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Cardiovascular risk reduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049904/the-impact-of-medicare-part-d-on-cognitive-functioning-at-older-ages
#1
Tae-Young Pak, GwanSeon Kim
Research has shown that the establishment of Medicare prescription drug benefit in 2006 leads to improvement in medication adherence and mortality outcomes. Despite a clear connection between physical/mental health and the risk of dementia, little is known about the extent to which this reform has affected the cognitive functioning of the elderly. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study and difference-in-differences approach, this study provides the first evidence on the cognition-enhancing effects of Medicare Part D...
September 25, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049868/a-novel-home-based-intervention-for-child-and-adolescent-obesity-the-results-of-the-wh%C3%A4-nau-pakari-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Yvonne C Anderson, Lisa E Wynter, Cameron C Grant, Tami L Cave, José G B Derraik, Wayne S Cutfield, Paul L Hofman
OBJECTIVE: To report 12-month outcomes from a multidisciplinary child obesity intervention program, targeting high-risk groups. METHODS: In this unblinded randomized controlled trial, participants (recruited January 2012-August 2014) were aged 5 to 16 years, resided in Taranaki, Aotearoa/New Zealand, and had BMI ≥ 98th percentile or BMI > 91st percentile with weight-related comorbidities. Randomization was by minimization (age and ethnicity), with participants assigned to an intense intervention group (home-based assessments at 6-month intervals and a 12-month multidisciplinary program with weekly group sessions) or to a minimal-intensity control group with home-based assessments and advice at each 6-month follow-up...
October 19, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049467/updated-cost-effectiveness-assessments-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-from-the-perspectives-of-the-health-system-and-private-payers-insights-derived-from-the-fourier-trial
#3
Alejandro Arrieta, Jonathan C Hong, Rohan Khera, Salim S Virani, Harlan M Krumholz, Khurram Nasir
Importance: Preliminary cost-effectiveness analyses of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor (PCSK9i) were based on benefits estimated from reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol that occurred in PCSK9i trials with variable results. The recent Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) trial provides better information about the effectiveness of the drug. Objective: To use the trial results to determine the cost-effectiveness of a PCSK9i and statin treatment strategy compared with a statin alone strategy...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049041/the-impact-of-lifestyle-intervention-on-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Kathryn L Hong, Benedict M Glover
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, attributable to several factors that may be amenable through lifestyle modification. There is emerging evidence to suggest that the successful management of several cardiovascular risk factors [obesity, hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)] can lead to fewer complications and atrial fibrillation prevention. However, the long-term sustainability and reproducibility of these effects have yet to be explored in larger studies...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048215/sauna-exposure-leads-to-improved-arterial-compliance-findings-from-a-non-randomised-experimental-study
#5
Earric Lee, Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Setor K Kunutsor, Hassan Khan, Peter Willeit, Francesco Zaccardi, Jari A Laukkanen
Background Heat therapy has been suggested to improve cardiovascular function. However, the effects of hot sauna exposure on arterial compliance and the dynamics of blood flow and pressure have not been well documented. Thus, we investigated the short-term effects of sauna bathing on arterial stiffness and haemodynamics. Design The design was an experimental non-randomised study. Methods There were 102 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 51.9 years) who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were exposed to a single sauna session (duration: 30 min; temperature: 73℃; humidity: 10-20%)...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046988/should-pre-hypertension-be-treated
#6
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kanegae, Takamitsu Oikawa, Kazuomi Kario
Hypertension is an important preventable risk factor for disease and death worldwide. In light of the world's population growth and aging, hypertension is a global public health issue. Many studies have shown associations between pre-hypertension and a higher risk of the future development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in general populations. However, pre-hypertension per se is not a disease with an immediate high risk, and the clinical value of the identification of pre-hypertension is the potential detection of the early stage of the risk of hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease over an individual's lifespan...
October 18, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046520/the-impact-of-salt-intake-during-and-after-pregnancy
#7
Kei Asayama, Yutaka Imai
Although high blood pressure before pregnancy is associated with a risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, no convincing evidence has been produced to show that dietary salt reduction helps in the prevention and treatment of hypertension during pregnancy. Thus the current guidelines do not recommend a sodium restriction during pregnancy to prevent gestational hypertension and the development of preeclampsia. However, the long-term impact of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy for life-threatening diseases later in life is a critical issue...
October 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046007/-dietary-recommendations-in-metabolic-vascular-syndrome
#8
Katharina Lechner, Nicole Erickson, Benjamin Lechner, Florian Horn
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally. Poor diet constitutes a key factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease and has become the leading risk factor for disability and death worldwide. Therefore, addressing suboptimal nutrition is of key prognostic relevance in primary and secondary prevention of metabolic vascular syndrome.Metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional network of acquired cardiometabolic risk factors closely related to insulin resistance (IR) and concomitant hyperinsulinemia...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044354/protocol-for-the-evaluation-of-a-chronic-care-model-experience-in-rome
#10
D Mipatrini, A Sinopoli, C Sestili, M Di Marcoberardino, P Giuliani, G Grasso, A Lancia, E Megli, R Mete, M G Pennafina, M Pirrò, S Tartaglia, F Vero, G La Torre
INTRODUCTION: Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in almost all over the world; in Europe causing over 9 million deaths per year according to WHO estimates. A promising health organization model for chronic disease management is represented by the Chronic Care Model (CCM). In the 12th district of the ASL Roma 2 since 4 years was implemented a CCM for the management of patients affected by diabetes and/or at high cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chronic Care Model (CCM) for the management of chronic disease in terms of mortality reduction, avoidable hospitalizations reduction and improvement of clinical parameters...
September 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044123/ire1%C3%AE-xbp1s-branch-of-upr-links-hif1%C3%AE-activation-to-mediate-angii-dependent-endothelial-dysfunction-under-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-exposure
#11
Xiuduan Xu, Aodeng Qimuge, Hongli Wang, Chen Xing, Ye Gu, Shasha Liu, Huan Xu, Meiru Hu, Lun Song
Short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5 instigates adverse health effect upon the cardiovascular (CV) system. Disclosing the molecular events by which PM2.5 evokes CV injuries is essential in developing effective risk-reduction strategy. Here we found that rats after intratracheally instillation with PM2.5 displayed increased circulating level of ANGII, the major bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which resulted from the elevation of ANGII production in the vascular endothelium...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043547/age-related-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-early-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-risk-reduction
#12
Frederik H W Jonker, Vera A A van Houten, Leontine H Wijngaarden, René A Klaassen, André A E A de Smet, André Niezen, Lodewijk J D M Schelfhout, Tobias A Bruning, Erwin van der Harst
BACKGROUND: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is increasingly used as a prognostic indicator for early atherosclerosis and the development of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to assess the exact effects of bariatric surgery on CIMT reduction in different age groups. METHODS: CIMT was measured just proximal to the bifurcation of the carotid artery in 166 patients with mean body mass index of 43.4 kg/m(2) before and at 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery...
October 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042430/ideal-cardiovascular-health-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-heterogeneity-across-event-subtypes-and-mediating-effect-of-blood-biomarkers-the-prime-study
#13
Bamba Gaye, Muriel Tafflet, Dominique Arveiler, Michèle Montaye, Aline Wagner, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Frank Kee, Alun Evans, Philippe Amouyel, Jean Ferrieres, Jean-Philippe Empana
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between baseline cardiovascular health (CVH) and incident cardiovascular disease differs according to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke subtypes, and to assess the mediating effect of inflammatory and hemostatic blood biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of ideal CVH with outcomes was derived in 9312 middle-aged men from Northern Ireland and France (whole cohort) in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041894/-clinical-features-of-arterial-hypertension-in-the-elderly-and-senile-age-and-the-rationale-for-using-the-combination-of-amlodipine-indapamide-retard
#14
D Z Kobalava, K E Shavarova
The proportion of elderly in the population is growing. The two-thirds of those over the age of 65 has arterial hypertension (AH). There is a significant increase in the incidence of isolated systolic hypertension with age. The relationship between increased pulse pressure, arterial stiffness and aging processes has been repeatedly confirmed in population epidemiological studies. Some evidence has been found that the treatment of AH in the elderly is accompanied by a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases...
August 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041011/hemodiafiltration-reduces-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-incident-hemodialysis-patients-a-propensity-matched-cohort-study
#15
Francisco Maduell, Javier Varas, Rosa Ramos, Alejandro Martin-Malo, Rafael Pérez-Garcia, Isabel Berdud, Francesc Moreso, Bernard Canaud, Stefano Stuard, Adelheid Gauly, Pedro Aljama, Jose Ignacio Merello
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies suggesting that online hemodiafiltration reduces the risk of mortality compared to hemodialysis (HD) have been performed in dialysis-prevalent populations. In this report, we conducted an epidemiologic study of mortality in incident dialysis patients, comparing post-dilution online hemodiafiltration and high-flux HD, with propensity score matching (PSM) used to correct indication bias. METHODS: Our study cohort comprised 3,075 incident dialysis patients treated in 64 Spanish Fresenius Medical Care clinics between January 2009 and December 2012...
October 17, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040716/dietary-carbohydrates-components-of-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes
#16
Harry A Smith, Javier T Gonzalez, Dylan Thompson, James A Betts
The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health...
October 5, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040268/benefit-and-harm-of-intensive-blood-pressure-treatment-derivation-and-validation-of-risk-models-using-data-from-the-sprint-and-accord-trials
#17
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Joseph Rigdon, Lauren Steimle, Brian T Denton, Rodney A Hayward
BACKGROUND: Intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but can cause some serious adverse events. We sought to develop and validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk) for CVD events and serious adverse events from intensive BP therapy. A secondary aim was to test if the statistical method of elastic net regularization would improve the estimation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards variable selection approach...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039839/-the-role-of-integrated-assessment-of-the-indicators-of-external-respiration-function-in-cardiac-surgical-patients
#18
O V Kamenskaja, A S Klinkova, I Ju Loginova, V V Lomivorotov, D N Ponomarev, D V Habarov, V N Lomivorotov
This literature review dedicated to the importance of an integrated assessment of external respiratory function in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including an analysis of up-to-date techniques, such as spirometry, body plethysmography, examination of the diffusing capacity of the lung, determination of O2 consumption with evaluation of the effectiveness of pulmonary ventilation. It considers the pathogenetic components of impairments in pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, which develop in different CVDs, as well as during and after cardiac surgery...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039175/-comparison-of-limus-eluting-stent-with-paclitaxel-eluting-stent-for-patients-with-coronary-small-vessel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Xiaoqun Zhang, Qiwen Wang, Xin Wang, Xiaolei Xu, Jianhua Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of limus-eluting stent (LES) with paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) for patients with coronary small vessel disease. METHODS: The studies of LES and PES used for patients with coronary small vessel disease were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials, SinoMed, CNKI, Wanfang data and CQVIP. The relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals and other statistical variables were calculated with Stata 14.0, and the meta analysis was performed with RevMan 5...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038906/pcsk9-mutations-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-from-a-groundbreaking-discovery-to-anti-pcsk9-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Petra El Khoury, Sandy Elbitar, Youmna Ghaleb, Yara Abou Khalil, Mathilde Varret, Catherine Boileau, Marianne Abifadel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2003, Abifadel et al. (Nat. Genet. 34:154-156, 2003) identified PCSK9, encoding proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, as the third causal gene for autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. This review focuses on the main steps from this major breakthrough in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) to the latest clinical trials with the anti-PCSK9 antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: The year 2015 was remarkable in cardiovascular disease through the field of cholesterol...
October 17, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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