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Cardiovascular risk reduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228000/an-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-cholesterol-lowering-efficacy-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ecgc-13110402-in-normal-to-mildly-hypercholesterolaemic-adults
#1
Adele Costabile, Ivan Buttarazzi, Sofia Kolida, Sara Quercia, Jessica Baldini, Jonathan R Swann, Patrizia Brigidi, Glenn R Gibson
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of death and disability in industrialised countries, with elevated blood cholesterol an established risk factor. Total plasma cholesterol reduction in populations suffering from primary hypercholesterolemia may lower CHD incidence. This study investigated the cholesterol reducing capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402, a strain selected for its high bile salt hydrolase activity, in 49 normal to mildly hypercholesterolaemic adults. Primary efficacy outcomes included effect on blood lipids (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and triacylgycerides (TAG), inflammatory biomarkers and occurrence/severity of gastrointestinal side effects to establish safety and tolerance of the intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227257/world-and-national-experience-in-organization-of-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#2
А Biduchak, Zh Chornenka
The aim of the study was to examine the global, European and national experience in the implementation of preventive programs and to reveal their value in health, economy and social health development. The conducted research has found that the implementation of the national program, the correct methodological approach of the physician to evaluate risk factors, and implementing preventive measures of diseases of the circulatory system bring positive results (reduction of prevalence and incidence of cerebral stroke by 13,7% and 1,4%, respectively)...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226736/the-effect-of-major-adverse-renal-cardiovascular-event-marce-incidence-procedure-volume-and-unit-cost-on-the-hospital-savings-resulting-from-contrast-media-use-in-inpatient-angioplasty
#3
Eric Keuffel, Peter A McCullough, Thomas M Todoran, Emmanouil S Brilakis, Swetha R Palli, Michael P Ryan, Candace Gunnarsson
OBJECTIVE: Determine the net economic impact of switching from low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) to iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; iodixanol) in patients undergoing inpatient coronary or peripheral angioplasty in the United States (US). METHODS: A budget impact model (BIM) was developed from a hospital perspective. Nationally representative procedural and contrast media prevalence rates, along with MARCE (major adverse renal cardiovascular event) incidence and episode-related cost data were derived from Premier Hospital Data (October 2014 to September 2015)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226735/social-media-for-health-promotion-what-messages-are-women-receiving-about-cardiovascular-disease-risk-by-the-canadian-heart-and-stroke-foundation
#4
Christine A Gonsalves, Kerry R McGannon, Robert J Schinke
The aim of this study was to explore the meanings of women's cardiovascular disease constructed within the Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation Facebook page. Posts from Heart and Stroke Foundation and public user comments surrounding the launch of the Heart and Stroke Foundation re-branding were of interest. Ethnographic content analysis was employed to analyse text ( n = 40), images ( n = 32), videos ( n = 6), user comments and replies ( n = 42) from November 2016 to March 2017. Constructions (re)presented on Facebook of 'typical' women at risk and risk reduction were problematic as women most at risk were excluded through the use of consumerist, medicalized identities which also excluded promotion of healthy behaviour changes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225315/comparison-of-the-effects-of-three-tea-cultivars-camellia-sinensis-l-on-nitric-oxide-production-and-aortic-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-expression-in-high-salt-diet-fed-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#5
Sachiko Nomura, Manami Monobe, Kaori Ema, Mari Maeda-Yamamoto, Atsushi Nesumi
Studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the best studied active substance characteristic of green tea, previous results on EGCG do not appear sufficient to explain completely the mechanism of cardiovascular protection by green tea. Therefore, we investigated the effect of three different tea cultivars, "Yabukita," "Sofu," and "Sunrouge," which have characteristic flavonoid compositions, on the nitric oxide (NO) production and the related protein expression in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) fed a high-salt diet...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224639/a-multinational-clinical-approach-to-assessing-the-effectiveness-of-catheter-based-ultrasound-renal-denervation-the-radiance-htn-and-require-clinical-study-designs
#6
Laura Mauri, Kazuomi Kario, Jan Basile, Joost Daemen, Justin Davies, Ajay J Kirtane, Felix Mahfoud, Roland E Schmieder, Michael Weber, Shinsuke Nanto, Michel Azizi
Catheter-based renal denervation is a new approach to treat hypertension via modulation of the renal sympathetic nerves. Although nonrandomized and small, open-label randomized studies resulted in significant reductions in office blood pressure 6months after renal denervation with monopolar radiofrequency catheters, the first prospective, randomized, sham-controlled study (Symplicity HTN-3) failed to meet its blood pressure efficacy end point. New clinical trials with new catheters have since been designed to address the limitations of earlier studies...
January 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#7
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#8
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223956/residual-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-events-in-relation-to-reductions-in-very-low-density-lipoproteins
#9
Patrick R Lawler, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paulo Harada, Robert J Glynn, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Samia Mora
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether pharmacological reductions in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), and their component triglyceride and cholesterol could reduce residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals in whom low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been adequately lowered. We examined whether individuals with greater on-statin reductions in VLDL-related measures-beyond reductions in LDL-C-were at further reduced risk of ASCVD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222099/isolation-of-the-pinoresinol-mineralizing-pseudomonas-sp-sg-ms2-and-elucidation-of-its-catabolic-pathway
#10
Madhura Shettigar, Sahil Balotra, David Cahill, Andrew C Warden, Michael J Lacey, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Daniel Rentsch, John G Oakeshott, Gunjan Pandey
Pinoresinol is a dimer of two β-β' linked coniferyl alcohol molecules. It is both a plant defence molecule synthesized from the shikimic acid pathway and a representative of several β-β linked dimers produced during the microbial degradation of lignin in dead plant material. Until now little has been known about the bacterial catabolism of such dimers. Here we report the isolation of an efficient (+)-pinoresinol mineralizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SG-MS2 and its catabolic pathway. Degradation of pinoresinol in this strain is inducible and proceeds via a novel oxidative route which is in contrast to the previously reported reductive transformation by other bacteria...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221659/cardiovascular-outcomes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#11
M Angelyn Bethel, Rishi A Patel, Peter Merrill, Yuliya Lokhnygina, John B Buse, Robert J Mentz, Neha J Pagidipati, Juliana C Chan, Stephanie M Gustavson, Nayyar Iqbal, Aldo P Maggioni, Peter Öhman, Neil R Poulter, Ambady Ramachandran, Bernard Zinman, Adrian F Hernandez, Rury R Holman
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective glucose-lowering drugs. Findings from cardiovascular outcome trials showed cardiovascular safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists, but results for cardiovascular efficacy were varied. We aimed to examine overall cardiovascular efficacy for lixisenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, and extended-release exenatide. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed data from eligible trials that assessed the safety and efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo in adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with type 2 diabetes and had a primary outcome including, but not limited to, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke...
December 5, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221483/the-role-of-sleepiness-on-arterial-stiffness-improvement-after-cpap-therapy-in-males-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Maria Alexandra Mineiro, Pedro Marques da Silva, Marta Alves, Ana Luísa Papoila, Maria João Marques Gomes, João Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aim to assess differences in changes in arterial stiffness of two groups of patients, defined as having daytime sleepiness or not, after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. METHODS: A selected cohort of consecutive male patients, under 65 years old, with moderate to severe OSA and without great number of comorbidities was studied. The diagnosis was confirmed by home respiratory poligraphy...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219101/health-effects-of-milder-winters-a-review-of-evidence-from-the-united-kingdom
#13
REVIEW
Shakoor Hajat
Cold-related mortality and morbidity remains an important public health problem in the UK and elsewhere. Health burdens have often reported to be higher in the UK compared to other countries with colder climates, however such assessments are usually based on comparison of excess winter mortality indices, which are subject to biases. Daily time-series regression or case-crossover studies provide the best evidence of the acute effects of cold exposure. Such studies report a 6% increase in all-cause deaths in England & Wales for every 1 °C fall in daily mean temperature within the top 5% of the coldest days...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217959/periodontal-therapy-with-0-25-lemongrass-oil-mouthwash-in-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-a-3-arm-prospective-parallel-experimental-study
#14
Dany S Subha, Tangde Pradeep
Background: Periodontal disease is associated with cardiovascular diseases because of its role in host immune-inflammatory response. Serum lipids are the commonest risk factors between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Method: A double blinded randomised clinical trial was carried out among 45 subjects with generalised severe periodontitis. They were divided into 3-groups of 15 subjects each. Group A: 0.25% lemongrass oil mouthwash, Group B: 0...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216336/managing-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
Sagen Zac-Varghese, Peter Winocour
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Sources of data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
December 5, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212812/pharmacologic-prevention-of-incident-atrial-fibrillation-long-term-results-from-the-allhat-antihypertensive-and-lipid-lowering-treatment-to-prevent-heart-attack-trial
#16
Thomas A Dewland, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Barry R Davis, Alvaro Alonso, Christine M Albert, Lara M Simpson, L Julian Haywood, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Although atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines indicate that pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may be considered for primary AF prevention in hypertensive patients, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We sought to determine whether randomization to lisinopril reduces incident AF or atrial flutter (AFL) compared with chlorthalidone in a large clinical trial cohort with extended post-trial surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a secondary analysis of the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial that enrolled hypertensive individuals ≥55 years of age with at least one other cardiovascular risk factor...
December 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212651/relation-between-blood-pressure-and-clinical-outcome-in-hypertensive-subjects-with-previous-stroke
#17
Chan Joo Lee, Jinseub Hwang, Jaewon Oh, Sang-Hak Lee, Seok-Min Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sungha Park
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether a mean blood pressure (BP) of <130/80 mm Hg is associated with further reduction in cardiovascular outcomes in treated hypertensive subjects with previous stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects from the Korea National Health Insurance Service health examinee cohort diagnosed as having stroke and hypertension from January 1st, 2003 and December 31st, 2006 (N=2320) were grouped according to mean systolic (<130, 130-<140, and ≥140 mm Hg) and diastolic (<80, 80-<90, and ≥90 mm Hg) BP recorded during follow-up health examinations...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212477/nurse-health-and-lifestyle-modification-versus-standard-care-in-40-to-70-year-old-regional-adults-study-protocol-of-the-management-to-optimise-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-risk-reduction-via-nurse-led-intervention-modern-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Melinda J Carrington, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS...
December 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212370/psychological-interventions-for-coronary-heart-disease-cochrane-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Suzanne H Richards, Lindsey Anderson, Caroline E Jenkinson, Ben Whalley, Karen Rees, Philippa Davies, Paul Bennett, Zulian Liu, Robert West, David R Thompson, Rod S Taylor
Background Although psychological interventions are recommended for the management of coronary heart disease (CHD), there remains considerable uncertainty regarding their effectiveness. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions for CHD. Methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched to April 2016. Retrieved papers, systematic reviews and trial registries were hand-searched. We included RCTs with at least 6 months of follow-up, comparing the direct effects of psychological interventions to usual care for patients following myocardial infarction or revascularisation or with a diagnosis of angina pectoris or CHD defined by angiography...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211841/perioperative-benefit-and-outcome-of-thoracic-epidural-in-esophageal-surgery-a-clinical-review
#20
P Feltracco, A Bortolato, S Barbieri, E Michieletto, E Serra, A Ruol, S Merigliano, C Ori
Surgery for esophageal cancer is a highly stressful and painful procedure, and a significant amount of analgesics may be required to eliminate perioperative pain and blunt the stress response to surgery. Proper management of postoperative pain has invariably been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and accelerate recovery. Neuraxial analgesic techniques after major thoracic and upper abdominal surgery have long been established to reduce respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory, and neurohormonal complications...
December 2, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
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