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Remodeling bone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926672/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intra-operative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#1
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in AS patients with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925287/treatment-sequence-matters-anabolic-and-antiresorptive-therapy-for-osteoporosis
#2
Felicia Cosman, Jeri W Nieves, David Dempster
The majority of osteoporosis medications are antiresorptive agents, which reduce the rate of bone remodeling. Within this group are the bisphosphonates, which inhibit protein prenylation in the mature osteoclast, reducing osteoclast capacity to resorb bone(1) and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to rank ligand that inhibits osteoclast formation, function and survival(2) . Although several new anabolic agents are in development(3-5) , teriparatide is currently the only available anabolic therapy for osteoporosis in the United States, with the addition of only PTH(1-84) in the EU [referred to as PTH)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924156/deficiency-of-atp6v1h-causes-bone-loss-by-inhibiting-bone-resorption-and-bone-formation-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#3
Xiaohong Duan, Jin Liu, Xueni Zheng, Zhe Wang, Yanli Zhang, Ying Hao, Tielin Yang, Hongwen Deng
Vacuolar-type H (+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved, ancient enzyme that couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to proton transport across vesicular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Previously reported mutations of various V-ATPase subunits are associated with increased bone density. We now show that haploinsufficiency for the H subunit of the V1 domain (ATP6V1H) is associated with osteoporosis in humans and mice. A genome-wide SNP array analysis of 1625 Han Chinese found that 4 of 15 tag SNPs (26...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920813/densitometric-evaluation-of-bone-prosthetic-counterface-in-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-with-modern-implants
#4
Andrea Cozzi Lepri, Marco Giorgini, Carla Signorini, Christian Carulli, Roberto Civinini, Maria Luisa Brandi, Massimo Innocenti
INTRODUCTION: Recent acquisitions of the complex mechanisms of osseointegration between implants and host bone have gained attention, accordingly to the methods of evaluation of these interactions. DEXA analysis is considered an useful tool to assess such phenomena, in order to analyse in a quantitative manner the local metabolic activity of the bone, and to evaluate over the time the integration between host bone and prosthetic components. The purpose of the present study is to report about a preliminary experience in the analysis of osseointegration processes of patients undergoing a primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) or a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (rTKA)...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919734/microdamage-induced-by-in-vivo-reference-point-indentation-in-mice-is-repaired-by-osteocyte-apoptosis-mediated-remodeling
#5
Oran D Kennedy, Matin Lendhey, Peter Mauer, Anaya Philip, Jelena Basta-Pljakic, Mitchell B Schaffler
Reference Point Indentation (RPI) is a technology that is designed to measure mechanical properties that relate to bone toughness, or its ability to resist crack growth, in vivo. Independent of the mechanical parameters generated by RPI, its ability to initiate and propagate microcracks in bone is itself an interesting issue. Microcracks have a crucial biological relevance in bone, are central to its ability to maintain homeostasis. In healthy tissues, a process of targeted remodeling routinely repairs microcracks in a process mediated by osteocyte apoptosis...
December 2, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919595/the-starting-point-for-bisphosphonate-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-alveolar-bone-or-oral-mucosa-a-randomized-controlled-experimental-study
#6
Mohammad Zandi, Arash Dehghan, Pejman Janbaz, Hamid Malekzadeh, Payam Amini
OBJECTIVE: Although over a decade has passed since first introduction of BRONJ, the exact pathophysiology of this disease is still unclear. The present experimental study aimed to determine whether the oral mucosa or alveolar bone serves as the starting point for BRONJ development. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into study and control groups (each, n = 30), and received intraperitoneal injection of 0.06 mg/kg zoledronate and saline, respectively, once a week for 12 weeks...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918899/the-effects-of-sost-on-implant-osseointegration-in-ovariectomy-osteoporotic-mice
#7
Rui Shu, Dongqing Ai, Ding Bai, Jinlin Song, Mengyuan Zhao, Xianglong Han
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is a risk factor for implant fixation failure. The inhibition of sclerostin effectively improves bone formation and bone remodeling. Therefore, this study investigated whether SOST deficiency enhances the osseointegration of implants in a mouse model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX). DESIGN: Osteoporosis was induced in female C57BL/6 and SOST deficient mice by OVX. Titanium implants were placed in the bilateral distal aspects of the femurs...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918081/st1926-attenuates-steroid-induced-osteoporosis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-inflammation-response
#8
Hong-Xing Zhao, Yuan-Xia Huang, Jin-Gang Tao
Steroid, also known as glucocorticoid, induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in young adults, which has been a challenging disorder for the frequent incidence of collapse of femoral head, leading to dysfunction of hip joint and impairing life quality of human. Bioavailable and less toxic synthetic retinoids, such as the atypical adamantyl retinoid ST1926, have been developed and investigated in clinical trials for many diseases. Serum lipid-related indicators were assessed to elucidate the role of ST1926 in regulating lipid metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916592/new-developments-in-cardiac-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Thi Yen Loan Le, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Eddy Kizana, James Jh Chong
Numerous pharmacological and device therapies have improved adverse cardiac remodelling and mortality in heart failure. However, none are able to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Stem cell based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells are new approaches that could potentially achieve the elusive goal of true cardiac regeneration. Over the past two decades, various stem cell based approaches have been shown to improve left ventricular function in pre-clinical animal models...
November 19, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915435/bone-remodeling-and-regulating-biomarkers-in-women-at-the-time-of-breast-cancer-diagnosis
#10
Song Yao, Yali Zhang, Li Tang, Janise M Roh, Cecile A Laurent, Chi-Chen Hong, Theresa Hahn, Joan C Lo, Christine B Ambrosone, Lawrence H Kushi, Marilyn L Kwan
PURPOSE: The majority of breast cancer patients receive endocrine therapy, including aromatase inhibitors known to cause increased bone resorption. Bone-related biomarkers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis may predict future risk of osteoporosis and fracture after endocrine therapy. METHODS: In a large population of 2,401 female breast cancer patients who later underwent endocrine therapy, we measured two bone remodeling biomarkers, TRAP5b and BAP, and two bone regulating biomarkers, RANKL and OPG, in serum samples collected at the time of breast cancer diagnosis...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915135/primary-stability-and-viscoelastic-displacement-of-mini-implant-system-under-loading
#11
Jim Lee, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Joseph Pittman, Toru Deguchi, William M Johnston, Henry W Fields, Do-Gyoon Kim
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to examine the effects of mini-implant diameters on 1) primary stability before bone properties are changed by active peri-implant bone remodeling and 2) the time-dependent displacement of mini-implant systems in bone under a functional radial loading and their associations with bone mineral density. METHODS: Twenty one, 8mm length mini-implants (7 each for 1.4mm, 1.6mm, and 2mm diameters) were placed in mandibular sections of human cadavers (4 males and 3 females, average 69...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913271/histone-deacetylases-hdac-in-physiological-and-pathological-bone-remodelling
#12
REVIEW
M D Cantley, A C W Zannettino, P M Bartold, D P Fairlie, D R Haynes
Histone deacetylases (HDACs)(2) play important roles in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in cells and are emerging therapeutic targets for treating a wide range of diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi)(3) that act on multiple HDAC enzymes have been used clinically to treat a number of solid and hematological malignancies. HDACi are currently being studied also for their efficacy in non-malignant diseases, including pathologic bone loss, but this has necessitated a better understanding of the roles of individual HDAC enzymes, particularly the eleven zinc-containing isozymes...
November 29, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913118/forces-controlling-organ-growth-and-size
#13
REVIEW
Dominik Eder, Christof Aegerter, Konrad Basler
One of the fundamental questions in developmental biology is what determines the final size and shape of an organ. Recent research strongly emphasizes that besides cell-cell communication, biophysical principals govern organ development. The architecture and mechanics of a tissue guide cellular processes such as movement, growth or differentiation. Furthermore, mechanical cues do not only regulate processes at a cellular level but also provide constant feedback about size and shape on a tissue scale. Here we review several models and experimental systems which are contributing to our understanding of the roles mechanical forces play during organ development...
November 29, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911229/c-2-arteriovenous-fistula-presenting-as-a-pathologic-hangman-s-fracture-case-report
#14
Rajeev D Sen, Carolina Gesteira Benjamin, Howard A Riina, Donato Pacione
The authors report on an 81-year-old woman with a pathologic hangman's fracture secondary to a complex arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The patient presented with severe, unremitting neck pain and was found to have fractures bilaterally through the pars interarticularis of C-2 with significant anterior subluxation of C-2 over C-3 along with widening of the left transverse foramen. Due to an abnormally appearing left vertebral artery (VA) on CT angiography, the patient underwent conventional angiography, which revealed a complex AVF stemming from the left VA at the level of C-2 with dilated posterior cervical veins and a large venous varix...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908965/inf-%C3%AE-encoding-plasmid-administration-triggers-bone-loss-and-disrupts-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#15
Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmâo Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchigiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lavava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti
IFN-γ is a pleotropic cytokine produced in the bone microenvironment. Although IFN-γ is known to play a critical role on bone remodeling, its function is not fully elucidated. Consistently, outcomes on the effects of IFN-γ recombinant protein on bone loss are contradictory among reports. In our work we explored, for the first time, the role of IFN-γ encoding plasmid (pIFN-γ) in a mouse model of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy and in the sham-operated counterpart to estimate its effects in skeletal homeostasis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906049/smad-dependent-mechanisms-of-inflammatory-bone-destruction
#16
REVIEW
Michelle Fennen, Thomas Pap, Berno Dankbar
Homeostatic bone remodelling becomes disturbed in a variety of pathologic conditions that affect the skeleton, including inflammatory diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the prototype of an inflammatory arthritis characterised by chronic inflammation, progressive cartilage destruction and focal bone erosions and is a prime example for a disease with disturbed bone homeostasis. The inflammatory milieu favours the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts, which have been found to be the cells that are primarily responsible for bone erosions in many animal models of inflammatory arthritis...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905067/mathematical-model-of-bone-remodeling-captures-the-antiresorptive-and-anabolic-actions-of-various-therapies
#17
David S Ross, Khamir Mehta, Antonio Cabal
A better understanding of the molecular pathways regulating the bone remodeling process should help in the development of new antiresorptive regulators and anabolic regulators, that is, regulators of bone resorption and of bone formation. Understanding the mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) influences bone formation and how it switches from anabolic to catabolic action is important for treating osteoporosis (Poole and Reeve in Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:612-617, 2005). In this paper we describe a mathematical model of bone remodeling that incorporates, extends, and integrates several models of particular aspects of this biochemical system (Cabal et al...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#18
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903590/anterior-cruciate-ligament-derived-stem-cells-transduced-with-bmp2-accelerate-graft-bone-integration-after-acl-reconstruction
#19
Yohei Kawakami, Koji Takayama, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Ying Tang, Bing Wang, Yutaka Mifune, James H Cummins, Ryan J Warth, Ryosuke Kuroda, Masahiro Kurosaka, Freddie H Fu, Johnny Huard
BACKGROUND: Strong graft-bone integration is a prerequisite for successful graft remodeling after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using soft tissue grafts. Novel strategies to accelerate soft tissue graft-bone integration are needed to reduce the need for bone-tendon-bone graft harvest, reduce patient convalescence, facilitate rehabilitation, and reduce total recovery time after ACL reconstruction. HYPOTHESIS: The application of ACL-derived stem cells with enhanced expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) onto soft tissue grafts in the form of cell sheets will both accelerate and improve the quality of graft-bone integration after ACL reconstruction in a rat model...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903449/sex-differences-in-the-estrogen-dependent-regulation-of-temporomandibular-joint-remodeling-in-altered-loading
#20
Jennifer L Robinson, Katelyn Cass, Ross Aronson, Thomas Choi, Manshan Xu, Ryan Buttenbaum, Hicham Drissi, Helen H Lu, Jing Chen, Sunil Wadhwa
OBJECTIVE: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) diseases predominantly afflict women, suggesting a role of estrogen in the disease etiology. Previously, we determined that decreased occlusal loading (DOL) inhibited collagen type II (Col2) expression in the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) of female wild-type (WT) mice whereas no change was observed in males. This decrease in chondrogenesis was abolished by estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) deficiency in females. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the role of estradiol - ERβ signaling in mediating DOL effects in male mice to further decipher sex differences...
November 26, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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