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Cardiovascular risk reduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429577/investigating-general-medication-prescription-by-general-practitioners-during-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-weight-loss-trial
#1
N R Fuller, N S Lau, T P Markovic, I D Caterson
Much healthcare expenditure is on pharmaceutical drugs. Expenditure on medications has increased both in absolute terms, and as a proportion of total health expenditure. No previous studies have investigated the prescribing costs by general practitioners when managing patients during a weight loss intervention. This study evaluated the medication costs by individual class during a 1-year study in which 268 participants were randomized to one of two weight loss programmes, either standard care (SC) as defined by national guidelines, or a commercial provider (Weight Watchers) (CP)...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427844/cost-effectiveness-of-influenza-vaccination-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-korea
#2
Jinuk Suh, Boyeon Kim, Yunseok Yang, Dong-Churl Suh, Eunyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Influenza can cause cardiovascular abnormalities by inappropriately activating the coagulation cascade. Therefore, influenza vaccination is important because it decreases the risk of hospitalization for and mortality associated with heart disease. In particular, it reduces the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Our study aimed to estimate the disease burden of MACEs and its related direct and indirect costs in ACS patients...
April 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426523/increasing-hdl-c-levels-with-medication-current-perspectives
#3
Roelof Aj Smit, J Wouter Jukema, Stella Trompet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, observational studies have repeatedly demonstrated an inverse association between HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular outcomes. Although the efficacy of established HDL-modifying treatment strategies have been examined in multiple large-scale phase III trials, findings from these experimental studies conflict with the hypothesis that HDL-C levels are atheroprotective. In this review, we describe the trial evidence to date, and attempt to place these results in the broader context of recent hypotheses for the association between HDL-C levels and clinical outcomes...
April 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425575/high-dose-supplementation-of-vitamin-d-affects-measures-of-systemic-inflammation-reductions-in-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-level-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-nlr-distribution
#4
Seyed-Amir Tabatabaeizadeh, Amir Avan, Afsane Bahrami, Ezzat Khodashenas, Habibollah Esmaeili, Gordon A Ferns, Mojtaba Fattahi Abdizadeh, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide, which has be shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), autoimmune disease and metabolic syndrome. These conditions are also associated with a heightened state of inflammation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum C - reactive protein (CRP) level and Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) distribution in a large cohort of adolescent girls...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423661/examining-the-association-between-anthropometric-parameters-and-telomere-length-and-mortality-risk
#5
Chen-Jung Wu, Tung-Wei Kao, Yuan-Yung Lin, Fang-Yih Liaw, Li-Wei Wu, Yaw-Wen Chang, Tao-Chun Peng, Wei-Liang Chen
A shorter telomere length is associated with several systemic disorders. Telomere length may be an informative biomarker for the maintenance of the overall health status and mortality. There are a limited number of empirical studies concerning the effect of anthropometric parameters on telomere length. The data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2002. The primary outcomes of this study were to examine the potential relationships between the anthropometric indices and the telomere length, while secondary outcomes of this study was to investigate the association between different anthropometric indices and mortality risk...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421834/long-term-testosterone-therapy-improves-cardiometabolic-function-and-reduces-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-men-with-hypogonadism
#6
Abdulmaged M Traish, Ahmad Haider, Karim Sultan Haider, Gheorghe Doros, Farid Saad
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of large, prospective, placebo-controlled studies of longer duration, substantial evidence regarding the safety and risk of testosterone (T) therapy (TTh) with regard to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes can only be gleaned from observational studies. To date, there are limited studies comparing the effects of long-term TTh in men with hypogonadism who were treated or remained untreated with T, for obvious reasons. We have established a registry to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of T in men in a urological setting...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419071/reduction-of-cardiovascular-risk-with-evolocumab-repatha
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417443/time-trends-of-high-blood-pressure-prevalence-awareness-and-control-in-the-italian-general-population-surveys-of-the-national-institute-of-health
#8
Anna Di Lonardo, Chiara Donfrancesco, Luigi Palmieri, Diego Vanuzzo, Simona Giampaoli
INTRODUCTION: High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods...
April 17, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417301/overview-of-coronary-heart-disease-risk-initiatives-in-south-asia
#9
REVIEW
Ankur Kalra, Deepak L Bhatt, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Kunal Suri, Sundeep Mishra, Romaina Iqbal, Salim S Virani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Industrialization and economic growth have led to an unprecedented increment in the burden of CVD and their risk factors in less industrialized regions of the world. While there are abundant data on CVD and their risk factors from longitudinal cohort studies done in the West, good-quality data from South Asia are lacking. RECENT FINDINGS: Several multi-institutional, observational, prospective registries, and epidemiologic cohorts in South Asia have been established to systematically evaluate the burden of CVD and their risk factors...
June 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416368/nutritional-management-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review-study
#10
REVIEW
Zeinab Faghfoori, Siavash Fazelian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Reza Goodarzi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, which leads to reproductive, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. Due to the presence of insulin resistance, PCOS increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies such as breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown but environmental factors such as dietary habits play an important role in prevention and treatment and lifestyle modifications are the most important therapeutic strategies in these patients...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#11
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415975/k%C3%A4-holo-project-a-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-native-cultural-dance-program-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-native-hawaiians
#12
Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Mele A Look, Thomas A Wills, Māpuana de Silva, Tricia Mabellos, Todd B Seto, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Ka'imi A Sinclair, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: As a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), hypertension affects 33% of U.S. adults. Relative to other US races and ethnicities, Native Hawaiians have a high prevalence of hypertension and are 3 to 4 times more likely to have CVD. Effective, culturally-relevant interventions are needed to address CVD risk in this population. Investigators of the Kā-HOLO Project developed a study design to test the efficacy of an intervention that uses hula, a traditional Hawaiian dance, to increase physical activity and reduce CVD risk...
April 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415103/p673improvement-of-arterial-stiffness-and-myocardial-deformation-in-patients-with-poorly-controlled-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-after-optimization-of-antidiabetic-medication
#13
I Ikonomidis, G Pavlidis, V Lambadiari, F Kousathana, H Triantafyllidi, M Varoudi, D Vlastos, S Vlachos, G Dimitriadis, J Lekakis
Background: Arterial stiffness is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the arterial stiffness and myocardial deformation in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus type 2 before and after glycemic control by optimal medication. Methods: In 50 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes(age:52±10years)and 25 controls of similar age and sex and no atherosclerotic risk factors we measured at baseline and 6 months after glycemic control a) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity(PWVc m/sec-Complior SP ALAM),central systolic blood pressure(cSBP -mmHg),augmentation index(AI%), of the aortic pulse wave(ArteriographTensioMed) b)S',E'(m/sec)andE'/A'of mitral annulus by Tissue Doppler c)LV longitudinal strain(GLS-%),systolic(LongSr-l/sec)and diastolic(LongSrE-l/sec)strain rate, twisting(Tw-deg),peak twisting(Tw)and untwisting(unTw-deg/sec)velocity using speckle tracking echocardiography...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413972/xanthine-oxidase-and-its-role-as-target-in-cardiovascular-disease-cardiovascular-protection-by-enzyme-inhibition
#14
Mirjam Schuchardt, Jaqueline Herrmann, Markus Tölle, Markus van der Giet
BACKGROUND: Formerly, hyperuricemia was mainly restricted to the rich population, but now-a-days it is a condition affecting wide parts of western civilization. Although only a minority of our population develops clinically relevant symptomatic hyperuricemia, there is growing evidence that elevated serum uric acid levels might be associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease progression. But it is not clear whether uric acid is just a biomarker or exerts detrimental effects itself...
April 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413966/the-clinical-problems-of-hypertension-treatment-in-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Charalampos N Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Hypertension (HT) is present in >80% of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410749/efficacy-and-safety-of-k-877-a-novel-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-modulator-spparm%C3%AE-in-combination-with-statin-treatment-two-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trials-in-patients-with-dyslipidaemia
#16
Hidenori Arai, Shizuya Yamashita, Koutaro Yokote, Eiichi Araki, Hideki Suganami, Shun Ishibashi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Substantial residual cardiovascular risks remain despite intensive statin treatment. Residual risks with high triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are not the primary targets of statins. K-877 (pemafibrate) demonstrated robust efficacy on triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a good safety profile as a monotherapy. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of K-877 add-on therapy to treat residual hypertriglyceridaemia during statin treatment...
March 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409835/long-term-outcomes-with-aspiration-thrombectomy-for-patients-undergoing-primary-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#17
REVIEW
Akram Y Elgendy, Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Anthony A Bavry
Randomized clinical trials that examined long-term clinical outcomes of routine aspiration thrombectomy prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction have yielded different results. We hypothesized that the routine use of manual thrombus aspiration prior to primary PCI lacks long-term clinical benefits. Electronic databases were searched for randomized trials comparing routine aspiration thrombectomy and conventional PCI. We included only trials that reported clinical outcomes beyond 6 months...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409013/lay-beliefs-about-hypertension-among-hiv-infected-adults-in-kenya
#18
Tecla M Temu, Ehete Bahiru, Fredrick Bukachi, Gerald S Bloomfield, Peter Muiruri, Carey Farquhar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension affects 23% of Kenyans and is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, hypertension awareness and treatment adherence is very low. We conducted a qualitative study to explore lay beliefs about hypertension among HIV-infected adults to inform the development of culture sensitive hypertension prevention and control program. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions were held for 53 HIV-infected adults at the HIV clinic in Kenya...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408635/cardiac-autonomic-control-and-complexity-during-sleep-are-preserved-after-chronic-sleep-restriction-in-healthy-subjects
#19
Eleonora Tobaldini, Naima Covassin, Andrew Calvin, Prachi Singh, Jan Bukartyk, Shiang Wang, Nicola Montano, Virend K Somers
Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407414/association-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-glp-1-ra-use-and-rates-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-stroke-and-overall-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-large-integrated-health-system
#20
Robert S Zimmerman, Todd M Hobbs, Brian J Wells, Sheldon X Kong, Michael W Kattan, Jon Bouchard, Kevin M Chagin, Changhong Yu, Brian Sakurada, Alex Milinovich, Wayne Weng, Janine M Bauman, Kevin M Pantalone
AIMS: To assess the potential impact of GLP-1 RA exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), using a large retrospective cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with T2D between 2005-2014 (N = 105,862) were identified in the electronic health record system at Cleveland Clinic using a validated electronic phenotype. A time-dependent, Cox, multiple regression analysis was used to assess the association between GLP-1 RA exposure and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke/cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and overall mortality, as well as the composite of all three outcomes...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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