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Remodeling bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651235/alpinumisoflavone-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-and-exerts-anti-osteoporotic-effect-in-ovariectomized-mice
#1
Wei Cong, Chao Zhou, Jun Yin
Alpinumisoflavone (AIF), a naturally occurring flavonoid compound exacted from Derris eriocarpa, has been found to have a number of pharmacological activities. However, its role in bone disorder has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of AIF on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice model and related underlying mechanisms. Our study provides experimental evidence that AIF could regulate the remodeling process of bone and exert osteoprotective effect against ovariectomy-induced bone loss...
June 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650106/dok3-modulates-bone-remodeling-by-negatively-regulating-osteoclastogenesis-and-positively-regulating-osteoblastogenesis
#2
Xiaofeng Cai, Junjie Xing, Courtney L Long, Qisheng Peng, Mary Beth Humphrey
Osteoclastogenesis is essential for bone remodeling and normal skeletal maintenance. RANKL promotes osteoclast differentiation and function but requires costimulation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-coupled immunoreceptors. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) coupled to ITAM-adaptor protein DNAX activation protein 12kDA (DAP12) provides costimulation of intracellular calcium signaling during osteoclastogenesis. Previously, we found that downstream of kinase-3 (DOK3) physically associates with DAP12 to inhibit toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammatory signaling in macrophages...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647888/osteoimmunology-in-bone-fracture-healing
#3
REVIEW
Takehito Ono, Hiroshi Takayanagi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the process of bone fracture healing, inflammation is thought to be an essential process that precedes bone formation and remodeling. We review recent studies on bone fracture healing from an osteoimmunological point of view. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on previous observations that many types of immune cells infiltrate into the bone injury site and release a variety of molecules, recent studies have addressed the roles of specific immune cell subsets...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647885/osteomacs-and-bone-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Lena Batoon, Susan Marie Millard, Liza Jane Raggatt, Allison Robyn Pettit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis...
June 24, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647798/a-new-model-for-biofilm-formation-and-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-intraoperative-infection-of-a-cranial-implant-with-staphylococcus-aureus-in-rats
#5
Silke Glage, Silke Paret, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch, André Bleich, Joachim K Krauss, Kerstin Schwabe
BACKGROUND: Implant failure is a severe and frequent adverse event in all areas of neurosurgery. It often involves infection with biofilm formation, accompanied by inflammation of surrounding tissue, including the brain, and bone loss. The most common bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus. We here test whether intraoperative infection of intracranial screws with Staphylococcus aureus would lead to biofilm formation and inflammatory tissue reaction in rats. METHODS: Two titanium screws were implanted in the cranium of Sprague-Dawley rats, anesthetized with xylazine (4 mg/kg) and ketamine (75 mg/kg)...
June 25, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647773/cthrc1-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-by-regulating-taz
#6
Chengze Wang, Weiting Gu, Baiyu Sun, Yunpeng Zhang, Yawen Ji, Xin Xu, Yong Wen
Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is associated with bone metabolism. Alveolar bone has an ability to rapidly remodel itself to adapt its biomechanical environment and function. However, whether CTHRC1 is expressed in alveolar bone tissue and the role of CTHRC1 in alveolar bone remodeling remain unclear. We used orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) rat model to study the effects of CHTRC1 in alveolar bone remodeling in vivo. We found that CTHRC1 was expressed in normal physiological condition of osteocytes, bone matrix, and periodontal ligament cells in rat...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647374/overexpression-of-dentin-matrix-protein-1-in-nestin-cells-causes-bone-loss-in-mouse-long-bone
#7
Min Pan, Yuteng Weng, Yao Sun
The well-known matrix protein Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is expressed by osteoblasts and osteocytes in bone, and it controls bone mineralization. Recently, it has been found that DMP1 is also expressed in other cell types, such as chondrocytes. Nestin(+) cells are one important type of progenitor cell in bone marrow and are associated with bone remodeling. In our preliminary experiment, DMP1 could also be detected in Nestin(+) cells in bone marrow. This study was designed to explore the effect on bone of DMP1 in Nestin(+) cells...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643933/oncologic-doses-of-zoledronic-acid-induce-site-specific-suppression-of-bone-modelling-in-rice-rats
#8
C R Exposto, U Oz, J S Callard, M J Allen, H Khurana, A D' Atri, X Mo, S A Fernandez, D N Tatakis, K Edmonds, P M Westgate, S S Huja
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on cortical bone modelling and healing of extraction sockets in the jaw bones of a rodent model. We hypothesized ZOL suppresses both the bone formation in the modelling mode in the jaw bones and alters the extraction site healing. MATERIAL & METHODS: Rice rats were administered saline solution and two dose regimens of ZOL: 0.1 mg/kg, twice a week, for 4 weeks (n=17, saline=8 & ZOL=9) and a higher dose of 0...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#9
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643923/micro-anatomical-responses-in-periodontal-complexes-of-mice-to-calibrated-orthodontic-forces-on-the-crown
#10
A Pal, L Chen, L Yang, F Yang, B Meng, A H Jheon, S P Ho
OBJECTIVE: Correlating mechanical forces with quantifiable physical changes in the dentoalveolar complex. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Male 6-week C57BL/6 mice (N=3), micro X-ray-computed tomography; post-analysis software to extract physical changes in periodontal ligament (PDL)-space. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silicone-elastic bands were placed between maxillary molars for 1 week, with the contralateral side as internal control. Average displacements between crowns and roots, and changes in PDL-spaces were evaluated by registering X-ray tomograms of experimental and control hemi-maxillae...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643918/effect-of-cyclical-forces-on-orthodontic-tooth-movement-from%C3%A2-animals-to-humans
#11
REVIEW
F Uribe, E Dutra, T Chandhoke
Vibration as a non-invasive method is currently available for clinical use with the potential to accelerate the rate of tooth movement in orthodontics. The aim of this review was to evaluate the basic science and clinical literature on the effects of vibration on the axial and appendicular skeleton including the craniofacial bone. Vibration as a dynamic load consisting of high oscillatory forces of low magnitude has shown osteogenic and anti-catabolic effects on bone. These effects have been observed in the craniofacial skeleton including the alveolar bone as increases in sutural width and alveolar bone formation...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643915/preface-to-coast-2016-innovators-workshop-on-personalized-and-precision-orthodontic-therapy
#12
J C Nickel, D A Covell, S A Frazier-Bowers, S Kapila, S S Huja, L R Iwasaki
OBJECTIVE: A second focused workshop explored how to transfer novel findings into clinical orthodontic practice. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Participants met in West Palm Beach (Florida, USA), on 9-11 September 2016 for the Consortium for Orthodontic Advances in Science and Technology 2016 Innovators' Workshop (COAST). Approximately 65 registered attendees considered and discussed information from 27 to 34 speakers, 8 to 15 poster presenters and four lunch-hour focus group leaders...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643903/resolving-differences-between-animal-models-for-expedited-orthodontic-tooth-movement
#13
A Y Ibrahim, S Gudhimella, S N Pandruvada, S S Huja
OBJECTIVE: To highlight differences in commonly used animal models of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: A critical review of the literature on animal models has become increasingly important in the last decade as methods to increase the rate of tooth movement have been intensely sought. We provide a review focusing on the rodent and canine models for expedited OTM and describe the challenges in extrapolation of the results to the clinical practice of orthodontics...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643676/-asymptomatic-primary-hyperparathyroidism-in-women
#14
Francisco R Spivacow, Claudia Palumbo
Primary hyperparathyroidism may have different characteristics. One is the asymptomatic form. This is a mild variant of hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism, characterized by a calcemia not greater than 1 mg/dl above the upper limit of the method, a high intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), absence of renal stones, renal function impairement, and osteoporosis, less than 50 years of age, and less than 400 mg/day calciuria. It is not a surgical entity, but its evolution may require it. Twenty-four postmenopausal women, all older than 50 years, with a diagnosis of asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism, were studied...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636229/recovery-from-reproductive-and-morphological-abnormalities-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes-following-a-14-day-exposure-to-diclofenac
#15
Hirofumi Yokota, Kaho Higashi, Erina Hanada, Ei Matsuzaki, Yukinari Tsuruda, Tomoko Suzuki, Eiko Nakano, Sayaka Eguchi
Mating pairs of medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to diclofenac (DCF) at measured concentrations of 0 (control), 7.1, 37, and 78 µg/L for 14 d under static-renewal conditions. Effects on reproductive success, as well as morphological abnormalities, of the fish were assessed. During the exposure period, both fecundity and fertility were significantly decreased in the 37 and 78 µg/L treatments groups, and swollen abdomens in females were observed in all exposure groups. Notably, a defect of the lower jaw also was observed in four male fish: two at 37 µg/L, and the others at 78 µg/L of DCF...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635959/optogenetic-activation-of-plexin-b1-reveals-contact-repulsion-between-osteoclasts-and-osteoblasts
#16
Abhijit Deb Roy, Taofei Yin, Shilpa Choudhary, Vladimir Rodionov, Carol C Pilbeam, Yi I Wu
During bone remodelling, osteoclasts induce chemotaxis of osteoblasts and yet maintain spatial segregation. We show that osteoclasts express the repulsive guidance factor Semaphorin 4D and induce contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) in osteoblasts through its receptor Plexin-B1. To examine causality and elucidate how localized Plexin-B1 stimulation may spatiotemporally coordinate its downstream targets in guiding cell migration, we develop an optogenetic tool for Plexin-B1 designated optoPlexin. Precise optoPlexin activation at the leading edge of migrating osteoblasts readily induces local retraction and, unexpectedly, distal protrusions to steer cells away...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634415/force-induced-increased-osteogenesis-enables-accelerated-orthodontic-tooth-movement-in-ovariectomized-rats
#17
Qinggang Dai, Siru Zhou, Peng Zhang, Xuhui Ma, Nayong Ha, Xiao Yang, Zhifeng Yu, Bing Fang, Lingyong Jiang
As the number of elderly orthodontic patients increases, the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) has attracted a great deal of attention because OTM relies on alveolar bone remodeling. The question of whether OTM causes subsequent alveolar bone loss and is harmful to alveolar bone health under osteoporotic conditions remains to be answered. The present study aimed to clarify the influences of OTM on alveolar bone in osteoporotic rats. OTM was accelerated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats as a result of increased bone resorption in the pressure area...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634008/aging-associated-modifications-of-collagen-affect-its-degradation-by-matrix-metalloproteinases
#18
Preety Panwar, Georgina S Butler, Andrew Jamroz, Pouya Azizi, Christopher M Overall, Dieter Brömme
The natural aging process and various pathologies correlate with alterations in the composition and the structural and mechanical integrity of the connective tissue. Collagens represent the most abundant matrix proteins and provide for the overall stiffness and resilience of tissues. The structural changes of collagens and their susceptibility to degradation are associated with skin wrinkling, bone and cartilage deterioration, as well as cardiovascular and respiratory malfunctions. Here, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major contributors to tissue remodeling and collagen degradation...
June 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633197/influence-of-electron-beam-irradiation-doses-on-bone-regeneration-by-octacalcium-phosphate-collagen-composites
#19
Fumihiko Kajii, Atsushi Iwai, Hidenori Tanaka, Keiko Matsui, Tadashi Kawai, Shinji Kamakura
An octacalcium phosphate and collagen composite (OCP/Col) achieved efficient bone regeneration with excellent resorbability. After the confirmation of its safety and efficacy in preclinical animal studies, the present study investigated the influence of electron beam irradiation doses on bone regeneration by OCP/Col in order to secure its commercialization. OCP/Col was prepared as previously described, and the packed OCP/Col was sterilized using different doses of electron beam irradiation. A standardized defect, 9 mm in diameter, was made in the rat calvarium...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631442/osteoblast-migration-in-vertebrate-bone
#20
Antonia Thiel, Marie K Reumann, Adele Boskey, Johannes Wischmann, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Philipp Mayer-Kuckuk
Bone formation, for example during bone remodelling or fracture repair, requires mature osteoblasts to deposit bone with remarkable spatial precision. As osteoblast precursors derive either from circulation or resident stem cell pools, they and their progeny are required to migrate within the three-dimensional bone space and to navigate to their destination, i.e. to the site of bone formation. An understanding of this process is emerging based on in vitro and in vivo studies of several vertebrate species. Receptors on the osteoblast surface mediate cell adhesion and polarization, which induces osteoblast migration...
June 19, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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