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Diabetes AND glp-1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918389/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-management-of-obesity-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-novel-therapeutic-option
#1
REVIEW
Gauri Dhir, Kenneth Cusi
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and is associated with a cluster of metabolic factors that lead to poor cardiovascular outcomes. In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver fat (triglyceride) accumulation closely mirrors adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and T2DM. It is now recognized as the most common chronic liver disease in Westernized societies, often progressing to more severe forms of the disease such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914987/diabetes-news
#2
Ann M Carracher, Payal H Marathe, Kelly L Close
More than 31,000 attendeesfrom around the world gathered in Barcelona, Spain for the 2017 European Society of Cardiology conference. In presentinga post-hoc analysis of the Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes(LEADER)(1) trial, Dr Neil Poulter (Imperial College London, UK) showedthat results are still positive, indicating cardioprotection, after adjusting for baseline history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI), which had no mediating effect on the significant association between Novo Nordisk's (Copenhagen, Denmark) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist Victoza (liraglutide) and cardiovascular risk reduction...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#3
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911306/management-of-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Ruth Hanssen, Lisa Ravarani, Heiner K Berthold
BACKGROUND: In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) there is a clear association between blood pressure (BP) levels and macrovascular and microvascular complications. However, the BP targets that need to be achieved for optimal outcomes remain controversial. METHODS: The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss BP targets and management in patients with DM. The subject of elevated heart rate, which has been associated with mortality in many populations, and which is observed in some patients with DM will also be addressed...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905106/recombinant-mouse-osteocalcin-secreted-by-lactococcus-lactis-promotes-glucagon-like-peptide-1-induction-in-stc-1-cells
#5
Fu Namai, Suguru Shigemori, Koichi Sudo, Takashi Sato, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Shireen Nigar, Tasuku Ogita, Takeshi Shimosato
An osteoblastic protein, osteocalcin (OC), exists in vivo in two forms: carboxylated OC, and uncarboxylated or low-carboxylated OC (ucOC). ucOC acts as a hormone to regulate carbon and energy metabolism. Recent studies demonstrated that ucOC exerts insulinotropic effects, mainly through the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathway. GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone secreted by enteroendocrine L cells in the small intestine. Thus, efficient delivery of ucOC to the small intestine may be a new therapeutic option for metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity...
September 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898910/balanced-coagonist-of-glp-1-and-glucagon-receptors-corrects-dyslipidemia-by-improving-fgf21-sensitivity-in-hamster-model
#6
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Hiren M Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Brijesh Sutariya, Maulik Patel, Rajesh Bahekar, Mukul R Jain
Hyperlipidemia is often associated with obesity and diabetes, and can lead to serious complications like atherosclerosis and fatty liver disease. Coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors is a therapy under clinical investigation for treatment of obesity and diabetes. In this study, we have characterized the mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of a balanced coagonist using high cholesterol-fed hamsters. Tyloxapol-induced hypertriglyceridemia, lipolysis in adipose tissue, and bile homeostasis were assessed after repeated dose treatment of the coagonist of GLP-1 and glucagon receptors (Aib2 C24 chimera 2, SC)...
September 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895639/the-pi3k-akt1-foxo1-translocation-pathway-mediates-exf-effects-on-nit-1-cell-survival
#7
Guo-Jiang Hou, Cai-Na Li, Yi Huan, Shuai-Nan Liu, Quan Liu, Min-Zhi Liu, Zhu-Fang Shen
EXf, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, stimulates β-cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in diabetic animal models, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We constructed a FoxO1-GFP fusion protein expression plasmid and transiently transfected it into NIT-1 cells to investigate whether FoxO1 mediates EXf effects on NIT-1 cell survival. Our results showed that EXf could increase cell viability by inhibiting apoptosis and stimulating proliferation, and it could also promote the translocation of the FoxO1-GFP fusion protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in NIT-1 cells...
September 11, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895030/type-2-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-prevention-the-dogmas-disputed
#8
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In randomized controlled trials (RCTs), more intensive glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes leads to a modest (9%) reduction in major cardiovascular events (MACE), associated with a 20% reduction of kidney events and 13% reduction of eye events. The FDA issued guidance in 2008 led to the conduct of numerous cardiovascular outcomes (CVOT) trials to assess cardiovascular safety of new antihyperglycemic therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of these trials show that insulin glargine, three different dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (saxagliptin, alogliptin, and sitagliptin) and lixisenatide (a glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist) produce no significant difference in CVOT when compared with usual care or placebo...
September 11, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893239/association-of-tcm-body-constitution-with-insulin-resistance-and-risk-of-diabetes-in-impaired-glucose-regulation-patients
#9
Hong You, Tong Zhang, Wen Feng, Yun Gai
BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose regulation (IGR) patients have increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Identifying relevant risk factors in IGR subjects could facilitate early detection and prevention of IGR progression to diabetes. This study investigated the association between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) body constitution and serum cytokines, and whether body constitution could independently predict diabetes in IGR subjects. METHOD: Patients with IGR (n = 306) received a blood test and their body constitution type was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire (BCQ)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892258/sitagliptin-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-modulate-insulin-secretion-via-regulation-of-intra-islet-pyy
#10
Claudia Guida, Laura J McCulloch, Mahdieh Godazgar, Sam D Stephen, Charlotte Baker, Davide Basco, Jiawen Dong, Duan Chen, Anne Clark, Reshma D Ramracheya
AIMS: The gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) is critical for maintaining islet integrity and restoring islet function following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The expression of PYY and its receptors (NPYRs) in islets has been documented but not fully characterized. Modulation of islet PYY by the proteolytic enzyme DPP-IV has not been investigated and the impact of DPP-IV inhibition on islet PYY function remains unexplored. Here we have addressed these gaps and their effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
September 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890700/dietary-capsaicin-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-alters-the-gut-microbiota-in-obese-diabetic-ob-ob-mice
#11
Jun-Xian Song, Hui Ren, Yuan-Feng Gao, Chong-You Lee, Su-Fang Li, Feng Zhang, Long Li, Hong Chen
Background: The effects of capsaicin on obesity and glucose homeostasis are still controversial and the mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the regulation of obesity and glucose homeostasis by dietary capsaicin and the alterations of gut microbiota in obese diabetic ob/ob mice. Methods: The ob/ob mice were subjected to a normal, low-capsaicin (0.01%), or high-capsaicin (0.02%) diet for 6 weeks, respectively. Obesity phenotypes, glucose homeostasis, the gut microbiota structure and composition, short-chain fatty acids, gastrointestinal hormones, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887562/metformin-improves-endothelial-function-and-reduces-blood-pressure-in-diabetic-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-independent-from-glycemia-control-comparison-to-vildagliptin
#12
Mahdi Hamidi Shishavan, Robert H Henning, Azuwerus van Buiten, Maaike Goris, Leo E Deelman, Hendrik Buikema
Metformin confers vascular benefits beyond glycemia control, possibly via pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. In type-1-diabetes-mellitus (T1DM-)patients metformin improved flow-mediated dilation but also increased prostaglandin(PG)-F2α, a known endothelial-contracting factor. To explain this paradoxical finding we hypothesized that metformin increased endothelial-vasodilator mediators (e.g. NO and EDHF) to an even larger extent. Spontaneously-hypertensive-rats (SHR) display impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) involving contractile PGs...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885995/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-treatment-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-by-attenuating-arc-expression-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#13
Xiang-Sheng Cai, Zhao-Guang Tan, Jing-Jing Li, Wei-Hong Gao, Shu-Ji Li, Jin-Long Li, Yong-Ming Tang, Hong-Wei Li, Hong-Xiang Hui
BACKGROUND Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to exert some beneficial effects on the central nervous system (CNS). However, the effect of GLP-1 on cognitive impairment associated with type 2 diabetes is not well known. This study investigated the effect of GLP-1 on ameliorating memory deficits in type 2 diabetic rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Type 2 diabetic rats were induced by a high-sugar, high-fat diet, followed by streptozotocin (STZ) injection and then tested in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) 1 week after the induction of diabetes...
September 8, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884202/gcg-creert2-knockin-mice-as-a-tool-for-genetic-manipulation-in-pancreatic-alpha-cells
#14
Chiyo Shiota, Krishna Prasadan, Ping Guo, Joseph Fusco, Xiangwei Xiao, George K Gittes
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Cre/loxP system, which enables tissue-specific manipulation of genes, is widely used in mice for diabetes research. Our aim was to develop a new Cre-driver mouse line for the specific and efficient manipulation of genes in pancreatic alpha cells. METHODS: A Gcg (CreERT2) knockin mouse, which expresses a tamoxifen-inducible form of Cre from the endogenous preproglucagon (Gcg) gene locus, was generated by homologous recombination. The new Gcg (CreERT2) mouse line was crossed to the Rosa26 (tdTomato) (R26 (tdTomato) ) Cre reporter mouse line in order to evaluate the tissue specificity, efficiency and tamoxifen dependency of Gcg (CreERT2) -mediated recombination...
September 7, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881290/glycyrrhizic-acid-increases-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-via-tgr5-activation-in-type-1-like-diabetic-rats
#15
Lin-Yu Wang, Kai Chun Cheng, Yingxiao Li, Chiang-Shan Niu, Juei-Tang Cheng, Ho-Shan Niu
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is belonged to triterpenoid saponin that is contained in the root of licorice and is known to affect metabolic regulation. Recently, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has widely been applied in diabetes therapeutics. However, the role of GLP-1 in GA-induced anti-diabetic effects is still unknown. Therefore, we are interested in understanding the association of GLP-1 with GA-induced effects. In type 1-like diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ-treated rats), GA increased the level of plasma GLP-1, which was blocked by triamterene at a dose sufficient to inhibit Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5)...
September 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879786/pharmacological-management-of-type-2-diabetes-what-s-new-in-2017
#16
André J Scheen
Introduction Novelties in the management of type 2 diabetes are dominated by the commercialisation of new glucose-lowering agents, which offer alternatives to older antidiabetic medications, and by the publication of several prospective placebo-controlled outcome trials, which demonstrated not only cardiovascular safety but also cardiovascular and renal protection with some new medications. Areas covered Updates regarding the use of glucose-lowering agents are discussed from a clinical point of view. Some new viewpoints concern older antidiabetic agents such as metformin, sulfonylureas and glitazones whose benefit-risk balance has been revisited, especially in high risk patients...
September 7, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875722/diabetes-injectable-therapy-type-2-diabetes-management-in-danish-practice
#17
Daniel Sterzi, Sébastien Auziere, Marie Markert Jensen, Sandra Lopes
Most diabetes care is done by GPs in Denmark. This study aimed to identify the barriers for GPs to initiate injectable therapies and reasons for referral to specialists. The web-interview conducted included 85 GPs, and 30 specialists experienced in type 2 diabetes (T2D). GPs felt more comfortable with initiating the 1(st) injectable therapy (defined as a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) or basal insulin) than the 2(nd) (defined as adding a basal insulin in patients treated with a GLP-1 RA (± OADs), or adding either a GLP-1 RA or a bolus insulin in patients treated with basal insulin (± OADs)...
September 6, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873389/treatment-of-diabetes-and-obesity-by-rationally-designed-peptide-agonists-functioning-at-multiple-metabolic-receptors
#18
Noushafarin Khajavi, Heike Biebermann, Matthias Tschöp, Richard DiMarchi
Obesity and its comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes constitute major worldwide health threats, and the identification of an effective medical intervention has emerged as a global priority. The limited effectiveness of historical, anti-obesity treatments is commonly attributed to the complexity of the disease and the redundancy of metabolic regulatory mechanisms that sustain body weight. At the forefront of obesity research is the development of combinational drug therapies that simultaneously target multiple regulatory pathways, which promote dysfunctional metabolism...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873383/incretins-and-their-endocrine-and-metabolic-functions
#19
Jochen Seufert
Incretins are hormones secreted into the blood stream from the gut mucosa in response to nutrient intake. They have been characterized based on their capacity to lower blood glucose levels. The more potent reduction of blood glucose coupled to a more intensive stimulation of insulin secretion, in response to oral glucose uptake, as compared to intravenous glucose infusion has further been termed the "incretin effect." As a prototype incretin hormone, the biology of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been intensively studied...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871519/a-meta-analysis-of-glp-1-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-impact-of-surgical-technique-and-measurement-strategy
#20
Pichamol Jirapinyo, David X Jin, Taha Qazi, Nitin Mishra, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective treatment for diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone that is important to glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess GLP-1 level and its predictors after RYGB. METHODS: The study design was a meta-analysis. The data sources were MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Databases. The study selection composed of studies with pre- and post-RYGB levels...
September 5, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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