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Translational immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330750/immunologic-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-spontaneous-canine-oligodendrogliomas
#1
Anna Filley, Mario Henriquez, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Brij Nath Tewari, Xi Rao, Jun Wan, Margaret A Miller, Yunlong Liu, R Timothy Bentley, Mahua Dey
Malignant glioma (MG), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is extremely aggressive and uniformly fatal. Several treatment strategies have shown significant preclinical promise in murine models of glioma; however, none have produced meaningful clinical responses in human patients. We hypothesize that introduction of an additional preclinical animal model better approximating the complexity of human MG, particularly in interactions with host immune responses, will bridge the existing gap between these two stages of testing...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330560/altered-bone-remodeling-in-psoriatic-disease-new-insights-and-future-directions
#2
REVIEW
Ananta Paine, Christopher Ritchlin
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder that occurs in patients with psoriasis and predominantly affects musculoskeletal structures, skin, and nails. The etiology of PsA is not well understood but evidence supports an interplay of genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors which promote pathological bone remodeling and joint damage in PsA. Localized and systemic bone loss due to increased activity of osteoclasts is well established in PsA based on animal models and translational studies...
January 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329171/nonhuman-primate-rhesus-macaque-models-of-severe-pressure-targeted-hemorrhagic-and-polytraumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#3
Forest R Sheppard, Antoni R Macko, Jacob J Glaser, Philip J Vernon, Alexander J Burdette, Ruth Madelaine Paredes, Craig A Koeller, Anthony E Pusateri, Douglas K Tadaki, Sylvain Cardin
BACKGROUND: We endeavored to develop clinically translatable nonhuman primate (NHP) models of severe polytraumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: NHPs were randomized into five severe pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock (PTHS) ± additional injuries scenarios: 30-min PTHS (PTHS-30), 60-min PTHS (PTHS-60), PTHS-60 + soft tissue injury (PTHS-60+ST), PTHS-60+ST + femur fracture (PTHS-60+ST+FF), and decompensated PTHS+ST+FF (PTHS-D). Physiologic parameters were recorded and blood samples collected at five time points with animal observation through T = 24 h...
February 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326851/recent-advancements-in-gene-therapy-for-hereditary-retinal-dystrophies
#4
REVIEW
Ayşe Öner
Hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are degenerative diseases of the retina which have marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations among these disorders include night or colour blindness, tunnel vision, and subsequent progression to complete blindness. The known causative disease genes have a variety of developmental and functional roles, with mutations in more than 120 genes shown to be responsible for the phenotypes. In addition, mutations within the same gene have been shown to cause different disease phenotypes, even amongst affected individuals within the same family, highlighting further levels of complexity...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313948/human-dendritic-cell-subsets-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Collin, Venetia Bigley
Dendritic cells (DC) are a class of bone marrow derived cells arising from lympho-myeloid haematopoiesis that form an essential interface between the innate sensing of pathogens and the activation of adaptive immunity. This task requires a wide range of mechanisms and responses, which are divided between three major DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC), myeloid/conventional DC1 (cDC1) and myeloid/conventional DC2 (cDC2). Each DC subset develops under the control of a specific repertoire of transcription factors involving differential levels of IRF8 and IRF4 in collaboration with PU...
January 3, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310768/sjs-ten-2017-building-multidisciplinary-networks-to-drive-science-and-translation
#6
REVIEW
Katie D White, Riichiro Abe, Michael Ardern-Jones, Thomas Beachkofsky, Charles Bouchard, Bruce Carleton, James Chodosh, Ricardo Cibotti, Robert Davis, Joshua C Denny, Roni P Dodiuk-Gad, Elizabeth N Ergen, Jennifer L Goldman, James H Holmes, Shuen-Iu Hung, Mario E Lacouture, Rannakoe J Lehloenya, Simon Mallal, Teri A Manolio, Robert G Micheletti, Caroline M Mitchell, Maja Mockenhaupt, David A Ostrov, Rebecca Pavlos, Munir Pirmohamed, Elena Pope, Alec Redwood, Misha Rosenbach, Michael D Rosenblum, Jean-Claude Roujeau, Arturo P Saavedra, Hajirah N Saeed, Jeffery P Struewing, Hirohiko Sueki, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Cynthia Sung, Jason A Trubiano, Jessica Weintraub, Lisa M Wheatley, Kristina B Williams, Brandon Worley, Wen-Hung Chung, Neil H Shear, Elizabeth J Phillips
Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a life-threatening, immunologically mediated, and usually drug-induced disease with a high burden to individuals, their families, and society with an annual incidence of 1 to 5 per 1,000,000. To effect significant reduction in short- and long-term morbidity and mortality, and advance clinical care and research, coordination of multiple medical, surgical, behavioral, and basic scientific disciplines is required. On March 2, 2017, an investigator-driven meeting was held immediately before the American Academy of Dermatology Annual meeting for the central purpose of assembling, for the first time in the United States, clinicians and scientists from multiple disciplines involved in SJS/TEN clinical care and basic science research...
January 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302631/oxytocin-monolayer-based-impedimetric-biosensor-for-zinc-and-copper-ions
#7
Kiran Kumar Tadi, Israel Alshanski, Evgeniy Mervinetsky, Gerard Marx, Panayiota Petrou, Karussis M Dimitrios, Chaim Gilon, Mattan Hurevich, Shlomo Yitzchaik
Zinc and copper are essential metal ions for numerous biological processes. Their levels are tightly maintained in all body organs. Impairment of the Zn2+ to Cu2+ ratio in serum was found to correlate with many disease states, including immunological and inflammatory disorders. Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide, and its activity is modulated by zinc and copper ion binding. Harnessing the intrinsic properties of OT is one of the attractive ways to develop valuable metal ion sensors. Here, we report for the first time an OT-based metal ion sensor prepared by immobilizing the neuropeptide onto a glassy carbon electrode...
December 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300005/food-allergy
#8
REVIEW
Harald Renz, Katrina J Allen, Scott H Sicherer, Hugh A Sampson, Gideon Lack, Kirsten Beyer, Hans C Oettgen
Food allergies manifest in a variety of clinical conditions within the gastrointestinal tract, skin and lungs, with the most dramatic and sometimes fatal manifestation being anaphylactic shock. Major progress has been made in basic, translational and clinical research, leading to a better understanding of the underlying immunological mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of clinical and immunological tolerance against food antigens, which can result in either immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reactions or non-IgE-mediated reactions...
January 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298782/translating-science-into-survival-report-on-the-third-international-cancer-immunotherapy-conference
#9
Mustafa Diken, Karen K Chu, Arthur N Brodsky
On September 6 to 9, 2017, in Mainz, Germany, the Third International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference was hosted jointly by the Cancer Research Institute, the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy, the European Academy of Tumor Immunology, and the American Association for Cancer Research. For the third straight year, more than 1,400 people attended the four-day event, which covered the latest advances in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. This report provides an overview of the main topics discussed. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(1); 10-13...
January 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296858/successful-desensitization-with-proteasome-inhibition-and-costimulation-blockade-in-sensitized-nonhuman-primates
#10
Jean Kwun, Christopher Burghuber, Miriam Manook, Brian Ezekian, Jaeberm Park, Janghoon Yoon, John S Yi, Neal Iwakoshi, Adriana Gibby, Jung Joo Hong, Alton B Farris, Allan D Kirk, Stuart J Knechtle
The detrimental effects of donor-directed antibodies in sensitized transplant patients remain a difficult immunologic barrier to successful organ transplantation. Antibody removal is often followed by rebound. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) deplete antibody-producing plasma cells (PCs) but have shown marginal benefit for desensitization. In an allosensitized nonhuman primate (NHP) model, we observed increased germinal center (GC) formation after PI monotherapy, suggesting a compensatory PC repopulation mediated via GC activation...
November 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295864/harnessing-an-rna-mediated-chaperone-for-the-assembly-of-influenza-hemagglutinin-in-an-immunologically-relevant-conformation
#11
Seung Won Yang, Yo Han Jang, Soon Bin Kwon, Yoon Jae Lee, Wonil Chae, Young Ho Byun, Paul Kim, Chan Park, Young Jae Lee, Choon Kang Kim, Young Seok Kim, Seong Il Choi, Baik Lin Seong
A novel protein-folding function of RNA has been recognized, which can outperform previously known molecular chaperone proteins. The RNA as a molecular chaperone (chaperna) activity is intrinsic to some ribozymes and is operational during viral infections. Our purpose was to test whether influenza hemagglutinin (HA) can be assembled in a soluble, trimeric, and immunologically activating conformation by means of an RNA molecular chaperone (chaperna) activity. An RNA-interacting domain (RID) from the host being immunized was selected as a docking tag for RNA binding, which served as a transducer for the chaperna function for de novo folding and trimeric assembly of RID-HA1...
January 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289417/skin-wound-healing-in-humans-and-mice-challenges-in-translational-research
#12
Helena D Zomer, Andrea G Trentin
Despite the great progress in translational research concerning skin wound healing in the last few decades, no animal model fully predicts all clinical outcomes. The mouse is the most commonly used model, as it is easy to maintain and standardize, and is economically accessible. However, differences between murine and human skin repair, such as the contraction promoted by panniculus carnosus and the role of specific niches of skin stem cells, make it difficult to bridge the gap between preclinical and clinical studies...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273097/current-state-of-research-and-summary-of-preceding%C3%A2-summits
#13
EDITORIAL
David A Norris
During its 25th anniversary year, the National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF) undertook a project to completely re-evaluate their research program and to help focus and direct future directions of alopecia areata (AA) research to better meet the goals of individuals with and the scientists working to discover mechanisms of disease and better treatments for AA. This project was embodied in five research summits in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, and 2014 as part of the NAAF's main strategic initiative, the Alopecia Areata Treatment Development Program, to accelerate progress toward a viable treatment...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258473/proteomics-analysis-and-proteogenomic-characterization-of-different-physiopathological-human-lenses
#14
Xiaohang Wu, Zhenzhen Liu, Xiayin Zhang, Dongni Wang, Erping Long, Jinghui Wang, Wangting Li, Weiyi Lai, Qianzhong Cao, Kunhua Hu, Weirong Chen, Haotian Lin, Yizhi Liu
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify the proteomic differences among human lenses in different physiopathological states and to screen for susceptibility genes/proteins via proteogenomic characterization. METHODS: The total proteomes identified across the regenerative lens with secondary cataract (RLSC), congenital cataract (CC) and age-related cataract (ARC) groups were compared to those of normal lenses using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute protein quantification (iTRAQ)...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250062/translating-mechanism-of-regulatory-action-of-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-to-monitoring-endpoints-in-clinical-trials
#15
REVIEW
Jessica S Suwandi, Tatjana Nikolic, Bart O Roep
Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) have reached patients with autoimmune and inflammatory disease, at least in clinical trials. The safety of tolDCs as intervention therapy has been established, but the capacity to modulate autoimmune response in vivo remains to be demonstrated. Studies have revealed a diversity of regulatory mechanisms that tolDCs may employ in vivo. These mechanisms differ between various types of modulated tolDC. The most often foreseen action of tolDCs is through regulatory polarization of naïve T cells or activation of existing regulatory T cells, which should ultimately diminish autoimmune inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240559/fluorescence-detection-enumeration-and-characterization-of-single-circulating-cells-in-vivo-technology-applications-and-future-prospects
#16
Carolin Hartmann, Roshani Patil, Charles P Lin, Mark Niedre
There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, 'in vivo flow cytometry' (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo...
December 14, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#17
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223769/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-search-of-shared-pathomechanisms
#18
REVIEW
D Polsek, N Gildeh, D Cash, R Winsky-Sommerer, S C R Williams, F Turkheimer, G D Leschziner, M J Morrell, I Rosenzweig
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant public health concern. The incidence continues to rise, and it is set to be over one million in the UK by 2025. The processes involved in the pathogenesis of AD have been shown to overlap with those found in cognitive decline in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Currently, the standard treatment for OSA is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Adherence to treatment can, however, be an issue, especially in patients with dementia. Also, not all patients respond adequately, necessitating the use of additional treatments...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216182/the-physicochemical-fingerprint-of-necator-americanus
#19
Veeren M Chauhan, David J Scurr, Thomas Christie, Gary Telford, Jonathan W Aylott, David I Pritchard
Necator americanus, a haematophagous hookworm parasite, infects ~10% of the world's population and is considered to be a significant public health risk. Its lifecycle has distinct stages, permitting its successful transit from the skin via the lungs (L3) to the intestinal tract (L4 maturing to adult). It has been hypothesised that the L3 larval sheath, which is shed during percutaneous infection (exsheathment), diverts the immune system to allow successful infection and reinfection in endemic areas. However, the physicochemical properties of the L3 larval cuticle and sheath, which are in direct contact with the skin and its immune defences, are unknown...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214013/prediction-and-prevention-of-allergy-and-asthma-in-eaaci-journals-2016
#20
REVIEW
Jean Bousquet, Clive Grattan, Thomas Bieber, Paolo Matricardi, Hans Uwe Simon, Ulrich Wahn, Antonella Muraro, Peter W Hellings, Ioana Agache
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) owns three journals: Allergy, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology and Clinical and Translational Allergy. One of the major goals of EAACI is to support health promotion in which prevention of allergy and asthma plays a critical role and to disseminate the knowledge of allergy to all stakeholders including the EAACI junior members.
2017: Clinical and Translational Allergy
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