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Vulnerable carotid plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932558/petct-imaging-of-unstable-carotid-plaque-with-ga-68-labelled-somatostatin-receptor-ligand
#1
Ming Young Simon Wan, Raymond Endozo, Sofia Michopoulou, Robert Shortman, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Leon Menezes, Syed Yusuf, Toby Richards, Damian Wild, Beatrice Waser, Jean Claude Reubi, Ashley Groves
BACKGROUND: Ga68 labelled somatostatin receptor ligand PET imaging has recently been shown in preclinical and early human studies to have a potential role in the evaluation of vulnerable arterial plaques. We prospectively evaluated carotid plaque Ga68-DOTATATE uptake in patients with recent carotid events, assessed inter- and intra- observer variability of such measurements, and explored the mechanism of any plaque DOTATATE activity with immunohistochemistry in resected specimens. MATERIALS & METHODS: 20 consecutively consenting patients with recent symptomatic carotid events (transient ischaemic attack [TIA], stroke or amaurosis fugax), due for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930810/alamandine-abrogates-neutrophil-degranulation-in-atherosclerotic-mice
#2
Analina R Da Silva, Sébastien Lenglet, Federico Carbone, Fabienne Burger, Aline Roth, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Franco Dallegri, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Robson A S Santos, François Mach, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Fabrizio Montecucco
Neutrophil-mediated inflammation was recently identified as an active contributor to athero-progression. Therapeutic strategies inhibiting neutrophil degranulation or recruitment were hypothesized to positively impact on plaque vulnerability. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with the recently discovered agonist of the Mas-related G-coupled receptor type D (MrgD) alamandine would impact on neutrophil degranulation in vivo and in vitro MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen-week old ApoE-/- mice were fed with a Western-type diet for an additional 11 weeks...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853578/influence-of-shear-stress-magnitude-and-direction-on-atherosclerotic-plaque-composition
#3
Ryan M Pedrigi, Vikram V Mehta, Sandra M Bovens, Zahra Mohri, Christian Bo Poulsen, Willy Gsell, Jordi L Tremoleda, Leila Towhidi, Ranil de Silva, Enrico Petretto, Rob Krams
The precise flow characteristics that promote different atherosclerotic plaque types remain unclear. We previously developed a blood flow-modifying cuff for ApoE(-/-) mice that induces the development of advanced plaques with vulnerable and stable features upstream and downstream of the cuff, respectively. Herein, we sought to test the hypothesis that changes in flow magnitude promote formation of the upstream (vulnerable) plaque, whereas altered flow direction is important for development of the downstream (stable) plaque...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834746/menopausal-hot-flashes-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-among-midlife-women
#4
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, J Richard Jennings, Doug P Landsittel, Nanette Santoro, Roland von Känel, Karen A Matthews
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821353/time-dependent-differences-in-femoral-artery-plaque-characteristics-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-patients
#5
Saskia Haitjema, Steven T W van Haelst, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Frans L Moll, Hester M den Ruijter, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis with an increasing incidence worldwide. The disease is still associated with high morbidity and mortality risks. Previous research in carotid arteries indicates that atherosclerotic plaque characteristics have stabilized over time in patients considered for surgery. It is currently unknown whether this time-dependent stabilization occurs in ilio-femoral arteries as well. Our objective was to analyze whether local ilio-femoral atherosclerotic plaque characteristics have changed over time...
October 25, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818566/overexpression-of-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-%C3%AE-1-stabilizes-but-increases-shear-stress-induced-atherosclerotic-plaque-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#6
Xiao-Qing Cao, Xin-Xin Liu, Meng-Meng Li, Yu Zhang, Liang Chen, Lin Wang, Ming-Xue Di, Mei Zhang
The rupture and erosion of atherosclerotic plaque can induce coronary thrombosis. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) plays a central role in the synthesis of all known types of collagens, which are the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerotic plaque. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is thought to be in part caused by shear stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate a relationship between P4Hα1 and shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid arteries of ApoE-/- mice were exposed to low and oscillatory shear stress conditions by the placement of a shear stress cast for 2 weeks; we divided 60 male ApoE-/- mice into three groups for treatments with saline (mock) (n = 20), empty lentivirus (lenti-EGFP) (n = 20), and lentivirus-P4Hα1 (lenti-P4Hα1) (n = 20)...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814285/swirling-of-microbubbles-demonstration-of-a-new-finding-of-carotid-plaque-ulceration-on-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-explaining-the-arterio-arterial-embolism-mechanism
#7
Vasileios Rafailidis, Afroditi Charitanti, Thomas Tegos, Dimitrios Rafailidis, Ioannis Chryssogonidis
Carotid plaque ulceration is a well-established feature of vulnerability, associated with high risk for neurological symptoms. From a pathogenetic point of view, the mechanism responsible for occurrence of symptomatology relies on the aggregation of platelets within the ulcer cavity, activation of coagulation mechanism, formation of thrombus and arterio-arterial embolization of thrombotic material in the central nervous system. Many imaging modalities including unenhanced ultrasound, computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography have been used to image and diagnose carotid plaque ulceration with varying success...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788352/mri-optical-dual-modality-imaging-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaque-with-an-osteopontin-targeted-probe-based-on-fe3o4-nanoparticles
#8
Hongyu Qiao, Yabin Wang, Ruohan Zhang, Quansheng Gao, Xiao Liang, Lei Gao, Zhenhua Jiang, Ruirui Qiao, Dong Han, Yan Zhang, Ya Qiu, Jie Tian, Mingyuan Gao, Feng Cao
Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is the major pathological cause of luminal thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes. Since foamy macrophages have been identified as a prominent component in vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions and osteopontin (OPN) is reported to be highly expressed in foamy macrophages, OPN could be a potential target for vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque imaging. The current study designed an OPN-specific MRI/optical dual-modality probe to detect vulnerable plaques. Fluorescence imaging revealed that 24 h after injection of the Cy5...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771154/incretin-treatment-and-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-role-of-adiponectin-appl1-signaling-pathway
#9
Michelangela Barbieri, Raffaele Marfella, Antonietta Esposito, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Edith Angellotti, Ciro Mauro, Mario Siniscalchi, Fabio Chirico, Pasquale Caiazzo, Fulvio Furbatto, Alessandro Bellis, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Milena Vitiello, Franca Ferraraccio, Giuseppe Paolisso, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
AIMS: Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors reduce atherosclerosis progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and are associated with morphological and compositional characteristics of stable plaque phenotype. GLP-1 promotes the secretion of adiponectin which exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the adaptor protein PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1). The potential role of APPL1 expression in the evolution of atherosclerotic plaque in TDM2 patients has not previously evaluated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765555/magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-assessment-of-carotid-atheroma-a-comparative-study-of-patients-with-and-without-coronary-artery-disease
#10
Ammara Usman, Umar Sadat, Zhongzhao Teng, Martin J Graves, Jonathan R Boyle, Kevin Varty, Paul D Hayes, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of atheroma using contrast media enables assessment of the systemic severity of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds. Whether black-blood imaging has similar ability remains widely unexplored. In this study, we evaluate whether black-blood imaging can differentiate carotid plaques of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in terms of morphological and biomechanical features of plaque vulnerability, thereby allowing assessment of the systemic severity nature of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739121/protective-effects-of-connexins-in-atheromatous-plaques-in-patients-of-carotid-artery-stenosis
#11
Taizen Nakase, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Hajime Miyata
Fragility of atheromatous plaque in the internal carotid artery can be a risk of brain infarction. The activation of macrophages by oxidative stress and the vulnerability of vascular endothelial cells have been reported to participate in the fragility of atheromatous plaque. Therefore, from the view point of prevention of brain infarction, we investigated the pathological factors which may influence the stabilization of atheromatous plaque. Patients undertaking carotid endoarterectomy (CEA) were continuously screened...
October 13, 2016: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720278/histopathologic-validation-of-grayscale-carotid-plaque-characteristics-related-to-plaque-vulnerability
#12
Carol C Mitchell, James H Stein, Thomas D Cook, Shahriar Salamat, Xiao Wang, Tomy Varghese, Daren C Jackson, Carolina Sandoval Garcia, Stephanie M Wilbrand, Robert J Dempsey
Inflammation and angiogenesis play major roles in carotid plaque vulnerability. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gray-scale features of carotid plaques are associated with histologic markers for inflammation. Thirty-eight individuals completed a dedicated research carotid ultrasound exam before carotid endarterectomy. Gray-scale analysis was performed on plaque images to measure plaque echogenicity (gray-scale median [GSM] pixel brightness), plaque area, presence of discrete white areas (DWAs) and the percent of black area near the lumen on any one component of the plaque...
January 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686104/validation-of-noninvasive-in-vivo-compound-ultrasound-strain-imaging-using-histologic-plaque-vulnerability-features
#13
Hendrik H G Hansen, Gert Jan de Borst, Michiel L Bots, Frans L Moll, Gerard Pasterkamp, Chris L de Korte
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid plaque rupture is a major cause of stroke. Key issue for risk stratification is early identification of rupture-prone plaques. A noninvasive technique, compound ultrasound strain imaging, was developed providing high-resolution radial deformation/strain images of atherosclerotic plaques. This study aims at in vivo validation of compound ultrasound strain imaging in patients by relating the measured strains to typical features of vulnerable plaques derived from histology after carotid endarterectomy...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659679/an-imbalance-between-specialized-pro-resolving-lipid-mediators-and-pro-inflammatory-leukotrienes-promotes-instability-of-atherosclerotic-plaques
#14
Gabrielle Fredman, Jason Hellmann, Jonathan D Proto, George Kuriakose, Romain A Colas, Bernhard Dorweiler, E Sander Connolly, Robert Solomon, David M Jones, Eric J Heyer, Matthew Spite, Ira Tabas
Chronic unresolved inflammation plays a causal role in the development of advanced atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms that prevent resolution in atherosclerosis remain unclear. Here, we use targeted mass spectrometry to identify specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) in histologically-defined stable and vulnerable regions of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The levels of SPMs, particularly resolvin D1 (RvD1), and the ratio of SPMs to pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4 (LTB4), are significantly decreased in the vulnerable regions...
September 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629481/elevated-hemoglobin-a1c-is-associated-with-carotid-plaque-vulnerability-novel-findings-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-hypertensive-stroke-patients
#15
Beibei Sun, Huilin Zhao, Xiaosheng Liu, Qing Lu, Xihai Zhao, Jun Pu, Jianrong Xu
The association between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and carotid plaque vulnerability has been rarely studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present study of MRI-identified carotid atherosclerotic lesions in hypertensive patients with acute stroke therefore sought to determine the associations between HbA1c level and plaque morphological and compositional characteristics and acute cerebral infarction (ACI) severity. Eighty hypertensive patients with acute stroke were enrolled; stratified into high (≥6...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598044/a-combined-in-vivo-noninvasive-evaluation-of-carotid-plaques-using-ultrasonography-and-high-resolution-magnetic-resonance-new-insight-into-plaque-burden-and-vulnerability
#16
Alessandra Pia Porretta, Nicola Bianda, Marcello Di Valentino, Jeanne Marie Segatto, Paolo Santini, Mattia Cattaneo, Marco Moccetti, Costanzo Limoni, Rolf Wyttenbach, Augusto Gallino
BACKGROUND: Qualitative change in carotid plaques was prospectively evaluated by Gray Scale Median (GSM) analysis at repeated examinations "in vivo", in relation to quantitative change in carotid arterial geometry, as assessed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Duplex ultrasound with GSM analysis and HR-MRI at the carotid level were performed at baseline and 1- and 2-year follow up in 30 patients with < 70% carotid stenosis...
September 6, 2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597156/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-imaging-of-intraplaque-neovascularization-and-its-correlation-to-plaque-echogenicity-in-human-carotid-arteries-atherosclerosis
#17
Mattia Cattaneo, Daniel Staub, Alessandra P Porretta, Jeanne Marie Gallino, Paolo Santini, Costanzo Limoni, Rolf Wyttenbach, Augusto Gallino
BACKGROUND: Currently the most widely accepted predictor of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerosis is the degree of stenoses. Plaque echogenicity on ultrasound imaging (US) and intraplaque neovascularization (IPNV) are becoming recognized as factors of plaque vulnerability. Aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the echogenicity of the carotid atherosclerosis by standard US and the degree of IPNV by contrast enhanced US (CEUS). METHODS: We recruited 45 consecutive subjects with an asymptomatic ≥50% carotid artery stenoses...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595161/age-associated-changes-in-human-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques
#18
Jaroslav Pelisek, Heiko Wendorff, Carina Wendorff, Andreas Kuehnl, Hans-Henning Eckstein
Little is known about changes in carotid plaque morphology during aging and the possible impact on cardiovascular events. Only few studies addressed so far age-related modifications within atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, in this work we endeavored to summarize the current knowledge about changing of plaque composition in elderly. The data from hitherto existing studies confirm that atherosclerotic plaques undergo distinct alternations with advanced age. However, the results are often ambiguous and the changes do not seem to be as disastrous as expected...
September 5, 2016: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580821/assessment-of-the-vulnerable-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-using-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography
#19
Konstantinos Filis, Levon Toufektzian, George Galyfos, Fragiska Sigala, Panagiota Kourkoveli, Sotirios Georgopoulos, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitrios Vrachatis, George Zografos
Carotid atherosclerosis represents a primary cause for cerebrovascular ischemic events and its contemporary management includes surgical revascularization for moderate to severe symptomatic stenoses. However, the role of invasive therapy seems to be questioned lately for asymptomatic cases. Numerous reports have suggested that the presence of neovessels within the atherosclerotic plaque remains a significant vulnerability factor and over the last decade imaging modalities have been used to identify intraplaque neovascularization in an attempt to risk-stratify patients and offer management guidance...
August 31, 2016: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576246/2-d-versus-3-d-cross-correlation-based-radial-and-circumferential-strain-estimation-using-multiplane-2-d-ultrafast-ultrasound-in-a-3-d-atherosclerotic-carotid-artery-model
#20
Stein Fekkes, Abigail E S Swillens, Hendrik H G Hansen, Anne E C M Saris, Maartje M Nillesen, Francesco Iannaccone, Patrick Segers, Chris L de Korte
Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound (US) images of a patient-specific 3-D atherosclerotic CA model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on the literature data...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
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