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Translational immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777730/understanding-facial-expressivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-inside-out-review-of-the-biological-basis-and-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Stephen I Deutsch, C Teal Raffaele
Deficits in decoding and understanding facially expressed emotions occur commonly in persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which contribute to the impairment of social communication that serves as one of its core diagnostic criteria. Research suggests that abnormalities of visual scanning of the face, activation of key nodes within the "social brain" by facially expressed emotions, functional connectivity within and between nodes of the "social brain", and transduction of specific neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory signals contribute to the pathogenesis of these deficits in at least some persons with ASD...
May 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772765/protein-carbamylation-a-marker-reflecting-increased-age-related-cell-oxidation
#2
Julia Carracedo, Rafael Ramírez-Carracedo, Irene Martínez de Toda, Carmen Vida, Matilde Alique, Mónica De la Fuente, Rafael Ramírez-Chamond
Carbamylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that may partake in the oxidative stress-associated cell damage, and its increment has been recently proposed as a "hallmark of aging". The molecular mechanisms associated with aging are related to an increased release of free radicals. We have studied whether carbamylated proteins from the peripheral blood of healthy subjects are related to oxidative damage and aging, taking into account the gender and the immune profile of the subjects...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760694/dissemination-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-a-causative-agent-of-scrub-typhus-and-immunological-responses-in-the-humanized-draga-mouse
#3
Le Jiang, Erin K Morris, Rodrigo Aguilera-Olvera, Zhiwen Zhang, Teik-Chye Chan, Soumya Shashikumar, Chien-Chung Chao, Sofia A Casares, Wei-Mei Ching
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi , an obligated intracellular bacterium that affects over one million people per year. Several mouse models have been used to study its pathogenesis, disease immunology, and for testing vaccine candidates. However, due to the intrinsic differences between the immune systems in mouse and human, these mouse models could not faithfully mimic the pathology and immunological responses developed by human patients, limiting their value in both basic and translational studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760191/effects-of-influenza-on-alveolar-macrophage-viability-are-dependent-on-mouse-genetic-strain
#4
Danielle Califano, Yoichi Furuya, Dennis W Metzger
Secondary bacterial coinfections following influenza virus pose a serious threat to human health. Therefore, it is of significant clinical relevance to understand the immunological causes of this increased susceptibility. Influenza-induced alterations in alveolar macrophages (AMs) have been shown to be a major underlying cause of the increased susceptibility to bacterial superinfection. However, the mechanisms responsible for this remain under debate, specifically in terms of whether AMs are depleted in response to influenza infection or are maintained postinfection, but with disrupted phagocytic activity...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756991/the-immune-landscape-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-utility-of-cytologic-and-histologic-samples-obtained-through-minimally-invasive-pulmonary-procedures
#5
Jason Beattie, Lonny Yarmus, Momen Wahidi, M Patricia Rivera, Christopher Gilbert, Fabien Maldonado, Kasia Czarnecka, Angela Argento, Alexander Chen, Felix Herth, Daniel H Sterman
The success of immune checkpoint inhibitors and the discovery of useful biomarkers to predict response to these agents has shifted much of the focus of personalized care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer towards harnessing the immune response. With further advancement, more effective immunotherapy options will emerge along with more useful biomarkers. For patients with advanced disease, minimally invasive techniques will remain most appropriate for acquisition of tissue. This is in contrast to default gold-standard large tissue specimens obtained through surgical resection...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752757/subcutaneous-immunotherapy-suppresses-th2-inflammation-and-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-but-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-grass-pollen-mouse-models-for-allergic-asthma
#6
Laura Hesse, Uilke Brouwer, Arjen H Petersen, Renée Gras, Lisette Bosman, Jens Brimnes, Joanne N G Oude Elberink, Antoon J M van Oosterhout, Martijn C Nawijn
BACKGROUND: Both subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SCIT and SLIT) have been shown to effectively suppress allergic manifestations upon allergen exposure, providing long term relief from symptoms in allergic disorders including allergic asthma. Clinical studies directly comparing SCIT and SLIT report a different kinetics and magnitude of immunological changes induced during treatment. Comparative studies into the mechanisms underlying immune suppression in SCIT and SLIT are lacking...
May 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750504/c1q-mediated-complement-activation-and-c3-opsonization-trigger-recognition-of-stealth-poly-2-methyl-2-oxazoline-coated-silica-nanoparticles-by-human-phagocytes
#7
Regina Tavano, Luca Gabrielli, Elisa Lubian, Chiara Fedeli, Silvia Visentin, Patrizia Polverino de Laureto, Giorgio Arrigoni, Alessandra Geffner-Smith, Fangfang Chen, Dmitri Simberg, Giulia Morgese, Edmondo Maria Benetti, Linping Wu, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Fabrizio Mancin, Emanuele Papini
Poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMOXA) is an alternative promising polymer to poly(ethylene glycol), (PEG), for design and engineering of macrophage-evading nanoparticles (NPs). Although PMOXA engineered NPs have shown comparable pharmacokinetics, and in vivo performance to PEGylated stealth NPs in the murine model, its interaction with elements of the human innate immune system has not been studied. From a translational angle, we studied the interaction of fully characterized PMOXA-coated vinyl-triethoxysilane-derived organically modified silica NPs (PMOXA-coated NPs) of approximately 100 nm in diameter with human complement system, blood leukocytes and macrophages, and compared their performance with PEGylated and uncoated NP counterparts...
May 11, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725332/improving-the-efficiency-of-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Timm Hoeres, Manfred Smetak, Dominik Pretscher, Martin Wilhelm
Increasing immunological knowledge and advances in techniques lay the ground for more efficient and broader application of immunotherapies. gamma delta (γδ) T-cells possess multiple favorable anti-tumor characteristics, making them promising candidates to be used in cellular and combination therapies of cancer. They recognize malignant cells, infiltrate tumors, and depict strong cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory activity. Here, we focus on human Vγ9Vδ2 T-cells, the most abundant γδ T-cell subpopulation in the blood, which are able to inhibit cancer progression in various models in vitro and in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723668/why-do-proteases-mess-up-with-antigen-presentation-by-re-shuffling-antigen-sequences
#9
REVIEW
Juliane Liepe, Huib Ovaa, Michele Mishto
The sequence of a large number of MHC-presented epitopes is not present as such in the original antigen because it has been re-shuffled by the proteasome or other proteases. Why do proteases throw a spanner in the works of our model of antigen tagging and immune recognition? We describe in this review what we know about the immunological relevance of post-translationally spliced epitopes and why proteases seem to have a second (dark) personality, which is keen to create new peptide bonds.
April 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721998/cell-transplantation-for-retinal-degeneration-transition-from-rodent-to-nonhuman-primate-models
#10
Trevor J McGill, David J Wilson, Jonathan Stoddard, Lauren M Renner, Martha Neuringer
Transplantation of potentially therapeutic cells into the subretinal space is a promising prospective therapy for the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In rodent models with photoreceptor degeneration, subretinal transplantation of cell suspensions has repeatedly been demonstrated to rescue behaviorally measured vision, maintain electrophysiological responses from the retina and the brain, and slow the degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors for extended periods...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707563/copd-time-to-improve-its-taxonomy
#11
Bartolomé R Celli, Alvar Agustí
Due to well-conducted epidemiological studies and advances in genetics, molecular biology, translational research, the advent of computed tomography of the lungs and bioinformatics, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a single entity caused by susceptibility to cigarette smoke is no longer tenable. Furthermore, the once-accepted concept that COPD results from a rapid and progressive loss of lung function over time is not true for a sizeable proportion of adults with the disease...
January 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707474/vitamin-a-and-d-in-allergy-from-experimental-animal-models-and-cellular-studies-to-human-disease
#12
REVIEW
Karin Hufnagl, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Introduction: Vitamins A and D are able to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and may therefore influence the development and the course of allergic diseases. Materials and methods: This article reviews the current evidence for the experimental effects of vitamins A and D in vivo in animal models and on immune cells in vitro , and discusses their translational implication. A systematic literature search over the last 10 years was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed databases...
2018: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706550/single-cell-chromatin-modification-profiling-reveals-increased-epigenetic-variations-with-aging
#13
Peggie Cheung, Francesco Vallania, Hayley C Warsinske, Michele Donato, Steven Schaffert, Sarah E Chang, Mai Dvorak, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Paul J Utz, Purvesh Khatri, Alex J Kuo
Post-translational modifications of histone proteins and exchanges of histone variants of chromatin are central to the regulation of nearly all DNA-templated biological processes. However, the degree and variability of chromatin modifications in specific human immune cells remain largely unknown. Here, we employ a highly multiplexed mass cytometry analysis to profile the global levels of a broad array of chromatin modifications in primary human immune cells at the single-cell level. Our data reveal markedly different cell-type- and hematopoietic-lineage-specific chromatin modification patterns...
April 21, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705856/sculpting-the-sculptors-methods-for-studying-the-fetal-cholinergic-signaling-on-systems-and-cellular-scales
#14
Martin G Frasch, Patrick Burns, Javier Benito, Marina Cortes, Mingju Cao, Gilles Fecteau, André Desrochers
The non-neuronal, immunological effects of the cholinergic signaling are exerted on the system's scale of observation via the vagus nerve and on the cellular scale via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signaling in myeloid cells of the periphery or brain's microglia and astrocytes. The developmental effects of such multi-scale signaling can be conceived of as an example of psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) homeokinesis and, while reported in the literature, are not yet systematically well studied. To be better understood, the intricacy of the multi-scale interactions requires relevant preclinical animal models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696565/emerging-role-of-semaphorin-3a-in-autoimmune-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Li-Na Liu, Xiao-Mei Li, Dong-Qing Ye, Hai-Feng Pan
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by the body's immune responses being directed against its own tissues, resulting in prolonged inflammation and subsequent tissue damage. Currently, the exact pathogenesis of ADs remains not fully elucidated. Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A), a secreted member of semaphorin family, is a potent immunoregulator during all immune response stages. Sema3A has wide expression, such as in bone, connective tissue, kidney, neurons, and cartilage. Sema3A can downregulate ADs by suppressing the over-activity of both T-cell and B-cell autoimmunity...
April 25, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686682/targeting-cytosolic-nucleic-acid-sensing-pathways-for-cancer-immunotherapies
#16
REVIEW
Sandra Iurescia, Daniela Fioretti, Monica Rinaldi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against pathogen infection though also influences pathways involved in cancer immunosurveillance. The innate immune system relies on a limited set of germ line-encoded sensors termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), signaling proteins and immune response factors. Cytosolic receptors mediate recognition of danger damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. Once activated, these sensors trigger multiple signaling cascades, converging on the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677472/translating-immunology-into-therapeutic-concepts-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Holm H Uhlig, Fiona Powrie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) defines a spectrum of complex disorders. Understanding how environmental risk factors, alterations of the intestinal microbiota, and polygenetic and epigenetic susceptibility impact on immune pathways is key for developing targeted therapies. Mechanistic understanding of polygenic IBD is complemented by Mendelian disorders that present with IBD, pharmacological interventions that cause colitis, autoimmunity, and multiple animal models. Collectively, this multifactorial pathogenesis supports a concept of immune checkpoints that control microbial-host interactions in the gut by modulating innate and adaptive immunity, as well as epithelial and mesenchymal cell responses...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676647/immunologic-effects-of-beryllium-exposure
#18
Andrew P Fontenot
Metal-induced hypersensitivity is driven by T-cell sensitization to metal ions. Although numerous metals are associated with the development of diffuse parenchymal lung disease, beryllium-induced hypersensitivity is the best-studied to date. This review focuses on the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity that leads to the development of chronic beryllium disease. After beryllium exposure, activation of the innate immune system occurs through the engagement of pattern-recognition receptors. This activation leads to cell death, release of alarmins, and activation and migration of dendritic cells to lung-draining lymph nodes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676227/chemically-modified-mrna-modified-rna-application-for-treatment-of-achilles-tendon-defects
#19
Elmar Herbst, Florian Imhoff, Peter Föhr, Stefan Milz, Christian Plank, Carsten Rudolph, Günther Hasenpusch, Johannes Geiger, Manish Aneja, Karoline Groth, Stephan Vogt, Andreas Imhoff, Andreas Schmitt
Different regenerative medicine approaches for tendon healing exist. Recently, especially gene therapy gained popularity. However, potential mutagenic and immunologic effects might prevent from translation to clinical research. Chemically modified mRNA (cmRNA) might bypass these limitations of gene therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the early healing properties of Achilles tendon defects in rats treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) cmRNA. Forty male Lewis rats were used for the study and randomly assigned to the two study groups: 1) treatment with cmRNA coding for bFGF, 2) non-coding cmRNA control...
April 20, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662054/characterising-the-phenotypic-evolution-of-circulating-tumour-cells-during-treatment
#20
Simon Chang-Hao Tsao, Jing Wang, Yuling Wang, Andreas Behren, Jonathan Cebon, Matt Trau
Real-time monitoring of cancer cells' phenotypic evolution during therapy can provide vital tumour biology information for treatment management. Circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis has emerged as a useful monitoring tool, but its routine usage is restricted by either limited multiplexing capability or sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of antibody-conjugated and Raman reporter-coated gold nanoparticles for simultaneous labelling and monitoring of multiple CTC surface markers (named as "cell signature"), without the need for isolating individual CTCs...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
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