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Remodeling bone

L X Zhang, Y M Balani, Sophia Trinh, Henry M Kronenberg, Yiming Mu
Objective: To investigate the distinct effects of intermittent and continuous administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Methods: Six weeks old mice with C57/BL6J background and SOX9-creERT/Td-tomato/Osteocalcin-GFP genotype were divided into 6 groups: intermittent administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous injection with PTH 500 μg·kg-1 ·d-1 ), continuous administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous implantation of PTH pump, 80 μg·kg-1 ·d-1, with a rate of 0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
C Robo, G Hulsart-Billström, M Nilsson, C Persson
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is the most commonly used material for the treatment of osteoporosis-induced vertebral compression fractures. However, its high stiffness may introduce an increased risk of adjacent vertebral fractures post-surgery. One alternative in overcoming this concern is the use of additives. This presents its own challenge in maintaining an adequate biocompatibility when modifying the base cement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of linoleic acid (LA)-modified acrylic bone cement using a large animal model for the first time, in order to further advance towards clinical use...
March 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Y-S Han, H Lee, B-M Seo
Our aim was to identify the positional changes of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle and evaluate the relocation of the displaced mandibular canal after enucleation of a cyst. Seventy patients (72 sites) who had had cysts enucleated were divided into three groups based on the degree of encroachment of the cystic lesion into the mandibular canal and whether a bone graft had been inserted after the cyst had been enucleated. The mean (range) of patients' ages was 45 (18-75) years, and there were 29 male and 41 female patients...
March 17, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Zübeyir Huyut, Nuri Bakan, Serkan Yıldırım, Hamit Hakan Alp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Hui Ye
Bone cells sense mechanical load, which is essential for bone growth and remodeling. In a fracture, this mechanism is compromised. Electromagnetic stimulation has been widely used to assist in bone healing, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A recent hypothesis suggests that electromagnetic stimulation could influence tissue biomechanics; however, a detailed quantitative understanding of EM-induced biomechanical changes in the bone is unavailable. This paper used a muscle/bone model to study the biomechanics of the bone under EM exposure...
March 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Hyun-Ook Jeon, In-Seok Choi, Ji-Young Yoon, Eun-Jung Kim, Ji-Uk Yoon, Ah-Reum Cho, Hyung-Joon Kim, Cheul-Hong Kim
Background: The structure and function of bone tissue is maintained through a constant remodeling process, which is maintained by the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The failure of bone remodeling can lead to pathological conditions of bone structure and function. Remifentanil is currently used as a narcotic analgesic agent in general anesthesia and sedation. However, the effect of remifentanil on osteoclasts has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of remifentanil on pre-osteoclast (pre-OCs) differentiation and the mechanism of osteoclast differentiation in the absence of specific stimulus...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Cem Gabay, Jérôme Msihid, Moshe Zilberstein, Caroline Paccard, Yong Lin, Neil M H Graham, Anita Boyapati
Introduction: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) orchestrates formation of an inflammatory pannus, leading to joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sarilumab is a human monoclonal antibody blocking the IL-6Rα. In TARGET (NCT01709578), a phase 3 study in adults with moderate-to-severe RA and inadequate response or intolerance to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors, subcutaneous sarilumab 200 mg or 150 mg every 2 weeks (q2w) plus conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) significantly reduced disease activity versus placebo plus csDMARDs...
2018: RMD Open
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Heather A Richbourg, Colin F Mitchell, Ashley N Gillett, Margaret A McNulty
BACKGROUND: Tiludronate and clodronate are FDA-approved bisphosphonate drug therapies for navicular disease in horses. Although clinical studies have determined their ability to reduce lameness associated with skeletal disorders in horses, data regarding the effect on bone structure and remodeling is lacking. Additionally, due to off-label use of these drugs in young performance horses, effects on bone in young horses need to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this randomized, experimental pilot study was to determine the effect of tiludronate and clodronate on normal bone cells, structure and remodeling after 60 days in clinically normal, young horses...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Karl Philipp Kutzner, Joachim Pfeil
Bone- and soft-tissue sparing short stems are increasingly used in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, there are a large variety of models of short stems, differing in design and function. Calcar-guided short stems provide an anatomical curvature in the medial calcar region, thus, positioning is done individually alongside the calcar in the "round-the-corner" technique. Depending on the level of the neck's osteotomy, stems can be aligned individually in a large bandwidth of varus- and valgus anatomies...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Naixiang Zhai, Yanqin Lu, Yanzhou Wang, Xiuzhi Ren, Jinxiang Han
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a non-linear form of RNA derived from exonic, intronic, and exon-intron gene regions. circRNAs are characterized by covalent closed loops, highly stable nuclease resistance, and specific expression in species and developmental stages. CircRNA molecules have been identified as playing roles in the regulation of cell transcription, transcriptional expression after translation, interactions with microRNAs, and protein coding. A high stability and tissue- and disease-specific expression allow circRNAs to serve as potential biomarkers both for diseases and prognosis...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
C P Hawkes, S Mostoufi-Moab
The relationship between fat, bone and systemic metabolism is a growing area of scientific interest. Marrow adipose tissue is a well-recognized component of the bone marrow milieu and is metabolically distinct from current established subtypes of adipose tissue. Despite recent advances, the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue is still not clearly delineated. Bone and fat cells share a common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) within the bone marrow, and hormones and transcription factors such as growth hormone, leptin, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ influence MSC differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes...
March 14, 2018: Bone
Jillian Cornish, Tao Wang, Jian-Ming Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to gain a better understanding of marrow adipocyte development, its regulation of energy, and its characterization responsible for bone homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite major advances in uncovering the complex association of bone-fat in the marrow, the underlying basic biological process of adipose tissue development, as well as its interaction with bone homeostasis in pathophysiological conditions, is still not well understood...
March 16, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Min Young Kim, Ji Sook Kim, Seung Han Son, Chang Su Lim, Hea Young Eum, Dae Hyun Ha, Mi Ae Park, Eun Jung Baek, Buom-Yong Ryu, Ho Chul Kang, Vladimir N Uversky, Chul Geun Kim
During hematopoiesis, red blood cells originate from the hematopoietic stem cell reservoir. Although the regulation of erythropoiesis and globin expression has been intensively investigated, the underlining mechanisms are not fully understood, including the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic factors. Here, we uncover that the Mbd2-free NuRD chromatin remodeling complex potentiates erythroid differentiation of proerythroblasts via managing functions of the CP2c complexes. We found that both Mbd2 and Mbd3 expression is downregulated during differentiation of MEL cells in vitro and in normal erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow, and Mbd2 downregulation is crucial for erythropoiesis...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Christelle Sanchez, Gabriel Mazzucchelli, Cécile Lambert, Fanny Comblain, Edwin DePauw, Yves Henrotin
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by cartilage degradation but also by other joint tissues modifications like subchondral bone sclerosis. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to compare secretome of osteoblast isolated from sclerotic (SC) or non sclerotic (NSC) area of OA subchondral bone. DESIGN: Secretome was analyzed using differential quantitative and relative label free analysis on nanoUPLC G2 HDMS system. mRNA of the more differentially secreted proteins were quantified by RT-PCR in cell culture from 5 other patients...
2018: PloS One
Shengye Liu, Long Zhou, Liyu Yang, Shuai Mu, Tao Fang, Qin Fu
Background: Prolonged and over-dosed administration of glucocorticoids results in more bone remodeling, leading to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, which is primarily due to dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of gastrodin, a natural bioactive compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Gastrodia elata, on osteoblastic cells in vivo and in vitro . Materials and Methods: The anti-dexamethasone (DEX) effects of gastrodin on primary osteoblasts were measured by cell viability, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis in vitro , and also extensively examined in a rat model in vivo ...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
André Grenho, Joana Arcângelo, Pedro Jordão, Catarina Gouveia
We present a 10-year-old boy with 2-month duration non-traumatic wrist pain and inflammatory signs. Due to elevated inflammatory markers on blood tests, with an increase in radiocarpal and intercarpal joints synovial fluid and no bony lesions, the patient was submitted to wrist arthrocentesis for the suspicion of septic arthritis. The patient did not improve on conventional treatment, however. An MRI showed synovitis around the carpus and a lytic lesion of the capitate bone due to osteomyelitis. A biopsy was able to identify the causative agent as Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and the patient was treated with antibiotics...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Paul Glendenning, S A Paul Chubb, Samuel Vasikaran
Bone turnover marker (BTM's) concentrations in blood and urine reflect bone-remodelling activity, and may be useful adjuncts in the diagnosis and management of metabolic bone diseases. Newer biomarkers, mainly bone regulatory proteins, are currently being investigated to elucidate their role in bone metabolism and disease and may in future be useful in clinical diagnosis and management of metabolic bone disease. BTM concentrations increase around menopause in women, and at a population level the degree of increase in BTM's reflect bone loss...
March 12, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Diana Olvera, Rachel Stolzenfeld, Joan C Marini, Michelle S Caird, Kenneth M Kozloff
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by altered bone quality and imbalanced bone remodeling, leading to skeletal fractures which are most prominent during childhood. Treatments for OI have focused on restoring pediatric bone density and architecture to recover functional strength and consequently reduce fragility. Though antiresorptive agents like bisphosphonates (BP) are currently the most common intervention for the treatment of OI, a number of studies have shown efficacy of sclerostin antibody (SclAb) in inducing gains in bone mass and reducing fragility in OI mouse models...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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