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Remodeling bone

Carl Neuerburg, Theresa Loer, Lena Mittlmeier, Christina Polan, Zsuzsanna Farkas, Lesca Miriam Holdt, Sandra Utzschneider, Jens Schwiesau, Thomas M Grupp, Wolfgang Böcker, Attila Aszodi, Christian Wedemeyer, Christian Kammerlander
Aseptic loosening mediated by wear particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) remains the major cause of implant loosening in endoprosthetic surgery. The development of new vitamin E (α-tocopherol)-blended ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (VE-UHMWPE) with increased oxidation resistance and improved mechanical properties has raised hopes. Furthermore, regenerative approaches may be opened, as vitamin E supplementation has shown neuroprotective characteristics mediated via calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is known to affect bone remodeling in PIO...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Kyung Chul Oh, Woojin Hwang, Young Bum Park, Jae Hoon Lee, Hong Seok Moon, Jee Hwan Kim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of alendronate on bone remodeling around osseointegrated implants in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The maxillary first molars were extracted from 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and replaced with customized implants. They were then administered twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of either alendronate (alendronate group) or saline (control group) after allowing a 4-week period for osseointegration. They were killed at 4, 8, or 12 weeks after the commencement of the injection protocol, and the implant sites were evaluated comprehensively by microcomputed tomographic, histologic, and biochemical assessments...
October 20, 2016: Implant Dentistry
Hai-Ming Huang, Xiao-Lin Li, Shu-Qiang Tu, Xiao-Feng Chen, Chang-Chun Lu, Liang-Hua Jiang
BACKGROUND: Roughly focused extracorporeal shock waves therapy (ESWT) is characterized by a wide focal area, a large therapy zone, easy positioning, and less pain during treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of roughly focused ESWT on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in osteoporotic fractures in rats. METHODS: Seventy-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 3 months old, were divided into sham-operated group (n = 6) and an ovariectomized (OVX) group (n = 66)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Ke Yu, Yuanyuan Ma, Xianxian Li, Xiangnan Wu, Wenjia Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Jiefei Shen, Hang Wang
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in bone resorption, which involves numerous cytokines through various signaling pathways. RANKL and interleukin (IL)-6 are two important cytokines that are involved in bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LPS on RANKL and IL-6 gene expression, the relationship of RANKL and IL-6, and the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) on IL-6 secretion induced by LPS in MLO-Y4 cells. The cells were stimulated by LPS at different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 500 and 1000 ng/ml) for different durations (0...
October 24, 2016: Cell Biology International
Magali Hernandez, Bérengère Phulpin, Ludovic Mansuy, Dominique Droz
New targeted cancer therapies such as bisphosphonates, denosumab and bevacizumab are routinely used in adult for the past decades. Their introduction into pediatric medicine is more recent that means there is a paucity of data on long-term effects on dental development and on the risk of osteonecrosis of jaw. This paper aims to outline adverse effects of new targeted cancer therapies on oral cavity including dental abnormalities observed in pediatric population treated with these molecules and the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Mi Hye Kim, Hye Ji Lee, Jung-Chul Park, Jongki Hong, Woong Mo Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Naroa Lozano-Carrascal, Marta Satorres-Nieto, Rafael Delgado-Ruiz, José Eduardo Maté-Sánchez de Val, Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, Jorge Gargallo-Albiol, José Luis Calvo-Guirado
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of SEM and EDX microanalysis on evaluating the effect of porcine xenografts (MP3(®)) supplemented with pamidronate during socket healing. Mandibular second premolars (P2) and first molars (M1) were extracted from six Beagle dogs. P2 were categorized as small defects (SD) and M1 as large defects (LD). Four random groups were created: SC (small control defects with MP3(®)), ST (small test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate), LC (large control defects with MP3(®)), and LT (large test defects MP3(®)+pamidronate)...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Edson Costa E Silva, Sheyla Viana Omonte, Alessandro Gomides Veiga Martins, Hércules Henrique Onibene de Castro, Hayder Egg Gomes, Élton Gonçalves Zenóbio, Peterson Antônio Dutra de Oliveira, Martinho Campolina Rebello Horta, Paulo Eduardo Alencar Souza
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the structure and degradation patterns of BioGide(®) and OsseoGuard™ collagen membranes. HA mediates inflammation and acts in cell migration, adhesion, and differentiation, benefitting tissue remodeling and vascularization. These are desirable effects in guided regeneration procedures, but it is still unknown whether HA alters the barrier properties of absorbable membranes. DESIGN: Bone defects were created in the calvaria of rats, which were treated with HA gel 1% (HA group) or simply filled with blood clot (control group), and covered with BioGide(®) or OsseoGuard™...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Haiying Chen, Hongli Yang, Hongmei Yue, Pádraig Michael Strappe, Peng Xia, Li Pan, Yingxin Zhang, Shoudong Chai, Shuangfeng Chen, Longle Ma, Lexin Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and/or a mutant caveolin-1(F92A-Cav1), on the pulmonary haemodynamics and structure in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced with monocrotaline (MCT) in 60 adult male Wistar rats prior to delivery of lentiviral vector transduced rBMSCs expressing Cav1, eNOS and/or F92A-Cav1...
September 9, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
I O Acuña-Gutiérrez, J C Escobedo-Bocardo, J M Almanza-Robles, D A Cortés-Hernández, M M G Saldívar-Ramírez, P J Reséndiz-Hernández, A Zugasti-Cruz
The effect of LiCl additions on the in vitro bioactivity, hemolysis, cytotoxicity, compressive strength and setting time of calcium aluminate cements was studied. Calcium aluminate clinker (AC) was obtained via solid state reaction from reagent grade chemicals of CaCO3 and Al2O3. Calcium aluminate cements (CAC) were prepared by mixing the clinker with water or aqueous LiCl solutions (0.01, 0.0125 or 0.015M (M)) using a w/c ratio of 0.4. After 21days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological conditions of temperature and pH, a Ca-P rich layer, identified as hydroxyapatite (HA), was formed on the cement without LiCl and on the cement prepared with 0...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Priscilla Hakime Scalize, Karina F Bombonato-Prado, Luiz Gustavo de Sousa, Adalberto Luiz Rosa, Marcio Mateus Beloti, Marisa Semprini, Rossano Gimenes, Adriana L G de Almeida, Fabíola Singaretti de Oliveira, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo, Selma Siessere
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that impairs proper bone remodeling. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical technique that improves bone defect in a particular region through new bone formation, using barrier materials (e.g. membranes) to protect the space adjacent to the bone defect. The polytetrafluorethylene membrane is widely used in guided bone regeneration, however, new membranes are being investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of P(VDFTrFE)/BT [poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate] membrane on in vivo bone formation...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Rachel M Kratofil, Paul Kubes, Justin F Deniset
Monocytes are circulating leukocytes important in both innate and adaptive immunity, primarily functioning in immune defense, inflammation, and tissue remodeling. There are 2 subsets of monocytes in mice (3 subsets in humans) that are mobilized from the bone marrow and recruited to sites of inflammation, where they carry out their respective functions in promoting inflammation or facilitating tissue repair. Our understanding of the fate of these monocyte subsets at the site of inflammation is constantly evolving...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Joceline S Liu, Matthew I Bury, Natalie J Fuller, Renea M Sturm, Nida Ahmad, Arun K Sharma
Substitution urethroplasty for the treatment of male stricture disease is often accompanied by subsequent tissue fibrosis and secondary stricture formation. Patients with pre-existing morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by delayed vascularization accompanied by overactive inflammatory responses following surgery. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the functional utility of a cell/scaffold composite graft comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) to modulate inflammation and wound healing in a rodent model of substitution urethroplasty...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Naomi Winn, Radhesh Lalam, Victor Cassar-Pullicino
Paget's disease of bone is a disorder of bone remodelling, leading to changes in the architecture and overall appearance of the bone. The disorder may be monostotic or polyostotic and affect any bone in the body, although most commonly it involves the spine, pelvis, skull and femur. This article explores the different imaging modalities used in the assessment of Paget's disease of bone in its different phases. The relative merits of each imaging modality is discussed with illustrative examples, in particular with respect to radiographs, nuclear medicine bone scan, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Penelope D Ottewell
The primary role of osteoblasts is to lay down new bone during skeletal development and remodelling. Throughout this process osteoblasts directly interact with other cell types within bone, including osteocytes and haematopoietic stem cells. Osteoblastic cells also signal indirectly to bone-resorbing osteoclasts via the secretion of RANKL. Through these mechanisms, cells of the osteoblast lineage help retain the homeostatic balance between bone formation and bone resorption. When tumour cells disseminate in the bone microenvironment, they hijack these mechanisms, homing to osteoblasts and disrupting bone homeostasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Raphael Leblanc, Olivier Peyruchaud
Blood platelets have been known for more than a century as important partners for successful metastatic dissemination of solid tumors. Cancer cell-induced platelet activation is a key event responsible for prometastatic activity of platelets. Blocking platelet aggregation inhibits the progression of skeletal metastases through mechanisms that are not fully understood. The establishment and progression of bone metastases are strongly influenced by the bone remodeling process. Growth factors and cytokines released upon platelet activation may contribute to both skeletal tumor growth and osteolytic lesions...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
François Le Pape, Geoffrey Vargas, Philippe Clézardin
Breast cancer frequently metastasises to the skeleton, interfering with the normal bone remodelling process and inducing bone degradation. Bone degradation is caused by osteoclasts, the normal bone-resorbing cells. Osteoclast-mediated bone degradation subsequently leads to the release of bone-derived factors that promote skeletal tumour growth. Osteoclasts themselves stimulate tumour growth. This Review describes the molecular mechanisms through which osteoclasts and breast cancer cells collaborate with each other, triggering the formation of osteolytic bone metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
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