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Cardiovascular risk reduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646427/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-infected-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#1
Yan Xuan, Yue Gao, Hao Huang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Yu Cai, Qing Xian Luan
Tanshinone IIA (TSA), a pharmacologically active component isolated from Danshen, may prevent cardiovascular diseases due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-adipogenic effects. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the effects of TSA on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice with P. gingivalis infection. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were randomized to (a) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), (b) P. gingivalis, and (c) P...
June 23, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646251/cardiac-dose-sparing-effects-of-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-in-left-breast-irradiation-is-imrt-more-beneficial-than-vmat
#2
Mazen Sakka, Leonie Kunzelmann, Martin Metzger, Gerhard G Grabenbauer
BACKGROUND: Given the reduction in death from breast cancer, as well as improvements in overall survival, adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the standard treatment for breast cancer. However, left-sided breast irradiation was associated with an increased rate of fatal cardiovascular events due to incidental irradiation of the heart. Recently, considerable efforts have been made to minimize cardiac toxicity of left-sided breast irradiation by new treatment methods such as deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and new radiation techniques, particularly intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)...
June 23, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645252/statin-use-reduces-cardiovascular-events-and-all-cause-mortality-amongst-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-5-year-cohort-study
#3
Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Anca Ka Chun Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
BACKGROUND: The benefit of statin on the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among Chinese patients in primary care is not clear nor fully implemented in clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate and quantify the benefit of statin on the overall cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Uncomplicated diabetic patients with baseline low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) > 2.6 mmol/L and without statin use before baseline in 2010 were followed-up for 5 years for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality...
June 24, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645222/dietary-fat-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-recent-controversies-and-advances
#4
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643293/-why-is-a-combination-of-basal-insulin-with-a-glp-1-receptor-agonist-useful-in-many-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Michael Nauck, Birgit Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the combination of basal insulin and GLP-1 receptor agonist (RA) was incorporated into the guideline recommendations for type 2 diabetes as an option for the last escalation step. The two antidiabetics to be injected subcutaneously are complementary regarding their respective main effects and limitations. Basal insulin is predominantly active between meals and in the fasting state, whereas the main action of GLP-1 RA consists in preventing an excessive postprandial blood glucose increase...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643240/pcsk9-inhibitors-treating-the-right-patients-in-daily-practice
#6
REVIEW
Peta King, Stephen J Nicholls
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have emerged as a novel approach to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. The potential role of PCSK9 inhibitors in clinical practice will be reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials have demonstrated that PCSK9 inhibitors produce robust LDL-C lowering when administered either as monotherapy or in combination with statins. This provides the opportunity to achieve effective lipid lowering in familial hypercholesterolemia, patients with either established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or high risk primary prevention and an important opportunity to treat patients with statin intolerance...
August 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643218/empagliflozin-improves-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-genetic-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Nadjib Hammoudi, Dongtak Jeong, Rajvir Singh, Ahmed Farhat, Michel Komajda, Eric Mayoux, Roger Hajjar, Djamel Lebeche
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) represent an enormous burden with high mortality and morbidity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently emerged as a new antidiabetic class that improves glucose control, as well as body weight and blood pressure with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. The first CV outcome study terminated with empagliflozin, a specific SGLT2 inhibitor, has shown a reduction in CV mortality and in heart failure hospitalization, suggesting a beneficial impact on cardiac function which remains to be demonstrated...
June 22, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641999/effect-of-pharmacist-care-on-medication-adherence-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-among-patients-post-acute-coronary-syndrome-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Myriam Jihad Jaam, Ahmed Awaisu
BACKGROUND: The impact of collaborative and multidisciplinary health care on the outcomes of care in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is well-established in the literature. However, there is lack of high quality evidence on the role of pharmacist care in this setting. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist care on patient outcomes (readmission, mortality, emergency visits, and medication adherence) in patients with ACS at or post-discharge...
June 13, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641152/urea-induced-ros-accelerate-senescence-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#9
Maria D'Apolito, Anna Laura Colia, Maria Lasalvia, Vito Capozzi, Maria Pia Falcone, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Michael Brownlee, Angela Bruna Maffione, Ida Giardino
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathogenic events responsible for the reduction of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number and function seen in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are poorly understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that increased concentrations of urea associated with CRF increase ROS production directly in EPCs, causing abnormalities associated with coronary artery disease risk. METHODS: Human EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors and cultured in the presence or absence of 20 mmol/L urea...
June 15, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639974/an-evaluation-of-cardioprevent-a-technology-enabled-health-behavior-change-program-for-the-global-reduction-of-cardiovascular-risk
#10
Stephanie A Prince, Robert D Reid, Andrew L Pipe, Lisa A McDonnell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality globally. Primary CVD prevention programs have the potential to improve risk factor profiles and, ultimately, the risk of developing CVD. The present study presents an evaluation of CardioPrevent, a global cardiovascular risk reduction program. RECENT FINDINGS: Of the 478 participants enrolled in the CardioPrevent program, 308 and 236 had complete 6-month and 12-month data, respectively at the time of evaluation...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639415/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-for-diabetic-macular-oedema-a-network-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Gianni Virgili, Mariacristina Parravano, Jennifer R Evans, Iris Gordon, Ersilia Lucenteforte
BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is a common complication of diabetic retinopathy. Antiangiogenic therapy with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) modalities can reduce oedema and thereby improve vision and prevent further visual loss. These drugs have replaced laser photocoagulation as the standard of care for people with DMO. OBJECTIVES: The 2014 update of this review found high-quality evidence of benefit with antiangiogenic therapy with anti-VEGF modalities, compared to laser photocoagulation, for the treatment of DMO...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639183/proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-and-its-inhibitors-a-review-of-physiology-biology-and-clinical-data
#12
REVIEW
Ashwin Durairaj, Alberto Sabates, Jonathan Nieves, Brian Moraes, Seth Baum
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the number one killer in the western world. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and ezetimibe has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Now, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mabs) are available for high-risk individuals with ASCVD or familial hypercholesterolemia on maximally tolerated statin therapy but requiring greater LDL-C reduction. PCSK9 mab outcome trial results from the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibitions in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) study, which was presented at the American College of Cardiology in March 2017, which demonstrated a decrease of 15% in primary and 20% secondary end points over a 2-year period [1••]...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637886/cardiovascular-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-has-the-dawn-of-a-new-era-arrived
#13
Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Ralph A DeFronzo, Stefano Del Prato, Robert Chilton, Rajvir Singh, Robert E J Ryder
Hyperglycemia is the major risk factor for microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principal cause of death, and lowering HbA1c has only a modest effect on reducing CVD risk and mortality. The recently published LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials demonstrate that, in T2D patients with high CVD risk, the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide reduce the primary major adverse cardiac events (MACE) end point (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) by 13% and 24%, respectively...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637777/the-american-heart-association-ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-among-blacks-the-jackson-heart-study
#14
Valery S Effoe, Mercedes R Carnethon, Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, Haiying Chen, Joshua J Joseph, Arnita F Norwood, Alain G Bertoni
BACKGROUND: The concept of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH), defined by the American Heart Association primarily for coronary heart disease and stroke prevention, may apply to diabetes mellitus prevention among blacks. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our sample included 2668 adults in the Jackson Heart Study with complete baseline data on 6 of 7 American Heart Association CVH metrics (body mass index, healthy diet, smoking, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and physical activity)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635124/regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-endothelin-1-mediated-vasoconstrictor-tone-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#15
Caitlin A Dow, Brian L Stauffer, Danielle L Brunjes, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
Endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. While the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in overweight/obese adults has been studied, little is known regarding ET-1 vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine: (1) if regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so (2) whether the reduction in ET-1 vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in this population...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634217/incident-cardiovascular-disease-among-adults-with-blood-pressure-140-90-mm-hg
#16
Gabriel S Tajeu, John N Booth, Lisandro D Colantonio, Rebecca F Gottesman, George Howard, Daniel T Lackland, Emily O'Brien, Suzanne Oparil, Joseph E Ravenell, Monika M Safford, Samantha R Seals, Daichi Shimbo, Steven Shea, Tanya M Spruill, Rikki M Tanner, Paul Muntner
Background -Data from before the 2000s indicate the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)≥140/90 mmHg. Over the past several decades, BP declined and hypertension control has improved. Methods -We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP<140/90 mmHg in a pooled analysis of three contemporary US cohorts: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) (n=31,856; REGARDS=21,208; MESA=6,779; JHS=3,869)...
June 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633627/effectiveness-of-a-motivational-intervention-on-overweight-obese-patients-in-the-primary-healthcare-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#17
Juan Jose Rodriguez-Cristobal, Carlos Alonso-Villaverde, Jose Ma Panisello, Pere Travé-Mercade, Francisca Rodriguez-Cortés, Josep Ramon Marsal, Esther Peña
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are common health problems which increase the risk of developing several serious health conditions. The main difficulty in the management of weight-loss lies in its maintenance, once it is achieved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, was more efficient than a traditional intervention, in the treatment of overweight and obesity and whether this intervention reduces cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity...
June 20, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630081/calcium-sensing-receptor-genotype-and-response-to-cinacalcet-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#18
Sharon M Moe, Leah Wetherill, Brian Scott Decker, Dongbing Lai, Safa Abdalla, Jin Long, Matteo Vatta, Tatiana M Foroud, Glenn M Chertow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) alter the response to the calcimimetic cinacalcet. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We analyzed DNA samples in the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events (EVOLVE) trial, a randomized trial comparing cinacalcet to placebo on a background of usual care. Of the 3883 patients randomized, 1919 (49%) consented to DNA collection, and samples from 1852 participants were genotyped for 18 CASR polymorphisms...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628560/genetic-coding-variants-in-the-niacin-receptor-hydroxyl-carboxylic-acid-receptor-2-and-response-to-niacin-therapy
#19
Sony Tuteja, Lu Wang, Richard L Dunbar, Jinbo Chen, Stephanie DerOhannessian, Santica M Marcovina, Marshall Elam, Ellis Lader, Daniel J Rader
OBJECTIVE: Niacin has been used for seven decades to modulate plasma lipids, but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We sought to determine whether variants in the niacin receptor gene, hydroxyl-carboxylic receptor 2 (HCAR2), are associated with lipid response to treatment. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Coding variants, rs7314976 (p.R311C) and rs2454727 (p.M317I), were genotyped in 2067 participants from the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial...
June 16, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628373/association-between-urinary-phytoestrogens-and-c-reactive-protein-in-the-continuous-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#20
Michael K Reger, Terrell W Zollinger, Ziyue Liu, Josette Jones, Jianjun Zhang
OBJECTIVE: A reduced risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease associated with phytoestrogen intake may be mediated through its effect on serum C-reactive protein (CRP; an inflammation biomarker). Therefore, this study examined the associations between urinary phytoestrogens and serum CRP. METHODS: Urinary phytoestrogen and serum CRP data obtained from 6009 participants aged ≥ 40 years in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999-2010 were analyzed...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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