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Vulnerable carotid plaque

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104528/cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-cb2-as-one-of-the-candidate-genes-in-human-carotid-plaque-imaging-evalu1ation-of-the-novel-radiotracer-11-c-rs-016-targeting-cb2-in-atherosclerosis
#1
Romana Meletta, Roger Slavik, Linjing Mu, Zoran Rancic, Nicole Borel, Roger Schibli, Simon M Ametamey, Stefanie D Krämer, Adrienne Müller Herde
INTRODUCTION: Endarterectomized human atherosclerotic plaques are a valuable basis for gene expression studies to disclose novel imaging biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). In this work, CB2 is expressed on activated immune cells, which are abundant in inflamed plaques. We evaluated the CB2-specific radiotracer [(11)C]RS-016 for imaging vascular inflammation in human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: The differential gene expression of microscopically classified human carotid plaques was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 8, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094067/differential-intensity-projection-for-visualisation-and-quantification-of-plaque-neovascularisation-in-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-images-of-carotid-arteries
#2
Wing Keung Cheung, Benoy N Shah, Antonio Stanziola, Dorothy M Gujral, Navtej S Chahal, David O Cosgrove, Roxy Senior, Meng-Xing Tang
Studies have reported that intraplaque neovascularisation (IPN) is closely correlated with plaque vulnerability. In this study, a new image processing approach, differential intensity projection (DIP), was developed to visualise and quantify IPN in contrast-enhanced non-linear ultrasound image sequences of carotid arteries. DIP used the difference between the local temporal maximum and the local temporal average signals to identify bubbles against tissue non-linear artefact and noise. The total absolute and relative areas occupied by bubbles within each plaque were calculated to quantify IPN...
January 13, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087279/alpha-2-macroglobulin-and-heparin-cofactor-ii-and-the-vulnerability-of-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaques-an-itraq-based-analysis
#3
Jinmao Li, Xi Liu, Ying Xiang, Xueying Ding, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Maojia Yin, Changhong Tan, Fen Deng, Lifen Chen
Rupture of carotid atherosclerotic plaque may cause stroke, while few biomarker in clinic can evaluate carotid plaque vulnerability. In this study, we divided the recruited participants into no plaque, stable plaque, and vulnerable plaque group according to carotid ultrasonography, and screened the differentially expressed proteins in plasma of these participants using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 28 proteins were identified differentially expressed, among which alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) and heparin cofactor II (HCII) were found to be at hub position in the interactions of these proteins by STRING analysis and were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement to assess their relevance with carotid plaques vulnerability and diagnostic efficiency...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071288/vulnerable-carotid-plaque-imaging-and-histopathology-without-a-dedicated-mri-receiver-coil
#4
Laura A Fitzpatrick, Nadav Berkovitz, Marlise P Dos Santos, Nevin Majeed, Rafael Glikstein, Santanu Chakraborty, John P Veinot, Grant Stotts, Alain Berthiaume, Robert Chatelain
Stroke is associated with vulnerable carotid artery plaques showing specific histopathologic features, namely a lipid-rich necrotic core, intraplaque hemorrhage, ulceration, and thin fibrous cap. While ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) can identify carotid plaques and determine the extent of stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides further information regarding plaque composition and morphology. In this feasibility study, three patients with symptomatic, moderately stenosed plaques were imaged with CT angiography (CTA) and MRI (3T and 1...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051291/biobanking-in-carotid-artery-disease-translation-to-clinical-practice
#5
Ian D VAN Koeverden, Joyce E Vrijenhoek, Gert J DE Borst, Hester M DEN Ruijter, Gerard Pasterkamp
Biobanking of atherosclerotic tissue samples has contributed to our understanding of vascular occlusive disease. The careful examination of atherosclerotic plaques derived during vascular surgery or autopsies helped shape our minds in understanding the underlying substrate of arterial thrombosis. This review will outline concepts of progression of atherosclerotic disease that have been based on descriptions of human plaque pathology. In addition, we will discuss the current shift in clinical presentation and underlying pathology of acute cerebral and coronary events that asks for a careful consideration of the currently widely applied description of the "vulnerable plaque"...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017911/apelin-concentrations-are-associated-with-altered-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-mediator-levels-and-atherosclerosis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Sule Gunter, Ahmed Solomon, Linda Tsang, Angela J Woodiwiss, Chanel Robinson, Aletta M E Millen, Gavin R Norton, Patrick H Dessein
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apelin-APJ signaling reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the atherosclerosis burden and plaque vulnerability to rupture are increased. We explored relationships between apelin concentrations and subclinical CVD in RA. METHODS: Apelin levels were measured in 235 (114 black, 121 white) RA patients. Associations between apelin concentrations and ultrasound determined carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 that mediate plaque stability and vulnerability respectively, were identified in confounder adjusted multivariate regression analysis...
November 24, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009484/hsp90-inhibition-suppresses-inflammatory-response-and-reduces-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-apoe-mice
#7
Hongmei Mu, Liyong Wang, Lei Zhao
AIM: Emerging evidences indicate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is associated with atherogenesis. However, the effect of HSP90 on plaque stability is largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the role of HSP90 in plaque development and its regulatory mechanisms on vasculature. METHODS: HSP90-overexpression lentivirus (Lenti-HSP90) was used to transfect apoE(-/-) mice after constrictive collars were planted at the right common carotid arteries. RESULTS: As a result, HSP90 gene overexpression led to reduction in en face plaque area, and increase in unstable plaque with heavier accumulation of lipids...
December 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007772/imaging-carotid-atherosclerosis-plaque-ulceration-comparison-of-advanced-imaging-modalities-and-recent-developments
#8
REVIEW
J Yuan, A Usman, T Das, A J Patterson, J H Gillard, M J Graves
Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of long-term mortality and morbidity worldwide, despite remarkable advancement in its management. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques are principally responsible for thromboembolic events in various arterial territories such as carotid, coronary, and lower limb vessels. Carotid plaque ulceration is one of the key features associated with plaque vulnerability and is considered a notable indicator of previous plaque rupture and possible future cerebrovascular events. Multiple imaging modalities have been used to assess the degree of carotid plaque ulceration for diagnostic and research purposes...
December 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989914/a-fast-screening-protocol-for-carotid-plaques-imaging-using-3d-multi-contrast-mri-without-contrast-agent
#9
Na Zhang, Lei Zhang, Qi Yang, Anqi Pei, Xiaoxin Tong, Yiu-Cho Chung, Xin Liu
PURPOSE: To implement a fast (~15min) MRI protocol for carotid plaque screening using 3D multi-contrast MRI sequences without contrast agent on a 3Tesla MRI scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 7 healthy volunteers and 25 patients with clinically confirmed transient ischemic attack or suspected cerebrovascular ischemia were included in this study. The proposed protocol, including 3D T1-weighted and T2-weighted SPACE (variable-flip-angle 3D turbo spin echo), and T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) was performed first and was followed by 2D T1-weighted and T2-weighted turbo spin echo, and post-contrast T1-weighted SPACE sequences...
October 27, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986358/novel-ultrasound-methods-to-investigate-carotid-artery-plaque-vulnerability
#10
REVIEW
Amer M Johri, Julia E Herr, Terry Y Li, Olivia Yau, Vijay Nambi
Features of vulnerable plaque include a high lipid content, an irregular shape, a thin fibrous cap, and neovascularization, but such lesions often fall into the category of nonstenotic, despite being at high risk for rupture, and therefore may be overlooked. In this review, the authors describe state-of-the-art investigative ultrasound methods to assess the activity, quality, and morphology of atherosclerotic plaque to determine vulnerability. Specifically, the authors focus on carotid artery plaque, describing the assessment of plaque activity through the detection of neovascularization using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, the characterization of plaque quality by advanced grayscale and integrated backscatter analysis methods, and the assessment of plaque morphology using three-dimensional ultrasound...
December 13, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973542/increased-vascularization-in-the-vulnerable-upstream-regions-of-both-early-and-advanced-human-carotid-atherosclerosis
#11
Ola Hjelmgren, Karl Gellerman, Josefin Kjelldahl, Per Lindahl, Göran M L Bergström
BACKGROUND: Vascularization of atherosclerotic plaques has been linked to plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to test if the vascularization was increased in upstream regions of early atherosclerotic carotid plaques and also to test if the same pattern of vascularization was seen in complicated, symptomatic plaques. METHODS: We enrolled 45 subjects with early atherosclerotic lesions for contrast enhanced ultrasound and evaluated the percentage of plaque area in a longitudinal ultrasound section which contained contrast agent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932558/petct-imaging-of-unstable-carotid-plaque-with-ga-68-labelled-somatostatin-receptor-ligand
#12
Ming Young Simon Wan, Raymond Endozo, Sofia Michopoulou, Robert Shortman, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Leon Menezes, Syed Yusuf, Toby Richards, Damian Wild, Beatrice Waser, Jean Claude Reubi, Ashley Groves
BACKGROUND: Ga68 labelled somatostatin receptor ligand PET imaging has recently been shown in preclinical and early human studies to have a potential role in the evaluation of vulnerable arterial plaques. We prospectively evaluated carotid plaque Ga68-DOTATATE uptake in patients with recent carotid events, assessed inter- and intra- observer variability of such measurements, and explored the mechanism of any plaque DOTATATE activity with immunohistochemistry in resected specimens. MATERIALS & METHODS: 20 consecutively consenting patients with recent symptomatic carotid events (transient ischaemic attack [TIA], stroke or amaurosis fugax), due for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930810/alamandine-abrogates-neutrophil-degranulation-in-atherosclerotic-mice
#13
Analina R Da Silva, Sébastien Lenglet, Federico Carbone, Fabienne Burger, Aline Roth, Luca Liberale, Aldo Bonaventura, Franco Dallegri, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Robson A S Santos, François Mach, Rodrigo A Fraga-Silva, Fabrizio Montecucco
Neutrophil-mediated inflammation was recently identified as an active contributor to athero-progression. Therapeutic strategies inhibiting neutrophil degranulation or recruitment were hypothesized to positively impact on plaque vulnerability. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with the recently discovered agonist of the Mas-related G-coupled receptor type D (MrgD) alamandine would impact on neutrophil degranulation in vivo and in vitro MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen-week old ApoE-/- mice were fed with a Western-type diet for an additional 11 weeks...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853578/influence-of-shear-stress-magnitude-and-direction-on-atherosclerotic-plaque-composition
#14
Ryan M Pedrigi, Vikram V Mehta, Sandra M Bovens, Zahra Mohri, Christian Bo Poulsen, Willy Gsell, Jordi L Tremoleda, Leila Towhidi, Ranil de Silva, Enrico Petretto, Rob Krams
The precise flow characteristics that promote different atherosclerotic plaque types remain unclear. We previously developed a blood flow-modifying cuff for ApoE(-/-) mice that induces the development of advanced plaques with vulnerable and stable features upstream and downstream of the cuff, respectively. Herein, we sought to test the hypothesis that changes in flow magnitude promote formation of the upstream (vulnerable) plaque, whereas altered flow direction is important for development of the downstream (stable) plaque...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834746/menopausal-hot-flashes-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-among-midlife-women
#15
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, J Richard Jennings, Doug P Landsittel, Nanette Santoro, Roland von Känel, Karen A Matthews
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There has been a longstanding interest in the role of menopause and its correlates in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Menopausal hot flashes are experienced by most midlife women; emerging data link hot flashes to CVD risk indicators. We tested whether hot flashes, measured via state-of-the-art physiologic methods, were associated with greater subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid ultrasound. We considered the role of CVD risk factors and estradiol concentrations in these associations...
December 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821353/time-dependent-differences-in-femoral-artery-plaque-characteristics-of-peripheral-arterial-disease-patients
#16
Saskia Haitjema, Steven T W van Haelst, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Frans L Moll, Hester M den Ruijter, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of atherosclerosis with an increasing incidence worldwide. The disease is still associated with high morbidity and mortality risks. Previous research in carotid arteries indicates that atherosclerotic plaque characteristics have stabilized over time in patients considered for surgery. It is currently unknown whether this time-dependent stabilization occurs in ilio-femoral arteries as well. Our objective was to analyze whether local ilio-femoral atherosclerotic plaque characteristics have changed over time...
December 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818566/overexpression-of-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-%C3%AE-1-stabilizes-but-increases-shear-stress-induced-atherosclerotic-plaque-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#17
Xiao-Qing Cao, Xin-Xin Liu, Meng-Meng Li, Yu Zhang, Liang Chen, Lin Wang, Ming-Xue Di, Mei Zhang
The rupture and erosion of atherosclerotic plaque can induce coronary thrombosis. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase (P4H) plays a central role in the synthesis of all known types of collagens, which are the most abundant constituent of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerotic plaque. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is thought to be in part caused by shear stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate a relationship between P4Hα1 and shear stress-induced atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid arteries of ApoE-/- mice were exposed to low and oscillatory shear stress conditions by the placement of a shear stress cast for 2 weeks; we divided 60 male ApoE-/- mice into three groups for treatments with saline (mock) (n = 20), empty lentivirus (lenti-EGFP) (n = 20), and lentivirus-P4Hα1 (lenti-P4Hα1) (n = 20)...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814285/swirling-of-microbubbles-demonstration-of-a-new-finding-of-carotid-plaque-ulceration-on-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-explaining-the-arterio-arterial-embolism-mechanism
#18
Vasileios Rafailidis, Afroditi Charitanti, Thomas Tegos, Dimitrios Rafailidis, Ioannis Chryssogonidis
Carotid plaque ulceration is a well-established feature of vulnerability, associated with high risk for neurological symptoms. From a pathogenetic point of view, the mechanism responsible for occurrence of symptomatology relies on the aggregation of platelets within the ulcer cavity, activation of coagulation mechanism, formation of thrombus and arterio-arterial embolization of thrombotic material in the central nervous system. Many imaging modalities including unenhanced ultrasound, computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography have been used to image and diagnose carotid plaque ulceration with varying success...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788352/mri-optical-dual-modality-imaging-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaque-with-an-osteopontin-targeted-probe-based-on-fe3o4-nanoparticles
#19
Hongyu Qiao, Yabin Wang, Ruohan Zhang, Quansheng Gao, Xiao Liang, Lei Gao, Zhenhua Jiang, Ruirui Qiao, Dong Han, Yan Zhang, Ya Qiu, Jie Tian, Mingyuan Gao, Feng Cao
Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is the major pathological cause of luminal thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes. Since foamy macrophages have been identified as a prominent component in vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions and osteopontin (OPN) is reported to be highly expressed in foamy macrophages, OPN could be a potential target for vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque imaging. The current study designed an OPN-specific MRI/optical dual-modality probe to detect vulnerable plaques. Fluorescence imaging revealed that 24 h after injection of the Cy5...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771154/incretin-treatment-and-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-role-of-adiponectin-appl1-signaling-pathway
#20
Michelangela Barbieri, Raffaele Marfella, Antonietta Esposito, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Edith Angellotti, Ciro Mauro, Mario Siniscalchi, Fabio Chirico, Pasquale Caiazzo, Fulvio Furbatto, Alessandro Bellis, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Milena Vitiello, Franca Ferraraccio, Giuseppe Paolisso, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
AIMS: Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors reduce atherosclerosis progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and are associated with morphological and compositional characteristics of stable plaque phenotype. GLP-1 promotes the secretion of adiponectin which exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the adaptor protein PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1). The potential role of APPL1 expression in the evolution of atherosclerotic plaque in TDM2 patients has not previously evaluated...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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