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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346529/human-amnion-epithelial-cells-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-to-ventilation-in-preterm-lambs
#1
Jacqueline M Melville, Courtney A McDonald, Robert J Bischof, Graeme R Polglase, Rebecca Lim, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Timothy J Moss
Ventilation of preterm neonates causes pulmonary inflammation that can contribute to lung injury, propagate systemically and result in long-term disease. Modulation of this initial response may reduce lung injury and its sequelae. We aimed to determine the effect of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) on immune activation and lung injury in preterm neonatal lambs. Preterm lambs received intratracheal hAECs (90x106) or vehicle, prior to 2 h of mechanical ventilation. Within 5 min of ventilation onset, lambs also received intravenous hAECs (90x106) or vehicle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346434/optimization-of-adeno-associated-virus-vector-mediated-gene-transfer-to-the-respiratory-tract
#2
F Kurosaki, R Uchibori, N Mato, Y Sehara, Y Saga, M Urabe, H Mizukami, Y Sugiyama, A Kume
An efficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector was constructed for the treatment of respiratory diseases. AAV serotypes, promoters, and routes of administration potentially influencing the efficiency of gene transfer to airway cells were examined in the present study. Among the nine AAV serotypes (AAV1-9) screened in vitro and four serotypes (AAV1, 2, 6, 9) evaluated in vivo, AAV6 showed the strongest transgene expression. As for promoters, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) early enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) promoter resulted in more robust transduction than the CMV promoter...
March 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346367/transplantation-of-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-the-repair-of-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#3
Bingyu Xiang, Lu Chen, Xiaojun Wang, Yongjia Zhao, Yanling Wang, Charlie Xiang
Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) have been shown to be good therapeutic tools in diseases such as ovarian failure and cardiac fibrosis. However, relevant studies of MenSCs in ALI have not yet proceeded. We hypothesized that MenSC could attenuate the inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and promote the repair of damaged lung. ALI model was induced by LPS in C57 mice, and saline or MenSCs were administered via tail vein after four hours...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345383/pulmonary-fibrosis-part-i-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-diagnosis
#4
Keith C Meyer
Many forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) can progress to extensive fibrosis and respiratory failure. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which generally has a poor prognosis, has been thoroughly studied over the past two decades, and many important discoveries have been made that pertain to genetic predisposition, epidemiology, disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Additionally, non-IPF forms of ILD can have radiologic and histopathologic manifestations that mimic IPF, and making an accurate diagnosis is key to providing personalized medicine to patients with pulmonary fibrosis...
March 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343880/-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-childhood-changing-definition-and-news-from-the-pediatric-consensus-conference
#5
S Dauger, F Le Bourgeois, J Guichoux, O Brissaud
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly progressive hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency induced by alveolar filling mainly caused by alveolocapillary wall disruption, following direct or indirect pulmonary injury. Much less frequent in children than in adults, pediatric intensivists had long applied adult guidelines to their daily practice. In 2015, experts from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) published the first international guidelines specifically dedicated to pediatric ARDS...
March 23, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343230/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-switzerland-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Manuela Funke-Chambour, Andrea Azzola, Dan Adler, Constance Barazzone-Argiroffo, Christian Benden, Annette Boehler, Pierre-Olivier Bridevaux, Martin Brutsche, Christian F Clarenbach, Katrin Hostettler, Rebekka Kleiner-Finger, Laurent P Nicod, Paola M Soccal, Michael Tamm, Thomas Geiser, Romain Lazor
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe progressive and irreversible lung disease. Novel antifibrotic drugs that slow disease progression are now available. However, many issues regarding patient management remain unanswered, such as the choice between available drugs, their use in particular subgroups and clinical situations, time of treatment onset, termination, combination or switch, or nonpharmacologic management. To guide Swiss respiratory physicians in this evolving field still characterized by numerous areas of uncertainty, the Swiss Working Group for interstitial and rare lung diseases of the Swiss Respiratory Society provides a position paper on the diagnosis and treatment of IPF...
March 25, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342684/persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#7
REVIEW
Mamta Fuloria, Judy L Aschner
Failure of the normal circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life results in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Although this condition is most often secondary to parenchymal lung disease or lung hypoplasia, it may also be idiopathic. PPHN is characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance with resultant right-to-left shunting of blood and hypoxemia. Although the preliminary diagnosis of PPHN is often based on differential cyanosis and labile hypoxemia, the diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography...
March 23, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341777/respiratory-compromise-as-a-new-paradigm-for-the-care-of-vulnerable-hospitalized-patients
#8
Timothy A Morris, Peter C Gay, Neil R MacIntyre, Dean R Hess, Sandra K Hanneman, James P Lamberti, Dennis E Doherty, Lydia Chang, Maureen A Seckel
Acute respiratory compromise describes a deterioration in respiratory function with a high likelihood of rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. Identifying patients at risk for respiratory compromise coupled with monitoring of patients who have developed respiratory compromise might allow earlier interventions to prevent or mitigate further decompensation. The National Association for the Medical Direction of Respiratory Care (NAMDRC) organized a workshop meeting with representation from many national societies to address the unmet needs of respiratory compromise from a clinical practice perspective...
April 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341439/restoring-pulmonary-surfactant-membranes-and-films-at-the-respiratory-surface
#9
REVIEW
Mercedes Echaide, Chiara Autilio, Raquel Arroyo, Jesus Perez-Gil
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of lipids and proteins assembled and secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the thin layer of fluid coating the respiratory surface of lungs. There, surfactant forms interfacial films at the air-water interface, reducing dramatically surface tension and thus stabilizing the air-exposed interface to prevent alveolar collapse along respiratory mechanics. The absence or deficiency of surfactant produces severe lung pathologies. This review describes some of the most important surfactant-related pathologies, which are a cause of high morbidity and mortality in neonates and adults...
March 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341390/pulmonary-mr-angiography-and-perfusion-imaging-a-review-of-methods-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Christopher S Johns, Andrew J Swift, Paul J C Hughes, Yoshiharu Ohno, Mark Schiebler, Jim M Wild
The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341260/the-effect-of-preexisting-respiratory-co-morbidities-on-burn-outcomes
#11
Laquanda T Knowlin, Lindsay B Stanford, Bruce A Cairns, Anthony G Charles
INTRODUCTION: Burns cause physiologic changes in multiple organ systems in the body. Burn mortality is usually attributable to pulmonary complications, which can occur in up to 41% of patients admitted to the hospital after burn. Patients with preexisting comorbidities such as chronic lung diseases may be more susceptible. We therefore sought to examine the impact of preexisting respiratory disease on burn outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002-2012...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340574/myocyte-enhancer-factor-2d-provides-a-cross-talk-between-chronic-inflammation-and-lung-cancer
#12
Hai-Xing Zhu, Lin Shi, Yong Zhang, Yi-Chun Zhu, Chun-Xue Bai, Xiang-Dong Wang, Jie-Bai Zhou
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are exposed to a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Chronic inflammation may play an important role in the lung carcinogenesis among those patients. The present study aimed at identifying candidate biomarker predicting lung cancer risk among patients with chronic respiratory diseases. METHODS: We applied clinical bioinformatics tools to analyze different gene profile datasets with a special focus on screening the potential biomarker during chronic inflammation-lung cancer transition...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340488/national-and-sub-national-age-sex-specific-and-cause-specific-mortality-and-disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-attributable-to-household-air-pollution-from-solid-cookfuel-use-hap-in-iran-1990-2013
#13
Mehrnoosh Abtahi, Ali Koolivand, Sina Dobaradaran, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Anoushiravan Mohseni-Bandpei, Shokooh Sadat Khaloo, Sahand Jorfi, Reza Saeedi
National and sub-national mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for household air pollution from solid cookfuel use (HAP) in Iran, 1990-2013 were estimated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013). The burden of disease attributable to HAP was quantified by the comparative risk assessment method using four inputs: (1) exposure to HAP, (2) the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), (3) exposure-response relationships of related causes (4) disease burden of related causes...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340238/cigarette-smoke-exposure-worsens-endotoxin-induced-lung-injury-and-pulmonary-edema-in-mice
#14
Jeffrey E Gotts, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Haru Yanagisawa, Naoki Takasaka, Stephen L Nishimura, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Introduction: Cigarette smoking (CS) remains a major public health concern and has recently been associated with an increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) experiments in human volunteers have demonstrated that active smokers develop increased alveolar-epithelial barrier permeability to protein after inhaling lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we tested the hypothesis that short-term whole-body CS exposure would increase LPS-induced lung edema in mice...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339739/unabated-occupational-risk-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
V K Holden, S J Kligerman, T G Hastings, S E Hines
Background: This case highlights the importance of considering hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and of obtaining an occupational history so that remediable risk factors may be identified and managed. Aims: To report a case of a chicken sexer with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed progressively worsening dyspnoea and restrictive lung disease associated with pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Clinical investigation included physical examination, occupational history, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), chest imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), as well as serological tests including standard IgE bird feather mixture and local IgG precipitin preparation to chicken excrement...
February 23, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339478/morphological-and-morphometric-specializations-of-the-lung-of-the-andean-goose-chloephaga-melanoptera-a-lifelong-high-altitude-resident
#16
John N Maina, Kevin G McCracken, Beverly Chua, Julia M York, William K Milsom
High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2) needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338550/respiratory-system-function-in-patients-after-minimally-invasive-aortic-valve-replacement-surgery-a-case-control-study
#17
Jarosław Stoliński, Robert Musiał, Dariusz Plicner, Janusz Andres
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze respiratory system function after minimally invasive, through right minithoracotomy aortic valve replacement (RT-AVR) to conventional AVR. METHODS: Analysis of 201 patients scheduled for RT-AVR and 316 for AVR between January 2010 and November 2013. Complications of the respiratory system and pulmonary functional status are presented. RESULTS: Complications of the respiratory system occurred in 16...
March 23, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338504/ventilation-with-high-or-low-tidal-volume-with-peep-does-not-influence-lung-function-after-spinal-surgery-in-prone-position-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Sarah Soh, Jae-Kwang Shim, Yoon Ha, Young-Sam Kim, Hyelin Lee, Young-Lan Kwak
BACKGROUND: Spinal surgery in the prone position is accompanied by increased intrathoracic pressure and decreased respiratory compliance. This study investigated whether intraoperative lung protective mechanical ventilation improved lung function evaluated with pulmonary function tests in patients at risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after major spinal surgery in the prone position. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients at potential risk of PPCs were randomly assigned to the protective group (tidal volume; 6 mL/kg predicted body weight, 6 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure with recruitment maneuvers) or the conventional group (10 mL/kg predicted body weight, no positive end-expiratory pressure)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337265/pulmonary-surfactant-synthesis-in-mirna-26a-1-mirna-26a-2-double-knockout-mice-generated-using-the-crispr-cas9-system
#19
Ying-Hui Zhang, Li-Zhi Wu, Hong-Lu Liang, Yang Yang, Jie Qiu, Qing Kan, Wen Zhu, Cheng-Ling Ma, Xiao-Yu Zhou
Pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECIIs), maintains alveolar integrity by reducing surface tension. Many premature neonates who lack adequate PS are predisposed to developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. PS synthesis is influenced and regulated by various factors, including microRNAs. Previous in vitro studies have shown that PS synthesis is regulated by miR-26a in fetal rat AECIIs. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-26a in PS synthesis in vivo...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337225/bufei-huoxue-capsule-attenuates-pm2-5-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#20
Yue Jing, Hongchun Zhang, Zhe Cai, Yukun Zhao, Ye Wu, Xuan Zheng, Ying Liu, Yuying Qin, Mingjie Gu, Jin Jin
Atmospheric fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) may carry many toxic substances on its surface and this may pose a public health threat. Epidemiological research indicates that cumulative ambient PM2.5 is correlated to morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitigating the toxic effects of PM2.5 is therefore highly desired. Bufei Huoxue (BFHX) capsules have been used in China to treat pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale). Thus, we assessed the effects of BFHX capsules on PM2...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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