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Vulnerable carotid plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336478/apelin-13-treatment-enhances-the-stability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#1
Rodrigo Araujo Fraga-Silva, Hugo Seeman, Fabrizio Montecucco, Analina Raquel da Silva, Fabienne Burger, Fabiana Pereira Costa-Fraga, Léa Anguenot, François Mach, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Rafaela Fernandes da Silva
BACKGROUND: Apelin is an endogenous peptidergic system which modulates cardiovascular function. Recent studies pointed out a fundamental contribution of apelin on atherosclerosis development; however, such reports revealed contradictory data, and to date, it is difficult to accurately define a beneficial or deleterious role. To better understand apelin function on atherosclerosis, we aimed to investigate apelin-13 treatment effects on atherosclerotic plaques composition. DESIGN: Apolipoprotein E gene-deleted mice were fed on Western-type diet for 11 weeks...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326139/carotid-artery-wall-imaging-perspective-and-guidelines-from-the-asnr-vessel-wall-imaging-study-group-and-expert-consensus-recommendations-of-the-american-society-of-neuroradiology
#2
L Saba, C Yuan, T S Hatsukami, N Balu, Y Qiao, J K DeMarco, T Saam, A R Moody, D Li, C C Matouk, M H Johnson, H R Jäger, M Mossa-Basha, M E Kooi, Z Fan, D Saloner, M Wintermark, D J Mikulis, B A Wasserman
Identification of carotid artery atherosclerosis is conventionally based on measurements of luminal stenosis and surface irregularities using in vivo imaging techniques including sonography, CT and MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. However, histopathologic studies demonstrate considerable differences between plaques with identical degrees of stenosis and indicate that certain plaque features are associated with increased risk for ischemic events. The ability to look beyond the lumen using highly developed vessel wall imaging methods to identify plaque vulnerable to disruption has prompted an active debate as to whether a paradigm shift is needed to move away from relying on measurements of luminal stenosis for gauging the risk of ischemic injury...
January 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317141/serum-levels-of-osteopontin-predict-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-severe-carotid-artery-stenosis
#3
Federico Carbone, Fabio Rigamonti, Fabienne Burger, Aline Roth, Maria Bertolotto, Giovanni Spinella, Bianca Pane, Domenico Palombo, Aldo Pende, Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Alessandra Vecchié, Franco Dallegri, François Mach, Fabrizio Montecucco
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators in the blood stream and within plaques are key determinants in atherogenesis. Here, we investigated serum osteopontin (OPN) as a potential predictor of poor outcome in patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: Carotid plaques and serum were collected from patients asymptomatic (n=185) or symptomatic (n=40) for ischemic stroke. Plaques were stained for lipids, smooth muscle cells, neutrophils, M1 and M2 macrophage subsets and matrix metallopropteinase-9 (MMP-9)...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284609/dkk3-dickkopf-3-alters-atherosclerotic-plaque-phenotype-involving-vascular-progenitor-and-fibroblast-differentiation-into-smooth-muscle-cells
#4
Eirini Karamariti, Chungang Zhai, Baoqi Yu, Qiao Lei, Zhihong Wang, Claire M F Potter, Mei Mei Wong, Russell M L Simpson, Zhongyi Zhang, Xiaocong Wang, Ivan Del Barco Barrantes, Christof Niehrs, Deling Kong, Qiang Zhao, Yun Zhang, Yanhua Hu, Cheng Zhang, Qingbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: DKK3 (dickkopf 3), a 36-kD secreted glycoprotein, has been shown to be involved in the differentiation of partially reprogrammed cells and embryonic stem cells to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but little is known about its involvement in vascular disease. This study aims to assess the effects of DKK3 on atherosclerotic plaque composition. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the present study, we used a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/-) in conjunction with DKK3-/- and performed tandem stenosis of the carotid artery to evaluate atherosclerotic plaque development...
December 28, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237404/computed-tomography-scan-based-prediction-of-the-vulnerable-carotid-plaque
#5
Hadi Mahmoud Haider Diab, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Stevo Duvnjak, Axel Diederichsen, Pia Søndergaard Jensen, Jes Sanddal Lindholt
BACKGROUND: Primary to validate a commercial semi-automated computed tomography angiography (CTA) -software for vulnerable plaque detection compared to histology of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens and secondary validating calcifications scores by in vivo CTA with ex vivo non-contrast enhanced computed tomography (NCCT). METHODS: From January 2014 to October 2016 53 patients were included retrospectively, using a cross-sectional design. All patients underwent both CTA and CEA...
December 13, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197829/cadmium-carotid-atherosclerosis-and-incidence-of-ischemic-stroke
#6
Yan Borné, Björn Fagerberg, Margaretha Persson, Gerd Östling, Martin Söderholm, Bo Hedblad, Gerd Sallsten, Lars Barregard, Gunnar Engström
BACKGROUND: Exposure to cadmium has been associated with carotid plaques, inflammation in carotid plaques, and increased risk of ischemic stroke. This study examined the separate and interacting effects of blood cadmium levels and carotid plaques on the risk of incident ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cadmium levels were measured in 4156 subjects (39.2% men; mean±SD age 57.3±5.9 years) without history of stroke, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The right carotid artery was examined using B-mode ultrasound examination at baseline...
December 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191874/ct-attenuation-analysis-of-carotid-intraplaque-hemorrhage
#7
L Saba, M Francone, P P Bassareo, L Lai, R Sanfilippo, R Montisci, J S Suri, C N De Cecco, G Faa
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraplaque hemorrhage is considered a leading parameter of carotid plaque vulnerability. Our purpose was to assess the CT characteristics of intraplaque hemorrhage with histopathologic correlation to identify features that allow for confirming or ruling out the intraplaque hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 91 patients (67 men; median age, 65 ± 7 years; age range, 41-83 years) who underwent CT angiography and carotid endarterectomy from March 2010 to May 2013...
November 30, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190732/xuezhikang-an-extract-from-red-yeast-rice-attenuates-vulnerable-plaque-progression-by-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-and-inflammation
#8
Linghong Shen, Zhe Sun, Shichun Chu, Zhaohua Cai, Peng Nie, Caizhe Wu, Ruosen Yuan, Liuhua Hu, Ben He
Xuezhikang (XZK), an extract of red yeast rice, is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China and other countries. However, whether XZK treatment can improve atherosclerotic plaque stability is not fully understood. Based on our previously developed mouse model of spontaneous vulnerable plaque formation and rupture in carotid arteries in ApoE-/- mice. We showed that low-dose (600 mg/kg/d) XZK improved plaque stability without decreasing plaque area, whereas high-dose (1200 mg/kg/d) XZK dramatically inhibited vulnerable plaque progression accompanied by decreased plaque area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184341/atherosclerotic-carotid-plaques-multimodality-imaging-with-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Divyata R Hingwala, Kesavadas Chandrasekhakan, Bejoy Thomas, P N Sylaja, M Unnikrishnan, T R Kapilamoorthy
Introduction: The imaging of carotid plaques has undergone a paradigm shift increasing importance being given to plaque characterization. Patients with "vulnerable" plaques are more prone to develop future neurovascular events. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of multimodality imaging techniques in the assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients were prospectively enrolled in the study...
October 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153440/relationship-between-adamts4-and-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-vulnerability-in-humans
#10
Honglin Dong, Tian Du, Shyamal Premaratne, Cynthia X Zhao, Qinqin Tian, Yongjun Li, Sheng Yan, Wayne W Zhang
BACKGROUND: Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and the resulting thrombosis are vital causes of clinical ischemic events. Recent studies have shown that ADAMTS4 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4) is a pathogenic factor of plaque vulnerability in mice. However, the relationship between ADAMTS4 and carotid atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques in humans remains unclear. METHODS: Forty-eight carotid atherosclerotic plaque specimens were obtained from 48 carotid artery stenosis inpatients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153397/embolic-stroke-due-to-carotidynia-potentially-associated-with-moving-carotid-artery-caused-by-swallowing
#11
Yoshitaka Yamaguchi, Mikito Hayakawa, Naoto Kinoshita, Chiaki Yokota, Toshiya Ishihara, Kazunori Toyoda
A 63-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis discontinued her medication for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone and azathioprine. One month later, she was admitted because of consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hyperintensities in her left frontal and parietal lobes. She also developed high fever and left neck pain. Carotid ultrasonography showed calcified plaque with vessel wall swelling at the bifurcation of the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and surrounding hypoechoic soft tissue...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111018/embolic-stroke-of-undetermined-source-the-role-of-the-nonstenotic-carotid-plaque
#12
Zachary Bulwa, Ajay Gupta
Cryptogenic stroke, or stroke of undetermined cause, presents a remarkably challenging dilemma for the treating physician as there are limited therapeutic options to prevent recurrence. Roughly one third of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and ischemic strokes are classified as cryptogenic, with an even greater proportion in young patients. While classification systems have been successfully used in trials to refine therapeutic approaches specific to subtype, there has been little progress made in secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097799/dual-targeting-improves-capture-of-ultrasound-microbubbles-towards-activated-platelets-but-yields-no-additional-benefit-for-imaging-of-arterial-thrombosis
#13
F Günther, T Heidt, M Kramer, E Khanicheh, A L Klibanov, A Geibel-Zehender, E A Ferrante, I Hilgendorf, D Wolf, A Zirlik, J Reinöhl, C Bode, K Peter, B A Kaufmann, C von Zur Mühlen
Platelets can be found on the surface of inflamed and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, targeting of activated platelets may allow for molecular imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. We here investigated microbubbles (MB) functionalized with the selectin ligand sialyl Lewis(a) individually (MBsLea) or dually with sLe(a) and an antibody targeting ligand-induced binding sites of the activated GPIIb/IIIa receptor (MBDual). Assessed by in vitro flow chamber, targeted MB exhibited increased adhesion to platelets as compared to MBControl...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097437/associations-of-endogenous-estradiol-and-testosterone-levels-with-plaque-composition-and-risk-of-stroke-in-subjects-with-carotid-atherosclerosis
#14
Marija Glisic, Blerim Mujaj, Oscar L Rueda-Ochoa, Eralda Asllanaj, Joop S Laven, Maryam Kavousi, M Kamran Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Daniel Bos, Taulant Muka
Rationale: Sex steroids may play a role in plaque composition and in stroke incidence. Objective: To study the associations of endogenous estradiol and testosterone with carotid plaque composition in elderly men and postmenopausal women with carotid atherosclerosis, as well as with risk of stroke in this population. Methods and Results: Data of 1023 postmenopausal women and 1124 men (≥45 years) with carotid atherosclerosis, from prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, were available. At baseline, total estradiol (TE) and total testosterone (TT) were measured...
November 2, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076745/cost-effectiveness-of-magnetic-resonance-carotid-plaque-imaging-for-primary-stroke-prevention-in-canada
#15
Lechtman E, Balki I, Thomas K, Chen K, Moody Ar, Tyrrell Pn
OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance of the carotid arteries provides important insight into plaque composition and vulnerability in addition to the traditional measure of stenosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of MR imaging as a first-line modality to assess carotid disease and guide management for high-risk patients with <50% stenosis. METHODS: Using TreeAge Pro, a cost-effectiveness simulation was conducted comparing two strategies: (a) standard of care first-line carotid duplex ultrasound (DUS) with regular follow-up, vs (b) first-line MR assessment of stenosis and intraplaque haemorrhage (MRIPH) in which patients with IPH received annual DUS surveillance and immediate carotid endarterectomy in case of plaque progression...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064776/carotid-stenosis-basing-treatment-on-individual-patients-needs-optimal-medical-therapy-alone-or-accompanied-by-stenting-or-endarterectomy
#16
Ralf Langhoff
Though carotid artery stenosis is a known origin of stroke, risk assessment and treatment modality are not yet satisfactorily established. Guideline updates according to latest evidence are expected shortly. Current clinical weakness concerns in particular the identification of "at-risk" patients. Beside the symptomatic status and the degree of stenosis, further signs of unstable plaque on carotid and cerebral imaging should be considered. Moreover, medical and endovascular therapy are continuously improving...
October 24, 2017: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030047/evaluation-of-the-time-dependent-changes-and-the-vulnerability-of-carotid-plaques-using-contrast-enhanced-carotid-ultrasonography
#17
Hirofumi Shimada, Toshiyasu Ogata, Koichi Takano, Hiroshi Abe, Toshio Higashi, Takaaki Yamashita, Akira Matsunaga, Tooru Inoue
BACKGROUND: The association of carotid plaque enhancement on contrast-enhanced carotid ultrasound (CEUS) and plaque vulnerability evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was to be determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 103 patients underwent CEUS from May 2013 until June 2016. CEUS images of the carotid plaque were obtained offline. Plaque images obtained at 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes were compared with the reference image, defined as the image obtained at 0 minute...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027678/evaluation-of-carotid-plaque-neovascularization-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-on-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography
#18
Chuan Qin, Li Zhang, Xinfang Wang, Yilian Duan, Zhou Ye, Mingxing Xie
OBJECTIVES: To examine the repeatability of quantitative time-intensity curve analysis of neovascularization within carotid plaques with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) and to investigate carotid plaque neovascularization in patients with coronary heart disease using contrast-enhanced US and the correlation between risk factors and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Sixty patients with ACS and 60 with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent conventional carotid and contrast-enhanced US, and plaque enhancement was observed and analyzed quantitatively...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024865/impaired-kidney-function-is-associated-with-intraplaque-hemorrhage-in-patients-undergoing-carotid-endarterectomy
#19
Marian Wesseling, Ian D van Koeverden, Guus W van Lammeren, Sander W van der Laan, Saskia Haitjema, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Hester M den Ruijter, Saskia C A de Jager, Imo Hoefer, Peter Blankestijn, Marianne Verhaar, Dominique P V de Kleijn, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previously, we showed that patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy have an increased risk for major atherosclerotic events in the presence of moderate or poor kidney function. Acceleration of vascular inflammatory responses is considered to be causally involved in progression of atherogenesis and poor outcome in chronic kidney disease patients. The association between kidney function and plaque composition has not been thoroughly investigated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between kidney function and atherosclerotic plaque composition in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021922/texture-feature-variability-in-ultrasound-video-of-the-atherosclerotic-carotid-plaque
#20
Christos P Loizou, Constantinos S Pattichis, Marios Pantziaris, Efthyvoulos Kyriacou, Andrew Nicolaides
The objective of this paper was to investigate texture feature variability in ultrasound video of the carotid artery during the cardiac cycle in an attempt to define new discriminatory biomarkers of the vulnerable plaque. More specifically, in this paper, 120 longitudinal ultrasound videos, acquired from 40 normal (N) subjects from the common carotid artery and 40 asymptomatic (A) and 40 symptomatic (S) subjects from the proximal internal carotid artery were investigated. The videos were intensity normalized and despeckled, and the intima-media complex (IMC) (from the N subjects) and the atherosclerotic carotid plaques (from the A and S subjects) were segmented from each video, in order to extract the M-mode image, and the texture features associated with cardiac states of systole and diastole...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
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