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Depth sensor

Trung Quang Pham, Takayuki Hoshi, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Akihito Sano
The feeling of touch is an essential human sensation. Four types of mechanoreceptors (i.e., FA-I, SA-I, FA-II, and SA-II) in human skin signalize physical properties, such as shape, size, and texture, of an object that is touched and transmit the signal to the brain. Previous studies attempted to investigate the mechanical properties of skin microstructure and their effect on mechanoreceptors by using finite element modeling. However, very few studies have focused on the three-dimensional microstructure of dermal papillae, and this is related to that of FA-I receptors...
2017: PloS One
Sungjin Lim, Daerak Heo, Mugeon Kim, Geunseop Choi, Joonku Hahn
Three-dimensional (3D) metrology has received a lot of attention from academic and industrial communities due to its broad applications, such as 3D contents, 3D printing, and autonomous driving. The all-optical depth coloring (AODC) camera has some benefits in computation load since it extracts depth information of an object fully optically. The AODC camera represents the depth of the object as a variation of wavelength, and spectroscopy is generally required to measure the wavelength. However, in the AODC camera, the color vector in RGB color space is convertible inversely into the wavelength after projection on the normalized rgb plane because the detected spectrum through the gating part has a narrow bandwidth as a result of the width of the slit in the projection part...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Eric G Stevens, Jeffrey A Clayhold, Hung Doan, Robert P Fabinski, Jaroslav Hynecek, Stephen L Kosman, Christopher Parks
This paper describes recent process modifications made to enhance the performance of interline and electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) image sensors. By use of MeV ion implantation, quantum efficiency in the NIR region of the spectrum was increased by 2×, and image smear was reduced by 6 dB. By reducing the depth of the shallow photodiode (PD) implants, the photodiode-to-vertical-charge-coupled-device (VCCD) transfer gate voltage required for no-lag operation was reduced by 3 V, and the electronic shutter voltage was reduced by 9 V...
December 7, 2017: Sensors
Nicholas West, Klaske van Heusden, Matthias Görges, Sonia Brodie, Aryannah Rollinson, Christian L Petersen, Guy A Dumont, J Mark Ansermino, Richard N Merchant
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of anesthesia involves continual adjustment of drug infusion rates according to measured clinical effect. The NeuroSENSE monitor provides an electroencephalographic measure of depth of hypnosis (wavelet-based anesthetic value for central nervous system monitoring [WAVCNS]). It has previously been used as feedback for closed-loop control of propofol, in a system designed using robust control engineering principles, which implements features specifically designed to ensure patient safety...
November 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hiew Thong Yap, Su Kong Ngien
Inflow and infiltration are important aspects of sewerage systems that need to be considered during the design stage and constantly monitored once the sewerage system is in operation. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship of rainfall as well as inflow infiltration with sewage flow patterns through data collected from fieldwork. Three sewer pipelines were selected at the residential areas of Taman Lepar Hilir Saujana, Bandar Putra and Kota Sas for data collection. Sewage flow data were collected in terms of flowrate, velocity and depth of flow using flowmeters with ultrasonic sensors that utilize the continuous Doppler effect in the sewer pipelines, while rainfall intensity data were collected using rain gauges installed at the study locations...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
F Arkian, S E Nicholson
In this study, three different sensors of satellites including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) were used to study spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over ten populated cities in Iran. Also, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for analyzing the origins of air masses and their trajectory in the area. An increasing trend in aerosol concentration was observed in the most studied cities in Iran during 1979-2016...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Meiqin Liu, Duo Zhang, Senlin Zhang, Qunfei Zhang
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) can provide a promising solution to underwater target tracking. Due to the limited computation and bandwidth resources, only a small part of nodes are selected to track the target at each interval. How to improve tracking accuracy with a small number of nodes is a key problem. In recent years, a node depth adjustment system has been developed and applied to issues of network deployment and routing protocol. As far as we know, all existing tracking schemes keep underwater nodes static or moving with water flow, and node depth adjustment has not been utilized for underwater target tracking yet...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
Annamaria Castrignanò, Gabriele Buttafuoco, Ruggiero Quarto, Carolina Vitti, Giuliano Langella, Fabio Terribile, Accursio Venezia
To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management...
December 3, 2017: Sensors
Huayu Zhang, Mingming Zhong, Fengqin Xie, Maoyong Cao
Steel ball surface-defect inspection was performed by using a new saddle-type eddy current sensor (SECS), which included a saddle coil and a signal conditioning circuit. The saddle coil was directly wound on the steel ball's outer bracket in a semi-circumferential direction. Driven by a friction wheel, the test steel ball rotated in a one-dimensional direction, such that the steel ball surface was fully scanned by the SECS. There were two purposes for using the SECS in the steel ball inspection system: one was to reduce the complexity of the unfolding wheel of the surface deployment mechanism, and the other was to reduce the difficulty of sensor processing and installation...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
Guiqiang Wang, Chunnan Wang, Rui Yang, Wenlan Liu, Shuqing Sun
In this paper, we present a stable silver-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a protection layer and investigated its efficiency in water and 0.01 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS). By simulation, silver-based SPR sensor has a better performance in field enhancement and penetration depth than that of a gold-based SPR sensor, which are 5 and 1.4 times, respectively. To overcome the instability of the bare silver film and investigate the efficiency of the protected layer, the SAM of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MUD) was used as a protection layer...
November 30, 2017: Sensors
T V S Udaya Bhaskar, R Venkat Shesu, Timothy P Boyer, E Pattabhi Rama Rao
A new method of identifying anomalous oceanic temperature and salinity (T/S) data from Argo profiling floats is proposed. The proposed method uses World Ocean Database 2013 climatology to classify good against anomalous data by using convex hulls. An n-sided polygon (convex hull) with least area encompassing all the climatological points is constructed using Jarvis March algorithm. Subsequently Points In Polygon (PIP) principle implemented using ray casting algorithm is used to classify the T/S data as within or without acceptable bounds...
2017: MethodsX
Tae Hyeon Nam, Jae Hong Shim, Young Im Cho
Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying the task coordination of aerial and ground robots. When a robot begins navigation in an unknown area, it has no information about the surrounding environment. Accordingly, for robots to perform tasks based on location information, they need a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) process that uses sensor information to draw a map of the environment, while simultaneously estimating the current location of the robot on the map. This paper aims to present a localization method based in cooperation between aerial and ground robots in an indoor environment...
November 25, 2017: Sensors
Jinseong Kim, Yeonwoo Chung, Younchang Choi, Jaewon Sa, Heegon Kim, Yongwha Chung, Daihee Park, Hakjae Kim
In a surveillance camera environment, the detection of standing-pigs in real-time is an important issue towards the final goal of 24-h tracking of individual pigs. In this study, we focus on depth-based detection of standing-pigs with "moving noises", which appear every night in a commercial pig farm, but have not been reported yet. We first apply a spatiotemporal interpolation technique to remove the moving noises occurring in the depth images. Then, we detect the standing-pigs by utilizing the undefined depth values around them...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
Liming Liu, Honghang Wang, Zichuan Yi, Quanrong Deng, Zhidong Lin, Xiaowen Zhang
Bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles are prepared by using NaBi(MoO4)2 nanosheets in the beam of electrons emitted by transmission electron microscope. The formation and growth of Bi nanoparticles are investigated in situ. The sizes of Bi nanoparticles are confined within the range of 6-10nm by controlling irradiation time. It is also observed that once the diameter of nanoparticles is larger than 10nm, the Bi particles are stable as a result of the immobility of large nanoparticles. In addition, some nanoparticles on the edges form nanorods, which are explained as the result of a coalescence process, if the irradiation period is longer than 10min...
November 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Ana González-Suárez, David Herranz, Enrique Berjano, Jose L Rubio-Guivernau, Eduardo Margallo-Balbás
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to thermally destroy the focus of cardiac arrhythmias. Novel optical techniques are now being integrated into RF catheters in order to detect the changes in tissue properties. Loss of birefringence due to fiber denaturation at around 70°C is related to changes in accumulated phase retardation and can be measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence reflectometry (PS-OCR)...
November 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Bernhard Wagner, Thomas Brinz, Stephanie Otterbach, Johannes Khinast
The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility to develop an automatically adjustable, reliable and safe capsule filling operation. Process parameters that are critical for the tamping pin process were reviewed based on the literature and via experiment. Dosing disc height, powder bed height, machine speed, pressure on the tamping pin and immersion depth were reviewed. Two investigations were performed on a GKF 702. In the first one, the powder feed rate onto the dosing disc was examined and modified. A distance sensor with a PID controller enabled a constant powder bed level with an online changeable set point...
November 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Kevin G Moore, Carol L Jones
The pressure applied to the chest and back of a simulated grain entrapment victim was measured. Pressure sensors were attached to the chest and back of a manikin that was buried in grain in the vertical position. Measurements were made in four grain types at four grain depths ranging from the top of the manikin's shoulders to 0.61 m (24 in.) over the head. The pressure ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 kPa (0.23 to 0.57 psi). Based on available physiological information, this amount of pressure is unlikely to limit the respiration of an otherwise healthy adult male victim...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Hieu Nguyen, Zhaoyang Wang, Patrick Jones, Bing Zhao
Consumer-grade red-green-blue and depth (RGB-D) sensors, such as the Microsoft Kinect and the Asus Xtion, are attractive devices due to their low cost and robustness for real-time sensing of depth information. These devices provide the depth information by detecting the correspondences between the captured infrared (IR) image and the initial image sent to the IR projector, and their essential limitation is the low accuracy of 3D shape reconstruction. In this paper, an effective technique that employs the Kinect sensors for accurate 3D shape, deformation, and vibration measurements is introduced...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
J Pablo La Torre, Nathan Mayes, Nabeel A Riza
Proposed is a laser projection display system that uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) to achieve sharp and in-focus image projection over multi-distance three-dimensional (3D) conformal screens. The system also functions as an embedded distance sensor that enables 3D mapping of the multi-level screen platform before the desired laser scanned beam focused/defocused projected spot sizes are matched to the different localized screen distances on the 3D screen. Compared to conventional laser scanning and spatial light modulator (SLM) based projection systems, the proposed design offers in-focus non-distorted projection over a multi-distance screen zone with varying depths...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Sami A Malek, Francesco Avanzi, Keoma Brun-Laguna, Tessa Maurer, Carlos A Oroza, Peter C Hartsough, Thomas Watteyne, Steven D Glaser
Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations...
November 9, 2017: Sensors
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