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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674259/spatial-variability-in-orchards-after-land-transformation-consequences-for-precision-agriculture-practices
#1
Asier Uribeetxebarria, Elisa Daniele, Alexandre Escolà, Jaume Arnó, José A Martínez-Casasnovas
The change from traditional to a more mechanized and technical agriculture has involved, in many cases, land transformations. This has supposed alteration of landforms and soils, with significant consequences. The effects of induced soil variability and the subsequent implications in site-specific crop management have not been sufficiently studied. The present work investigated the application of a resistivity soil sensor (Veris 3100), to map the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), and detailed multispectral airborne images to analyse soil and crop spatial variability to assist in site-specific orchard management...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666307/interleukin-2-shapes-the-cytotoxic-t-cell-proteome-and-immune-environment-sensing-programs
#2
Christina M Rollings, Linda V Sinclair, Hugh J M Brady, Doreen A Cantrell, Sarah H Ross
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated an in-depth characterization of how IL-2 and JAKs configure the CTL proteome to control CTL function. We found that IL-2 signaling through JAK1 and JAK3 (JAK1/3) increased the abundance of a key subset of proteins to induce the accumulation of critical cytokines and effector molecules in T cells...
April 17, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659557/development-of-a-2-mhz-sonar-sensor-for-inspection-of-bridge-substructures
#3
Chul Park, Youngseok Kim, Heungsu Lee, Sangsik Choi, Haewook Jung
Hydraulic factors account for a large part of the causes of bridge collapse. Due to the nature of the underwater environment, quick and accurate inspection is required when damage occurs. In this study, we developed a 2 MHz side scan sonar sensor module and effective operation technique by improving the limitations of existing sonar. Through field tests, we analyzed the correlation of factors affecting the resolution of the sonar data such as the angle of survey, the distance from the underwater structure and the water depth...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652379/high-quality-factor-multiple-fano-resonances-for-refractive-index-sensing
#4
Yuebian Zhang, Wenwei Liu, Zhancheng Li, Zhi Li, Hua Cheng, Shuqi Chen, Jianguo Tian
We design and numerically analyze a high-quality (Q)-factor, high modulation depth, multiple Fano resonance device based on periodical asymmetric paired bars in the near-infrared regime. There are four sharp Fano peaks arising from the interference between subradiant modes and the magnetic dipole resonance mode that can be easily tailored by adjusting different geometric parameters. The maximal Q-factor can exceed 105 in magnitude, and the modulation depths ΔT can reach nearly 100%. Combining the narrow resonance line-widths with strong near-field confinement, we demonstrate an optical refractive index sensor with a sensitivity of 370 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of 2846...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651373/using-modis-cloud-regimes-to-sort-diagnostic-signals-of-aerosol-cloud-precipitation-interactions
#5
Lazaros Oreopoulos, Nayeong Cho, Dongmin Lee
Coincident multi-year measurements of aerosol, cloud, precipitation and radiation at near-global scales are analyzed to diagnose their apparent relationships as suggestive of interactions previously proposed based on theoretical, observational, and model constructs. Specifically, we examine whether differences in aerosol loading in separate observations go along with consistently different precipitation, cloud properties, and cloud radiative effects. Our analysis uses a cloud regime (CR) framework to dissect and sort the results...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649173/a-three-dimensional-target-depth-resolution-method-with-a-single-vector-sensor
#6
Anbang Zhao, Xuejie Bi, Juan Hui, Caigao Zeng, Lin Ma
This paper mainly studies and verifies the target number category-resolution method in multi-target cases and the target depth-resolution method of aerial targets. Firstly, target depth resolution is performed by using the sign distribution of the reactive component of the vertical complex acoustic intensity; the target category and the number resolution in multi-target cases is realized with a combination of the bearing-time recording information; and the corresponding simulation verification is carried out...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642577/new-analysis-scheme-of-flow-acoustic-coupling-for-gas-ultrasonic-flowmeter-with-vortex-near-the-transducer
#7
Yanzhao Sun, Tao Zhang, Dandan Zheng
Ultrasonic flowmeters with a small or medium diameter are widely used in process industries. The flow field disturbance on acoustic propagation caused by a vortex near the transducer inside the sensor as well as the mechanism and details of flow-acoustic interaction are needed to strengthen research. For that reason, a new hybrid scheme is proposed; the theories of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), wave acoustics, and ray acoustics are used comprehensively by a new step-by-step method. The flow field with a vortex near the transducer, and its influence on sound propagation, receiving, and flowmeter performance are analyzed in depth...
April 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642389/soil-water-measurement-using-actively-heated-fiber-optics-at-field-scale
#8
Duminda N Vidana Gamage, Asim Biswas, Ian B Strachan, Viacheslav I Adamchuk
Several studies have demonstrated the potential of actively heated fiber optics (AHFO) to measure soil water content (SWC) at high spatial and temporal resolutions. This study tested the feasibility of the AHFO technique to measure soil water in the surface soil of a crop grown field over a growing season using an in-situ calibration approach. Heat pulses of five minutes duration were applied at a rate of 7.28 W m-1 along eighteen fiber optic cable transects installed at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) at six-hour intervals...
April 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628753/motorized-micro-forceps-with-active-motion-guidance-based-on-common-path-ssoct-for-epiretinal-membranectomy
#9
Gyeong Woo Cheon, Berk Gonenc, Russell H Taylor, Peter L Gehlbach, Jin U Kang
In this study, we built and tested a handheld motion-guided micro-forceps system using common-path swept source optical coherence tomography (CP-SSOCT) for highly accurate depth controlled epiretinal membranectomy. A touch sensor and two motors were used in the forceps design to minimize the inherent motion artifact while squeezing the tool handle to actuate the tool and grasp, and to independently control the depth of the tool-tip. A smart motion monitoring and a guiding algorithm were devised to provide precise and intuitive freehand control...
December 2017: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614815/a-new-design-of-a-single-device-3d-hall-sensor-cross-shaped-3d-hall-sensor
#10
Wei Tang, Fei Lyu, Dunhui Wang, Hongbing Pan
In this paper, a new single-device three-dimensional (3D) Hall sensor called a cross-shaped 3D Hall device is designed based on the five-contact vertical Hall device. Some of the device parameters are based on 0.18 μm BCDliteTM technology provided by GLOBALFOUNDRIES. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3D finite element models implemented in COMSOL are applied to understand the device behavior under a constant magnetic field. Besides this, the influence of the sensing contacts, active region's depth, and P-type layers are taken into account by analyzing the distribution of the voltage along the top edge and the current density inside the devices...
April 2, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613767/interface-controlled-conductive-fibers-for-wearable-strain-sensors-and-stretchable-conducting-wires
#11
Zherui Cao, Ranran Wang, Tengyu He, FangFang Xu, Jing Sun
As an important subfield of flexible electronics, conductive fibers have been an active area of research. The interfacial interaction between nanostructured conductive materials with elastic substrates plays a vital role in the electro-mechanical performance of conductive fibers. However, the underlying mechanism has seldom been investigated. Here, we propose a fabricating strategy for a silver nanowire/polyurethane (Ag NW/PU) composite fiber with sheath-core architecture. The interfacial bonding layer is regulated and its influence on the performance of conductive fibers is investigated, based on which an interfacial interaction model is proposed...
April 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604575/rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-the-potentially-toxic-cyanobacterium-planktothrix-rubescens-by-in-vivo-fluorometry-and-flow-cytometry
#12
Thomas Weisse, Victoria Bergkemper
We combined profiling of the bloom-forming and potentially toxigenic cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens using a multiparameter probe equipped with a phycoerythrin sensor (in vivo fluorometry, IVL) in Lake Mondsee, Austria, with flow cytometric live analyses of discrete samples taken from several depths in the upper 20 m of the water column. Results obtained by IVL and acoustic flow cytometry (AFC) were compared to microscopic analyses of integrated (0-21 m) water samples using fixed material. This comparison was made because the integrated samples are used for the Austrian monitoring programme according to the EU Water Framework Directive...
March 23, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604516/market-penetration-of-intersection-aeb-characterizing-avoided-and-residual-straight-crossing-path-accidents
#13
Ulrich Sander, Nils Lubbe
Car occupants account for one third of all junction fatalities in the European Union. Driver warning can reduce intersection accidents by up to 50 percent; adding Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) delivers a reduction of up to 70 percent. However, these findings are based on an assumed 100 percent equipment rate, which may take decades to achieve. Our study investigates the relationship between intersection AEB market penetration rates and avoidance of accidents and injuries in order to guide implementation strategies...
March 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596341/tunable-nanosensor-based-on-fano-resonances-created-by-changing-the-deviation-angle-of-the-metal-core-in-a-plasmonic-cavity
#14
Qiong Wang, Zhengbiao Ouyang, Yiling Sun, Mi Lin, Qiang Liu, Guoliang Zheng, Junxing Fan
In this paper, a type of tunable plasmonic refractive index nanosensor based on Fano resonance is proposed and investigated. The sensor comprises a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanocavity with a center-deviated metal core and two side-coupled waveguides. By carefully adjusting the deviation angle and distance of the metal core in the cavity, Fano resonances can be obtained and modulated. The Fano resonances can be considered as results induced by the symmetry-breaking or geometric effect that affects the field distribution intensity at the coupling region between the right waveguide and the cavity...
March 29, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588192/cardiovascular-diseases-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-western-dietary-patterns
#15
REVIEW
Luis E Pavillard, Fabiola Marín-Aguilar, Pedro Bullon, Mario D Cordero
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death worldwide, with high prevalence in industrialized countries. Cardiovascular risk factors are mainly influenced by diet, which like other lifestyle factors can be modified to either reduce or increase cardiovascular risk. Other metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, and obesity are associated to CVD and highly influenced by the diet. Inflammation has demonstrated to be a key factor in the biological progress of these diseases...
March 24, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579196/safety-and-efficacy-of-delivering-high-power-short-duration-radiofrequency-ablation-lesions-utilizing-a-novel-temperature-sensing-technology
#16
Guy Rozen, Leon M Ptaszek, Israel Zilberman, Victoria Douglas, E Kevin Heist, Christopher Beeckler, Andres Altmann, Jeremy N Ruskin, Assaf Govari, Moussa Mansour
Aims: Delivery of high-power short-duration radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions is not commonly used, in part because conventional thermocouple (TC) technology underestimates tissue temperature, increasing the risk of steam pop, and thrombus formation. We aimed to test whether utilization of an ablation catheter equipped with a highly accurate novel TC technology could facilitate safe and effective delivery of high-power RF lesions. Methods and results: Adult male Yorkshire swine were used for the study...
March 22, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577603/comparative-analysis-of-respiratory-motion-tracking-using-microsoft-kinect-v2-sensor
#17
Evan Silverstein, Michael Snyder
PURPOSE: To present and evaluate a straightforward implementation of a marker-less, respiratory motion-tracking process utilizing Kinect v2 camera as a gating tool during 4DCT or during radiotherapy treatments. METHODS: Utilizing the depth sensor on the Kinect as well as author written C# code, respiratory motion of a subject was tracked by recording depth values obtained at user selected points on the subject, with each point representing one pixel on the depth image...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576683/vertical-distributions-of-coccolithophores-pic-poc-biogenic-silica-and-chlorophyll-a-throughout-the-global-ocean
#18
William M Balch, Bruce C Bowler, David T Drapeau, Laura C Lubelczyk, Emily Lyczkowski
Coccolithophores are a critical component of global biogeochemistry, export fluxes, and seawater optical properties. We derive globally significant relationships to estimate integrated coccolithophore and coccolith concentrations as well as integrated concentrations of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) from their respective surface concentration. We also examine surface versus integral relationships for other biogeochemical variables contributed by all phytoplankton (e.g., chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon) or diatoms (biogenic silica)...
January 2018: Global Biogeochemical Cycles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574376/april-2008-saharan-dust-event-its-contribution-to-pm-10-concentrations-over-the-anatolian-peninsula-and-relation-with-synoptic-conditions
#19
B Kabatas, R B Pierce, A Unal, M J Rogal, A Lenzen
An online-coupled regional Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is utilized incorporating 0.1°×0.1° spatial resolution HTAP (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) anthropogenic emissions to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a Saharan dust outbreak, which contributed to high levels (>50μg/m3 ) of daily PM10 concentrations over Turkey in April 2008. Aerosol optical depth and cloud optical thickness retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on board of Aqua satellite are used to better analyze the synoptic conditions that generated the dust outbreak in April 2008...
March 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572200/evaluating-the-impact-of-physical-activity-apps-and-wearables-interdisciplinary-review
#20
REVIEW
Claire McCallum, John Rooksby, Cindy M Gray
BACKGROUND: Although many smartphone apps and wearables have been designed to improve physical activity, their rapidly evolving nature and complexity present challenges for evaluating their impact. Traditional methodologies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), can be slow. To keep pace with rapid technological development, evaluations of mobile health technologies must be efficient. Rapid alternative research designs have been proposed, and efficient in-app data collection methods, including in-device sensors and device-generated logs, are available...
March 23, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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