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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345046/canopy-near-infrared-reflectance-and-terrestrial-photosynthesis
#1
Grayson Badgley, Christopher B Field, Joseph A Berry
Global estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) remain highly uncertain, despite decades of satellite measurements and intensive in situ monitoring. We report a new approach for quantifying the near-infrared reflectance of terrestrial vegetation (NIRV). NIRV provides a foundation for a new approach to estimate GPP that consistently untangles the confounding effects of background brightness, leaf area, and the distribution of photosynthetic capacity with depth in canopies using existing moderate spatial and spectral resolution satellite sensors...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343303/can-real-time-rgbd-enhance-intraoperative-cone-beam-ct
#2
Javad Fotouhi, Bernhard Fuerst, Wolfgang Wein, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is an important 3D imaging technology for orthopedic, trauma, radiotherapy guidance, angiography, and dental applications. The major limitation of CBCT is the poor image quality due to scattered radiation, truncation, and patient movement. In this work, we propose to incorporate information from a co-registered Red-Green-Blue-Depth (RGBD) sensor attached near the detector plane of the C-arm to improve the reconstruction quality, as well as correcting for undesired rigid patient movement...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324936/a-preliminary-study-on-multi-wavelength-ppg-based-pulse-transit-time-detection-for-cuffless-blood-pressure-measurement
#3
Jing Liu, Yuan-Ting Zhang, Xiao-Rong Ding, Wen-Xuan Dai, Ni Zhao
Pulse transit time (PTT) has been widely studied as an index of blood pressure (BP) changes. In recent years, some prototypes of PTT-based wearable BP measurement devices have been developed, which can relieve users from the discomfort caused by the inflating cuff used in auscultatory and oscillometric BP measurement techniques. However, in the common practice for PTT detection, multi-site sensor implementation on human body is required, making it difficult for the integration of wearable devices. Since multi-wavelength (MW) photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals carry blood pulsation information of different blood vessels embedded in different skin depths, the time difference between different wavelength PPG signals collected at the same body site can be treated as a special PTT on a short length of blood vessels beneath the skin...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298244/frailty-related-to-anesthesia-guided-by-the-index-bispectral-frail-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Morgan Le Guen, Marie Herr, Antoine Bizard, Caroline Bichon, Nathalie Boichut, Thierry Chazot, Ngai Liu, Joel Ankri, Marc Fischler
BACKGROUND: Currently, patients older than 60 years of age represent 25% of the population and are at an increased risk during surgery. Therefore, reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality is a major concern in medical research and practice. Dependence on caregivers and cognitive impairment represent two major risk factors in the elderly, especially in frail patients after surgery under general anesthesia. In this context, continuous monitoring of the depth of anesthesia using a bispectral index (BIS) sensor may reduce the occurrence of impairments by gaining better control of the anesthetic depth...
March 16, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291092/measuring-patient-mobility-in-the-icu-using-a-novel-noninvasive-sensor
#5
Andy J Ma, Nishi Rawat, Austin Reiter, Christine Shrock, Andong Zhan, Alex Stone, Anahita Rabiee, Stephanie Griffin, Dale M Needham, Suchi Saria
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a noninvasive mobility sensor to automatically and continuously detect and measure patient mobility in the ICU. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Surgical ICU at an academic hospital. PATIENTS: Three hundred sixty-two hours of sensor color and depth image data were recorded and curated into 109 segments, each containing 1,000 images, from eight patients. INTERVENTIONS: None...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283174/real-time-rula-assessment-using-kinect-v2-sensor
#6
Vito Modesto Manghisi, Antonio Emmanuele Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Vitoantonio Bevilacqua, Gianpaolo Francesco Trotta, Giuseppe Monno
The evaluation of the exposure to risk factors in workplaces and their subsequent redesign represent one of the practices to lessen the frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper we present K2RULA, a semi-automatic RULA evaluation software based on the Microsoft Kinect v2 depth camera, aimed at detecting awkward postures in real time, but also in off-line analysis. We validated our tool with two experiments. In the first one, we compared the K2RULA grand-scores with those obtained with a reference optical motion capture system and we found a statistical perfect match according to the Landis and Koch scale (proportion agreement index = 0...
March 7, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281249/immunosensing-with-near-infrared-plasmonic-optical-fiber-gratings
#7
Christophe Caucheteur, Clotilde Ribaut, Viera Malachovska, Ruddy Wattiez
Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) optical fiber biosensors constitute a miniaturized counterpart to the bulky prism configuration and offer remote operation in very small volumes of analyte. They are a cost-effective and relatively straightforward technique to yield in situ (or even possibly in vivo) molecular detection. They are usually obtained from a gold-coated fiber segment for which the core-guided light is brought into contact with the surrounding medium, either by etching (or side-polishing) or by using grating coupling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272320/the-novel-design-of-a-single-sided-mri-probe-for-assessing-burn-depth
#8
Zhonghua He, Wei He, Jiamin Wu, Zheng Xu
Burn depth assessment in clinics is still inaccurate because of the lack of feasible and practical testing devices and methods. Therefore, this process often depends on subjective judgment of burn surgeons. In this study, a new unilateral magnetic resonance imaging (UMRI) sensor equipped with a 2D gradient coil system was established, and we attempted to assess burns using unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance devices. A reduced Halbach magnet was utilized to generate a magnetic field that was relatively homogeneous on a target plane with a suitable field of view for 2D spatial localization...
March 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269733/an-autoclavable-wireless-palpation-instrument-for-minimally-invasive-surgery
#9
Anish S Naidu, Abelardo Escoto, Omar Fahmy, Rajni V Patel, Michael D Naish
Minimally invasive surgery prevents surgeons from manually palpating organs to locate subsurface tumors and other structures. One solution is to use ultrasound; however, it is not always reliable. Various minimally invasive surgery instruments that provide tactile feedback have been proposed to augment ultrasound sensing for tumor localization; however, current designs have limitations such as cumbersome wiring, difficulty in manipulation, lack of sterilizability and high cost. This paper presents a novel, autoclavable, wireless, hand-held palpation instrument that uses a custom, low-cost, disposable tactile sensor to provide tactile and kinesthetic force feedback...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269386/inertial-sensor-based-gait-analysis-discriminates-subjects-with-and-without-visual-impairment-caused-by-simulated-macular-degeneration
#10
Christoph M Kanzler, Jens Barth, Jochen Klucken, Bjoern M Eskofier
Macular degeneration is the third leading cause of blindness worldwide and the leading cause of blindness in the developing world. The analysis of gait parameters can be used to assess the influence of macular degeneration on gait. This study examines the effect of macular degeneration on gait using inertial sensor based 3D spatio-temporal gait parameters. We acquired gait data from 21 young and healthy subjects during a 40 m obstacle walk. All subjects had to perform the gait trial with and without macular degeneration simulation glasses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269361/data-fusion-of-multiple-kinect-sensors-for-a-rehabilitation-system
#11
Huibin Du, Yiwen Zhao, Jianda Han, Zheng Wang, Guoli Song
Kinect-like depth sensors have been widely used in rehabilitation systems. However, single depth sensor processes limb-blocking, data loss or data error poorly, making it less reliable. This paper focus on using two Kinect sensors and data fusion method to solve these problems. First, two Kinect sensors capture the motion data of the healthy arm of the hemiplegic patient; Second, merge the data using the method of Set-Membership-Filter (SMF); Then, mirror this motion data by the Middle-Plane; In the end, control the wearable robotic arm driving the patient's paralytic arm so that the patient can interactively and initiatively complete a variety of recovery actions prompted by computer with 3D animation games...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269252/patient-walk-detection-in-hospital-room-using-microsoft-kinect-v2
#12
Liang Liu, Sanjay Mehrotra
This paper describes a system using Kinect sensor to detect patient walk automatically in a hospital room setting. The system is especially essential for the case when the patient is alone and the nursing staff is absent. The patient activities are represented by the features extracted from Kinect V2 skeletons. The analysis to the recognized walk could help us to better understand the health situation of the patient and the possible hospital acquired infection (HAI), and provide valuable information to healthcare givers for making a corresponding treatment decision and alteration...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268392/testing-non-wearable-fall-detection-methods-in-the-homes-of-older-adults
#13
Marjorie Skubic, Bradford H Harris, Erik Stone, K C Ho, Bo-Yu Su, Marilyn Rantz
In this paper, we describe two longitudinal studies in which fall detection sensor technology was tested in the homes of older adults. The first study tested Doppler radar, a two-webcam system, and a depth camera system in ten apartments for two years. This continuous data collection allowed us to investigate the real-world setting of target users and compare the advantages and limitations of each sensor modality. Based on this study, the depth camera was chosen for a current ongoing study in which depth camera systems have been installed in 94 additional older adult apartments...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264527/the-theoretical-highest-frame-rate-of-silicon-image-sensors
#14
Takeharu Goji Etoh, Anh Quang Nguyen, Yoshinari Kamakura, Kazuhiro Shimonomura, Thi Yen Le, Nobuya Mori
The frame rate of the digital high-speed video camera was 2000 frames per second (fps) in 1989, and has been exponentially increasing. A simulation study showed that a silicon image sensor made with a 130 nm process technology can achieve about 1010 fps. The frame rate seems to approach the upper bound. Rayleigh proposed an expression on the theoretical spatial resolution limit when the resolution of lenses approached the limit. In this paper, the temporal resolution limit of silicon image sensors was theoretically analyzed...
February 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262608/tailoring-heterostructured-bi2moo6-bi2s3-nanobelts-for-highly-selective-photoelectrochemical-analysis-of-gallic-acid-at-drug-level
#15
Lingnan Wang, Zhenbang Liu, Dandan Wang, Shuang Ni, Dongxue Han, Wei Wang, Li Niu
Along with continuous growing widespread adulterations of botanical drugs, the necessity for drug quality monitoring has become more popular than ever. Considering that antioxidants are widely found in natural plant pharmaceuticals, gallic acid (GA) is often regarded as the reference standard to make sure whether these are up to grade as guided by Chinese Pharmacopeia. Herein, a novel Bi2MoO6/Bi2S3 photoelectrochemical sensor has been successfully involved toward selective GA analysis to supervise drug quality, in which γ-Bi2MoO6 nanobelts were treated as template nanocrystal and scaffold...
February 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261522/comparisons-of-the-diagnostic-accuracies-of-optical-coherence-tomography-micro-computed-tomography-and-histology-in-periodontal-disease-an-ex-vivo-study
#16
Jin-Young Park, Jung-Ho Chung, Jung-Seok Lee, Hee-Jin Kim, Seong-Ho Choi, Ui-Won Jung
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that may be useful for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the periodontium. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is another noninvasive imaging technique capable of providing submicron spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to present periodontal images obtained using ex vivo dental OCT and to compare OCT images with micro-CT images and histologic sections. METHODS: Images of ex vivo canine periodontal structures were obtained using OCT...
February 2017: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252444/real-time-dosimetry-with-yb-doped-silica-optical-fibres
#17
Ivan Veronese, Norberto Chiodini, Simone Cialdi, Eduardo D'Ippolito, Mauro Fasoli, Salvatore Gallo, Stefano La Torre, Eleonora Mones, Anna Vedda, Gianfranco Loi
Over the years, many efforts have been done to develop radiation detectors to afford the complex issues of small field dosimetry and to fulfil the needs of increasing accuracy, precision and in-vivo dose monitoring required by the new advanced treatment modalities. In this context, a growing interest has surged in the development of sensors based on scintillating optical fibres. In this paper, the near-infrared radioluminescence and dosimetric properties of Yb-doped silica optical fibres, coupled with a laboratory prototype based on an avalanche photo-diode, were studied by irradiating the fibres with photons and electron beams generated by a Varian Trilogy accelerator...
March 2, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249761/towards-benchmarking-citizen-observatories-features-and-functioning-of-online-amateur-weather-networks
#18
Mohammad Gharesifard, Uta Wehn, Pieter van der Zaag
Crowd-sourced environmental observations are increasingly being considered as having the potential to enhance the spatial and temporal resolution of current data streams from terrestrial and areal sensors. The rapid diffusion of ICTs during the past decades has facilitated the process of data collection and sharing by the general public and has resulted in the formation of various online environmental citizen observatory networks. Online amateur weather networks are a particular example of such ICT-mediated observatories that are rooted in one of the oldest and most widely practiced citizen science activities, namely amateur weather observation...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248341/functional-optoacoustic-neuro-tomography-of-calcium-fluxes-in-adult-zebrafish-brain-in-vivo
#19
X Luís Deán-Ben, Sven Gottschalk, Gali Sela, Shy Shoham, Daniel Razansky
Genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) have revolutionized neuroimaging by enabling mapping of the activity of entire neuronal populations in vivo. Visualization of these powerful activity sensors has to date been limited to depth-restricted microscopic studies due to intense light scattering in the brain. We demonstrate, for the first time, in vivo real-time volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of calcium transients in adult transgenic zebrafish expressing the GCaMP5G calcium indicator. Fast changes in optoacoustic traces associated with GCaMP5G activity were detectable in the presence of other strongly absorbing endogenous chromophores, such as hemoglobin...
March 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241455/experimental-validation-of-depth-cameras-for-the-parameterization-of-functional-balance-of-patients-in-clinical-tests
#20
Francisco-Ángel Moreno, José Antonio Merchán-Baeza, Manuel González-Sánchez, Javier González-Jiménez, Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas
In clinical practice, patients' balance can be assessed using standard scales. Two of the most validated clinical tests for measuring balance are the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and the MultiDirectional Reach Test (MDRT). Nowadays, inertial sensors (IS) are employed for kinematic analysis of functional tests in the clinical setting, and have become an alternative to expensive, 3D optical motion capture systems. In daily clinical practice, however, IS-based setups are yet cumbersome and inconvenient to apply...
February 22, 2017: Sensors
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