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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350089/a-comparative-analysis-of-internal-bone-remodelling-concepts-in-a-novel-implant-for-direct-skeletal-attachment-of-limb-prosthesis-evaluation-a-finite-element-analysis
#1
Piotr Prochor, Eugeniusz Sajewicz
Nowadays, numerous internal bone remodelling concepts are under development, in order to estimate long-term functionality of implants by evaluating the intensity of stress-shielding effect. This effect is also analysed for the implants for direct skeletal attachment, considered as a better exoprosthesis fixation method than prosthetic sockets. Most of bone remodelling approaches are based on basic concepts, differing with certain assumptions, which may affect the accuracy of the results. This article compares commonly used internal bone remodelling concepts and evaluates the functionality of the proposed Limb Prosthesis Osseointegrated Fixation System for direct skeletal attachment of limb prosthesis in comparison with two currently available implants: the Intraosseous Transcutaneous Amputation Prosthesis and the Osseointegrated Prostheses for the Rehabilitation of Amputees...
January 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348610/the-histone-methyltransferase-dot1l-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-and-protects-against-osteoporosis
#2
Yanpan Gao, Wei Ge
Osteoclasts are absorptive cells that play a critical role in homeostatic bone remodeling and pathological bone resorption. Emerging evidence suggests an important role of epigenetic regulation in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of DOT1L, which regulates gene expression epigenetically by histone H3K79 methylation (H3K79me), during osteoclast formation. Using RANKL-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells as an osteoclast differentiation model, we found that DOT1L and H3K79me2 levels were upregulated during osteoclast differentiation...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348072/structure-based-development-of-an-osteoprotegerin-like-glycopeptide-that-blocks-rankl-rank-interactions-and-reduces-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-mice
#3
Chao Liu, Xiao Chen, Xin Zhi, Weizong Weng, Quan Li, Xiang Li, Yan Zou, Jiacan Su, Hong-Gang Hu
Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone, for which the underlying mechanism is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone remodeling. The protein-protein interactions between receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), RANK (its receptor), and osteoprotegerin (OPG), are known to mediate the development and activation of osteoclasts in bone remodeling, and are regarded as a pivotal therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345377/flexoelectricity-in-bones
#4
Fabian Vasquez-Sancho, Amir Abdollahi, Dragan Damjanovic, Gustau Catalan
Bones generate electricity under pressure, and this electromechanical behavior is thought to be essential for bone's self-repair and remodeling properties. The origin of this response is attributed to the piezoelectricity of collagen, which is the main structural protein of bones. In theory, however, any material can also generate voltages in response to strain gradients, thanks to the property known as flexoelectricity. In this work, the flexoelectricity of bone and pure bone mineral (hydroxyapatite) are measured and found to be of the same order of magnitude; the quantitative similarity suggests that hydroxyapatite flexoelectricity is the main source of bending-induced polarization in cortical bone...
January 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345350/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-modulates-neutrophil-function
#5
Alyce J Nicholls, Shu Wen Wen, Pam Hall, Michael J Hickey, Connie H Y Wong
Emerging evidence has revealed that noradrenaline (NA), the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), regulates a variety of immune functions via binding to adrenergic receptors present on immune cells. In this study, we examined the role of NA in the regulation of neutrophil functions. Neutrophils were isolated from the bone marrow of naïve mice and treated with NA at various concentrations to assess the effect on various neutrophil functions. Additionally, we performed cremaster intravital microscopy to examine neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions following NA superfusion in vivo...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345175/a-role-for-bone-turnover-markers-%C3%AE-crosslaps-ctx-and-amino-terminal-propeptide-of-type-i-collagen-pinp-as-potential-indicators-for-disease-progression-from-mgus-to-multiple-myeloma
#6
Sonia Vallet, Nicholas R Hoyle, Robert A Kyle, Klaus Podar, Martin Pecherstorfer
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by bone lesions arising due to unbalanced bone remodeling. Changes in the bone formation marker amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) and the bone resorption marker β-CrossLaps (CTX) reflect physiologic bone turnover. Whether PINP and CTX have a role in disease progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM is unknown. In this cross-sectional follow-up study, 241 patients with MM or MGUS were included. Serum levels of PINP and CTX were significantly higher in MM patients compared to MGUS...
January 18, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343714/endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-overexpressing-human-early-outgrowth-cells-inhibit-coronary-artery-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-through-paracrine-functions
#7
Sergio Guber, Talin Ebrahimian, Maryam Heidari, Nicoletta Eliopoulos, Stephanie Lehoux
Cells mobilized from the bone marrow can contribute to endothelial regeneration and repair. Nevertheless, cardiovascular diseases are associated with diminished numbers and function of these cells, attenuating their healing potential. Gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can restore the activity of circulating cells. Furthermore, estrogen accelerates the reendothelialization capacity of early outgrowth cells (EOCs). We hypothesized that overexpressing eNOS alone or in combination with estrogen stimulation in EOCs would potentiate the beneficial effects of these cells in regulating smooth muscle cell (SMC) function...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341932/synthetic-extracellular-matrix-mimic-hydrogel-improves-efficacy-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-for-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#8
Maria Chiara Ciuffreda, Giuseppe Malpasso, Cindy Chokoza, Deon Bezuidenhout, Kyle P Goetsch, Manuela Mura, Federica Pisano, Neil H Davies, Massimiliano Gnecchi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) repair infarcted hearts mainly through paracrine mechanisms. Low cell engraftment limits the release of soluble paracrine factors (SF) over time and, consequently, MSC efficacy. We tested whether a synthetic extracellular matrix mimic, a hydrogel containing heparin (H-HG), could ameliorate MSC engraftment and binding/release of SF, thus improving MSC therapy efficacy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro, rat bone-marrow MSC (rBM-MSC) were seeded and grown into H-HG...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336868/the-therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-the-peripheral-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptor-system
#9
REVIEW
Joseph Tam, Liad Hinden, Adi Drori, Shiran Udi, Shahar Azar, Saja Baraghithy
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are internal lipid mediators recognized by the cannabinoid-1 and -2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R, respectively), which also mediate the different physiological effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system, consisting of eCBs, their receptors, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, is present in a vast number of peripheral organs. In this review we describe the role of the eCB/CB1R system in modulating the metabolism in several peripheral organs. We assess how eCBs, via activating the CB1R, contribute to obesity and regulate food intake...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335833/regulation-of-bone-metabolism-by-micrornas
#10
REVIEW
Hanna Taipaleenmäki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of various physiological and pathological processes. The purpose of this article is to review the important recent advances on the role of miRNAs in bone remodeling and metabolic bone disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: In a physiological context, miRNAs regulate bone formation and bone resorption, thereby contributing to the maintenance of bone homeostasis...
January 15, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334767/a-novel-adaptive-algorithm-for-3d-finite-element-analysis-to-model-extracortical-bone-growth
#11
Vee San Cheong, Gordon W Blunn, Melanie J Coathup, Paul Fromme
Extracortical bone growth with osseointegration of bone onto the shaft of massive bone tumour implants is an important clinical outcome for long-term implant survival. A new computational algorithm combining geometrical shape changes and bone adaptation in 3D Finite Element simulations has been developed, using a soft tissue envelope mesh, a novel concept of osteoconnectivity, and bone remodelling theory. The effects of varying the initial tissue density, spatial influence function and time step were investigated...
January 16, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334656/activated-protein-c-suppresses-osteoclast-differentiation-via-endothelial-protein-c-receptor-protease-activated-receptor-1-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-and-apolipoprotein-e-receptor-2
#12
Kakunoshin Yoshida, Nobuyuki Akita, Takayuki Okamoto, Kunihiro Asanuma, Atsumasa Uchida, Akihiro Sudo, Motomu Shimaoka, Koji Suzuki, Tatsuya Hayashi
INTRODUCTION: Bone remodeling relies on a delicate balance between formation and resorption of bone tissues, processes in which bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts play central roles. Recently, we reported that anticoagulant activated protein C (APC) promotes osteoblast proliferation, but the role of the blood coagulation system in bone remodeling remains unclear. In this study, to further elucidate the relationship between bone remodeling and blood coagulation, we investigated the effect of APC on osteoclast differentiation...
January 3, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333367/stepwise-verification-of-bone-regeneration-using-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-in-rat-fibula-model
#13
Jung-Woo Nam, Hyung-Jun Kim
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to introduce our three experiments on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and its carriers performed using the critical sized segmental defect (CSD) model in rat fibula and to investigate development of animal models and carriers for more effective bone regeneration. Materials and Methods: For the experiments, 14, 16, and 24 rats with CSDs on both fibulae were used in Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. BMP-2 with absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) (Experiments 1 and 2), autoclaved autogenous bone (AAB) and fibrin glue (FG) (Experiment 3), and xenogenic bone (Experiment 2) were used in the experimental groups...
December 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332195/histomorphometry-and-cortical-robusticity-of-the-adult-human-femur
#14
Justyna Jolanta Miszkiewicz, Patrick Mahoney
Recent quantitative analyses of human bone microanatomy, as well as theoretical models that propose bone microstructure and gross anatomical associations, have started to reveal insights into biological links that may facilitate remodeling processes. However, relationships between bone size and the underlying cortical bone histology remain largely unexplored. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which static indicators of bone remodeling and vascularity, measured using histomorphometric techniques, relate to femoral midshaft cortical width and robusticity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331298/spatiotemporal-characterization-of-microdamage-accumulation-in-rat-ulnae-in-response-to-uniaxial-compressive-fatigue-loading
#15
Xuhui Zhang, Xiyu Liu, Zedong Yan, Jing Cai, Fei Kang, Shuai Shan, Pan Wang, Mingming Zhai, X Edward Guo, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Repetitive fatigue loading can induce microdamage accumulation in bone matrix, which results in impaired mechanical properties and increased fracture susceptibility. However, the spatial distribution and time-variant process of microdamage accumulation in fatigue-loaded skeleton, especially for linear microcracks which are known to initiate bone remodeling, remain not fully understood. In this study, the time-varying process of the morphology and distribution of microcracks in rat ulnae subjected to uniaxial compressive fatigue loading was investigated...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331291/global-microrna-profiling-in-human-bone-marrow-skeletal-stromal-or-mesenchymal-stem-cells-identified-candidates-for-bone-regeneration
#16
Chi-Chih Chang, Morten T Venø, Li Chen, Nicholas Ditzel, Dang Q S Le, Philipp Dillschneider, Moustapha Kassem, Jørgen Kjems
Bone remodeling and regeneration are highly regulated multistep processes involving posttranscriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we performed a global profiling of differentially expressed miRNAs in bone-marrow-derived skeletal cells (BMSCs; also known as stromal or mesenchymal stem cells) during in vitro osteoblast differentiation. We functionally validated the regulatory effects of several miRNAs on osteoblast differentiation and identified 15 miRNAs, most significantly miR-222 and miR-423, as regulators of osteoblastogenesis...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330573/tocotrienol-supplementation-suppressed-bone-resorption-and-oxidative-stress-in-postmenopausal-osteopenic-women-a-12-week-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
C-L Shen, S Yang, M D Tomison, A W Romero, C K Felton, H Mo
Tocotrienols have shown bone-protective effect in animals. This study showed that a 12-week tocotrienol supplementation decreased concentrations of bone resorption biomarker and bone remodeling regulators via suppressing oxidative stress in postmenopausal osteopenic women. INTRODUCTION: Tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to benefit bone health in ovariectomized animals, a model of postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12-week TT supplementation on bone markers (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), and serum osteoprotegerin (OPG)), urine calcium, and an oxidative stress biomarker (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) in postmenopausal women with osteopenia...
January 12, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330560/altered-bone-remodeling-in-psoriatic-disease-new-insights-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Ananta Paine, Christopher Ritchlin
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder that occurs in patients with psoriasis and predominantly affects musculoskeletal structures, skin, and nails. The etiology of PsA is not well understood but evidence supports an interplay of genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors which promote pathological bone remodeling and joint damage in PsA. Localized and systemic bone loss due to increased activity of osteoclasts is well established in PsA based on animal models and translational studies...
January 12, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330358/pathogenesis-of-bone-disease-in-multiple-myeloma-from-bench-to-bedside
#19
REVIEW
Evangelos Terpos, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Maria Gavriatopoulou, Meletios A Dimopoulos
Osteolytic bone disease is the hallmark of multiple myeloma, which deteriorates the quality of life of myeloma patients, and it affects dramatically their morbidity and mortality. The basis of the pathogenesis of myeloma-related bone disease is the uncoupling of the bone-remodeling process. The interaction between myeloma cells and the bone microenvironment ultimately leads to the activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts, resulting in bone loss. Several intracellular and intercellular signaling cascades, including RANK/RANKL/OPG, Notch, Wnt, and numerous chemokines and interleukins are implicated in this complex process...
January 12, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329380/circulating-micrornas-as-potential-biomarkers-of-disease-activity-and-structural-damage-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients
#20
Carlos Perez-Sanchez, Pilar Font-Ugalde, Patricia Ruiz-Limon, Chary Lopez-Pedrera, Maria C Castro-Villegas, Maria C Abalos-Aguilera, Nuria Barbarroja, Ivan Arias-de la Rosa, Maria D Lopez-Montilla, Alejandro Escudero-Contreras, Clementina Lopez-Medina, Eduardo Collantes-Estevez, Yolanda Jimenez-Gomez
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) remains difficult to diagnose before irreversible damage to sacroiliac joint is noticeable. Circulating microRNAs have demonstrated to serve as diagnostic tools for several human diseases. Here, we analyzed plasma microRNAs to identify potential AS biomarkers. Higher expression levels of microRNA (miR)-146a-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-151-3p, and miR-22-3p, and lower of miR-150-5p, and miR-451a were found in AS versus healthy donors. Interestingly, higher miR-146a-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-151-3p, miR-22-3p, and miR-451a expression was also observed in AS than psoriatic arthritis patients...
January 10, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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