1, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742004/evolution-in-our-understanding-of-hepatitis-b-virus-virology-and-immunology
#18
Bertram Bengsch, Kyong-Mi Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health challenge. HBV can cause significant morbidity and mortality by establishing acute and chronic hepatitis. Approximately 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected, and more than 2 billion people have been exposed to HBV. Since the discovery of HBV, the advances in our understanding of HBV virology and immunology have translated into effective vaccines and therapies for HBV infection. Although current therapies successfully suppress viral replication but rarely succeed in viral eradication, recent discoveries in HBV virology and immunology provide exciting rationales for novel treatment strategies aiming at HBV cure...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738946/immunological-challenges-facing-translation-of-alginate-encapsulated-porcine-islet-xenotransplantation-to-human-clinical-trials
#19
Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738804/sentinel-node-detection-in-muscle-invasive-urothelial-bladder-cancer-is-feasible-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-all-pt-stages-a-prospective-multicenter-report
#20
Robert Rosenblatt, Markus Johansson, Farhood Alamdari, Alexander Sidiki, Benny Holmström, Johan Hansson, Janos Vasko, Per Marits, Susanne Gabrielsson, Katrine Riklund, Ola Winqvist, Amir Sherif
PURPOSE: To determine whether sentinel node detection (SNd) in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (MIBC) can be performed in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and determine whether SNd is feasible in all pT stages, including pT0. BACKGROUND: Previous published series of SNd in MIBC have not included patients undergoing NAC, and systematic reports of pT0 patients w/wo NAC were absent. Translational immunological tumor research on MIBC focusing on SNd, in the era of NAC, requires technical feasibility...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Urology
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