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Translational immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069751/host-microbiota-interactions-shape-local-and-systemic-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
John B Grigg, Gregory F Sonnenberg
Recent advances in understanding how the mammalian immune system and intestinal microbiota functionally interact have yielded novel insights for human health and disease. Modern technologies to quantitatively measure specific members and functional characteristics of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract, along with fundamental and emerging concepts in the field of immunology, have revealed numerous ways in which host-microbiota interactions proceed beneficially, neutrally, or detrimentally for mammalian hosts...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068099/mechanisms-and-barriers-in-cancer-nanomedicine-addressing-challenges-looking-for-solutions
#2
Thomas J Anchordoquy, Yechezkel Barenholz, Diana Boraschi, Michael Chorny, Paolo Decuzzi, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Z Shadi Farhangrazi, Dorothy Farrell, Alberto Gabizon, Hamidreza Ghandehari, Biana Godin, Ninh M La-Beck, Julia Ljubimova, S Moein Moghimi, Len Pagliaro, Ji-Ho Park, Dan Peer, Erkki Ruoslahti, Natalie J Serkova, Dmitri Simberg
Remarkable progress has recently been made in the synthesis and characterization of engineered nanoparticles for imaging and treatment of cancers, resulting in several promising candidates in clinical trials. Despite these advances, clinical applications of nanoparticle-based therapeutic/imaging agents remain limited by biological, immunological, and translational barriers. In order to overcome the existing status quo in drug delivery, there is a need for open and frank discussion in the nanomedicine community on what is needed to make qualitative leaps toward translation...
January 9, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061324/oral-corticosterone-administration-reduces-insulitis-but-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-hyperglycemia-in-male-nonobese-diabetic-mice
#3
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, Adrianna E Eder, Michael D Karlstad, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Z Elizabeth Floyd, J Jason Collier
Steroid-induced diabetes is the most common form of drug-induced hyperglycemia. Therefore, metabolic and immunological alterations associated with chronic oral corticosterone were investigated using male nonobese diabetic mice. Three weeks after corticosterone delivery, there was reduced sensitivity to insulin action measured by insulin tolerance test. Body composition measurements revealed increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. Overt hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL) manifested 6 weeks after the start of glucocorticoid administration, whereas 100% of the mice receiving the vehicle control remained normoglycemic...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051086/neutrophilic-nlrp3-inflammasome-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-regulates-the-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t17-cell-response-in-respiratory-bacterial-infections
#4
M Hassane, D Demon, D Soulard, J Fontaine, L E Keller, E C Patin, R Porte, I Prinz, B Ryffel, A Kadioglu, J-W Veening, J-C Sirard, C Faveeuw, M Lamkanfi, F Trottein, C Paget
Traditionally regarded as simple foot soldiers of the innate immune response limited to the eradication of pathogens, neutrophils recently emerged as more complex cells endowed with a set of immunoregulatory functions. Using a model of invasive pneumococcal disease, we highlighted an unexpected key role for neutrophils as accessory cells in innate interleukin (IL)-17A production by lung resident Vγ6Vδ1(+) T cells via nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor, pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion...
January 4, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049494/adjuvant-effects-of-a-sequence-engineered-mrna-vaccine-translational-profiling-demonstrates-similar-human-and-murine-innate-response
#5
Darin K Edwards, Edith Jasny, Heesik Yoon, Nigel Horscroft, Brian Schanen, Tanya Geter, Mariola Fotin-Mleczek, Benjamin Petsch, Vaughan Wittman
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines often depend upon a strong activation of the innate immune system to drive a potent adaptive immune response, often mediated by a strong adjuvant. For a number of adjuvants immunological readouts may not be consistent across species. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the innate immunostimulatory potential of mRNA vaccines in both humans and mice, using a novel mRNA-based vaccine encoding influenza A hemagglutinin of the pandemic strain H1N1pdm09 as a model...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045025/interferon-epsilon-promotes-hiv-restriction-at-multiple-steps-of-viral-replication
#6
Albert Garcia-Minambres, Sahar G Eid, Niamh E Mangan, Corinna Pade, San S Lim, Antony Y Matthews, Nicole A de Weerd, Paul J Hertzog, Johnson Mak
Interferon epsilon (IFNɛ) is a type I IFN that is expressed constitutively in the female reproductive tract (FRT), and contributes to protection in models of sexually transmitted infections. Using multiple cell systems, including reporter cell lines and activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), we show that recombinant IFNɛ impairs HIV infection at stage(s) post HIV entry and up to the translation of viral proteins. Consistent with this, IFNɛ upregulated a number of host cell restriction factors that block HIV at these stages of the replication cycle...
January 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035820/genetically-encodable-bacterial-flavin-transferase-for-fluorogenic-protein-modification-in-mammalian-cells
#7
Myeong-Gyun Kang, Jumi Park, Gianfranco Balboni, Mi Hee Lim, Changwook Lee, Hyun-Woo Rhee
A bacterial flavin transferase (ApbE) was recently employed for flavin mononucleotide (FMN) modification on the Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase C (NqrC) protein in the pathogenic gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We employed this unique post-translational modification in mammalian cells and found that the FMN transfer reaction robustly occurred when NqrC and ApbE were genetically targeted in the cytosol of live mammalian cells. Moreover, NqrC expression in the endoplasmic reticulum (NqrC-ER) induced the retro-translocation of NqrC to the cytosol, leading to the proteasome-mediated ER-associated degradation of NqrC, which is considered to be an innate immunological response toward the bacterial protein...
December 30, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032353/allergooncology-the-impact-of-allergy-in-oncology-eaaci-position-paper
#8
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, M Capron, C Corrigan, M Castells, D Dombrowicz, T R Daniels-Wells, J Fazekas, E Fiebiger, S Gatault, H J Gould, J Janda, D H Josephs, P Karagiannis, F Levi-Schaffer, A Meshcheryakova, D Mechtcheriakova, Y Mekori, F Mungenast, E A Nigro, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, L Saul, J Singer, J F Spicer, A G Siccardi, E Spillner, M C Turner, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
Th2 immunity and allergic immune surveillance play critical roles in host responses to pathogens, parasites and allergens. Numerous studies have reported significant links between Th2 responses and cancer, including insights into the functions of IgE antibodies and associated effector cells in both anti-tumour immune surveillance and therapy. The interdisciplinary field of AllergoOncology was given Task Force status by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2014. Affiliated expert groups focus on the interface between allergic responses and cancer, applied to immune surveillance, immunomodulation and the functions of IgE-mediated immune responses against cancer, to derive novel insights into more effective treatments...
December 29, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026072/activation-of-klf1-enhances-the-differentiation-and-maturation-of-red-blood-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Cheng-Tao Yang, Rui Ma, Richard A Axton, Melany Jackson, A Helen Taylor, Antonella Fidanza, Lamin Marenah, Jan Frayne, Joanne C Mountford, Lesley M Forrester
Blood transfusion is widely used in the clinic but the source of red blood cells (RBCs) is dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and complications can arise from immunological incompatibility. Clinically-compatible and scalable protocols that allow the production of RBCs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been described but progress to translation has been hampered by poor maturation and fragility of the resultant cells...
December 27, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990287/coeliac-disease-a-unique-model-for-investigating-broken-tolerance-in-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Melinda Y Hardy, Jason A Tye-Din
Coeliac disease, a prevalent immune-mediated enteropathy driven by dietary gluten, provides an exceptional human model to dissect the genetic, environmental and immunologic factors operating in autoimmunity. Despite the causative antigen being an exogenous food protein, coeliac disease has many features in common with autoimmune disease including a strong HLA class II association and the presence of pathogenic CD4(+) T cells and autoantibodies. CD8(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes specifically target and destroy intestinal epithelium in response to stress signals and not a specific antigen...
November 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986392/solving-immunology
#11
REVIEW
Yoram Vodovotz, Ashley Xia, Elizabeth L Read, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, David A Hafler, Eduardo Sontag, Jin Wang, John S Tsang, Judy D Day, Steven H Kleinstein, Atul J Butte, Matthew C Altman, Ross Hammond, Stuart C Sealfon
Emergent responses of the immune system result from the integration of molecular and cellular networks over time and across multiple organs. High-content and high-throughput analysis technologies, concomitantly with data-driven and mechanistic modeling, hold promise for the systematic interrogation of these complex pathways. However, connecting genetic variation and molecular mechanisms to individual phenotypes and health outcomes has proven elusive. Gaps remain in data, and disagreements persist about the value of mechanistic modeling for immunology...
December 13, 2016: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984565/1st-international-conference-on-human-translational-immunology
#12
Jennifer L Hope, Bali Pulendran, Stephen P Schoenberger, Peter D Katsikis
The 1st International Conference on Human &Translational Immunology convened in Rhodes, Greece, and provided a venue for stimulating scientific discussions on the human immune system.
December 16, 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980032/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sabotages-the-generation-of-host-proresolving-lipid-mediators
#13
Becca A Flitter, Kelli L Hvorecny, Emiko Ono, Taylor Eddens, Jun Yang, Daniel H Kwak, Christopher D Bahl, Thomas H Hampton, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D Hammock, Xinyu Liu, Janet S Lee, Jay K Kolls, Bruce D Levy, Dean R Madden, Jennifer M Bomberger
Recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections coupled with robust, damaging neutrophilic inflammation characterize the chronic lung disease cystic fibrosis (CF). The proresolving lipid mediator, 15-epi lipoxin A4 (15-epi LXA4), plays a critical role in limiting neutrophil activation and tissue inflammation, thus promoting the return to tissue homeostasis. Here, we show that a secreted P. aeruginosa epoxide hydrolase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator inhibitory factor (Cif), can disrupt 15-epi LXA4 transcellular biosynthesis and function...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957322/a-mutually-beneficial-collaboration-between-the-european-academy-of-allergy-and-clinical-immunology-junior-members-and-clinical-and-translational-allergy
#14
EDITORIAL
Peter Valentin Tomazic, Anke Graessel, Diana Silva, Ibon Eguiluz-Gracia, George V Guibas, Clive Grattan, Jean Bousquet, Olympia Tsilochristou
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Junior Members (JM) comprise the largest EAACI section with around 4000 clinicians and scientists under 35 years of age working in the field of allergy and clinical immunology. The Junior Member collaboration with Clinical and Translational Allergy Journal is a mutually beneficial relationship providing Junior Members of EAACI with excellent opportunities to publish their work in the Journal, enhance their visibility in their respective field, and get involved with Journal-related activities and processes...
2016: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940920/evolution-of-a-mass-spectrometry-grade-protease-with-ptm-directed-specificity
#15
Duc T Tran, Valerie J Cavett, Vuong Q Dang, Héctor L Torres, Brian M Paegel
Mapping posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which diversely modulate biological functions, represents a significant analytical challenge. The centerpiece technology for PTM site identification, mass spectrometry (MS), requires proteolytic cleavage in the vicinity of a PTM to yield peptides for sequencing. This requirement catalyzed our efforts to evolve MS-grade mutant PTM-directed proteases. Citrulline, a PTM implicated in epigenetic and immunological function, made an ideal first target, because citrullination eliminates arginyl tryptic sites...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923825/rational-selection-of-syngeneic-preclinical-tumor-models-for-immunotherapeutic-drug-discovery
#16
Suzanne I S Mosely, John E Prime, Richard C A Sainson, Jens-Oliver Koopmann, Dennis Y Q Wang, Danielle M Greenawalt, Miika J Ahdesmaki, Rebecca Leyland, Stefanie Mullins, Luciano Pacelli, Danielle Marcus, Judith Anderton, Amanda Watkins, Jane Coates Ulrichsen, Philip Brohawn, Brandon W Higgs, Matthew McCourt, Hazel Jones, James A Harper, Michelle Morrow, Viia Valge-Archer, Ross Stewart, Simon J Dovedi, Robert W Wilkinson
Murine syngeneic tumor models are critical to novel immuno-based therapy development, but the molecular and immunologic features of these models are still not clearly defined. The translational relevance of differences between the models is not fully understood, impeding appropriate preclinical model selection for target validation, and ultimately hindering drug development. Across a panel of commonly used murine syngeneic tumor models, we showed variable responsiveness to immunotherapies. We used array comparative genomic hybridization, whole-exome sequencing, exon microarray analysis, and flow cytometry to extensively characterize these models, which revealed striking differences that may underlie these contrasting response profiles...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908930/translating-science-into-survival-report-on-the-second-international-cancer-immunotherapy-conference
#17
Arthur N Brodsky, Vanessa M Hubbard-Lucey
On September 25-28, 2016, in New York City, the Second International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference was cohosted by the Cancer Research Institute, the American Association for Cancer Research, the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy, and the European Academy of Tumor Immunology. This exciting conference brought together more than 1,400 participants, including scientists, clinicians, investors, and regulators, to discuss the latest scientific advances within the field of cancer immunotherapy. This conference report reviews the chief themes that emerged during the 4-day meeting...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891129/immunological-and-translational-aspects-of-nk-cell-based-antitumor-immunotherapies
#18
REVIEW
Maxim Shevtsov, Gabriele Multhoff
Natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in the first line of defense against cancer. NK cells that are deficient in CD3 and a clonal T cell receptor (TCR) can be subdivided into two major subtypes, CD56(dim)CD16(+) cytotoxic and CD56(bright)CD16(-) immunoregulatory NK cells. Cytotoxic NK cells not only directly kill tumor cells without previous stimulation by cytotoxic effector molecules, such as perforin and granzymes or via death receptor interactions, but also act as regulatory cells for the immune system by secreting cytokines and chemokines...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876058/a-novel-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-murine-model-closer-to-the-standard-clinical-scenario
#19
Thais Bascuas, María Moreno, Amy Mónaco, Laura Reyes, Andrea Paolino, Patricia Oliver, María G Kramer, Henry Engler, José P Pacheco, Sofía Grille, José A Chabalgoity
BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most frequent hemato-oncological malignancies. Despite recent major advances in treatment, a substantial proportion of patients relapses highlighting the need for new therapeutic modalities. Promissory results obtained in pre-clinical studies are usually not translated when moving into clinical trials. Pre-clinical studies are mainly conducted in animals with high tumor burden; instead patients undergo chemotherapy as first line of treatment and most likely are under remission when immunotherapies are applied...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871877/journal-allergy-clinical-immunology-perspective-clinical-potential-for-imaging-in-asthma-and-other-lung-disorders
#20
Emily M DeBoer, David R Spielberg, Alan S Brody
The ability of lung imaging to phenotype patients, determine prognosis, and to predict response to treatments is expanding in clinical and translational research. The purpose of this perspective is to describe current imaging modalities that may be useful clinical tools in asthma and other lung disorders and to explore some of the new developments in imaging modalities of the lung. These imaging modalities include chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), bronchoscopy, and others...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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