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A.R. Naylor

Julie A Dumas, Christopher G Filippi, Paul A Newhouse, Magdalena R Naylor
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the effects of pharmacologic dopaminergic manipulations on working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women to further understand the neurochemistry underlying cognition after menopause. METHODS: Eighteen healthy postmenopausal women, mean age 55.21 years, completed three study days with dopaminergic drug challenges during which they performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging visual verbal N-back test of working memory...
September 26, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
J M Naylor, K Mills, M Buhagiar, R Fortunato, R Wright
BACKGROUND: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a commonly used metric for measuring change in mobility after knee arthroplasty, however, what is considered an improvement after surgery has not been defined. The determination of important change in an outcome assessment tool is controversial and may require more than one approach. This study, nested within a combined randomised and observational trial, aimed to define a minimal important improvement threshold for the 6MWT in a knee arthroplasty cohort through a triangulation of methods including patient-perceived anchor-based thresholds and distribution-based thresholds...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
R Schleip, W Klingler, S Wearing, I Naylor, M Zuegel, K Hoppe
INTRODUCTION: While two laboratory techniques are commonly used to assess the tensile properties of muscle tissue, emerging evidence suggests that the fascial components of these tissues also serve an active role in force generation. Hence, we investigated whether these techniques are sensitive for assessment of fascial micromechanics. METHODS: Force measurements on dissected fascial tissue were performed either using the classical immersion organ bath or using an improved superfusion approach simulating pulsed pharmacological triggers...
2016: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Venanzio Vella, Paul P Aylin, Luke Moore, Alice King, Nichola R Naylor, Gabriel J C Birgand, Hannah Lishman, Alison Holmes
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify thresholds for hospital bed utilisation which are independently associated with significantly higher risks for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in acute hospitals in England. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was carried out on reported data from the English National Health Service (NHS) for the financial year 2013/2014. Reported rates of CDI were used as a proxy for hospital infection rates in acute NHS hospital trusts...
September 6, 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
E A Ross, A J Naylor, J D O'Neil, T Crowley, M L Ridley, J Crowe, T Smallie, T J Tang, J D Turner, L V Norling, S Dominguez, H Perlman, N M Verrills, G Kollias, M P Vitek, A Filer, C D Buckley, J L Dean, A R Clark
OBJECTIVES: Tristetraprolin (TTP), a negative regulator of many pro-inflammatory genes, is strongly expressed in rheumatoid synovial cells. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway mediates the inactivation of TTP via phosphorylation of two serine residues. We wished to test the hypothesis that these phosphorylations contribute to the development of inflammatory arthritis, and that, conversely, joint inflammation may be inhibited by promoting the dephosphorylation and activation of TTP...
September 5, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Joshua Schwochert, Yongtong Lao, Cameron R Pye, Matthew R Naylor, Prashant V Desai, Isabel C Gonzalez Valcarcel, Jaclyn A Barrett, Geri Sawada, Maria-Jesus Blanco, R Scott Lokey
Cyclic peptide (CP) natural products provide useful model systems for mapping "beyond-Rule-of-5" (bRo5) space. We identified the phepropeptins as natural product CPs with potential cell permeability. Synthesis of the phepropeptins and epimeric analogues revealed much more rapid cellular permeability for the natural stereochemical pattern. Despite being more cell permeable, the natural compounds exhibited similar aqueous solubility as the corresponding epimers, a phenomenon explained by solvent-dependent conformational flexibility among the natural compounds...
August 11, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
A Hamilton-Webb, R Naylor, R Little, D Maye
Relatively little is known about the perceived influence of different compensation systems on animal keepers' management of exotic livestock disease. This paper aims to address this research gap by drawing on interviews with 61 animal keepers and 21 veterinarians, as well as a series of nine animal keeper focus groups across five different livestock sectors in England. The perceived influence of current compensation systems on disease control behaviour was explored and alternative compensation systems that respectively reward positive practices and penalise poor practices were presented in the form of scenarios, alongside a third system that considered the option of a cost-sharing levy system between industry and government...
August 18, 2016: Veterinary Record
F Gossiel, C Hoyle, E V McCloskey, K E Naylor, J Walsh, N Peel, R Eastell
Bisphosphonates are used to treat bone disease characterised by increased bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts, resulting in decreased bone turnover. Bisphosphonates may also reduce the population of osteoclast precursor cells. Our aims were to investigate the effect of bisphosphonates on i) osteoclast precursor cells and ii) circulating cytokine and cytokine receptor in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis compared with healthy premenopausal women. Participants were 62 postmenopausal women (mean age 66) from a 48-week parallel group trial of bisphosphonates...
November 2016: Bone
Jennifer C Naylor, Jason D Kilts, Jennifer L Strauss, Steven T Szabo, Charlotte E Dunn, H Ryan Wagner, Robert M Hamer, Lawrence J Shampine, Joseph R Zanga, Christine E Marx
Female Veterans are the most rapidly growing segment of new users of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), and a significant proportion of female Veterans receiving treatment from VHA primary care providers report persistent pain symptoms. Currently, available data characterizing the neurobiological underpinnings of pain disorders are limited. Preclinical data suggest that neurosteroids may be involved in the modulation of pain symptoms, potentially via actions at gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
Peter R Last, William T White, Gavin Naylor
Three undescribed stingrays were discovered as part of a broader revision of the family Dasyatidae that formed part of the Chondrichthyan Tree of Life project. This research forms part of a sequence of papers on rays aimed at describing unnamed species for inclusion in a multi-authored guide to rays of the world. The first part of this series focused on a redefinition of genera of the family Dasyatidae. The new Indo-West Pacific taxa are represented by separate genera from three dasyatid subfamilies: Himantura australis sp...
2016: Zootaxa
M K Salem, H Z Butt, E Choke, D Moore, K West, T G Robinson, R D Sayers, A R Naylor, M J Bown
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the expression of genes associated with carotid plaque instability and their protein products at a local and systemic level. METHODS: Carotid plaques from 24 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were classified as stable or unstable using clinical, histological, ultrasound, and transcranial Doppler criteria, and compared using whole genome microarray chips. Initial results of differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in an independent group of 96 patients undergoing CEA...
October 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Peter R Last, Aaron C Henderson, Gavin J P Naylor
The recently resurrected genus Acroteriobatus is represented in the western Indian Ocean by eight species, including a new guitarfish Acroteriobatus omanensis sp. nov. This small species (reaching ~60 cm TL) was discovered off Oman in an investigation of the chondrichthyan fauna of the Arabian in 2002 and 2003. Its distinctiveness from other members of the genus Acroteriobatus is strongly supported by molecular data. Acroteriobatus omanensis sp. nov. differs from all other members of the genus by its very narrowly pointed snout and having a dense pattern of small, symmetrically arranged ocelli each consisting of a white spot surrounded by a darker rim...
2016: Zootaxa
Peter R Last, Gavin J P Naylor, B Mabel Manjaji-Matsumoto
The higher-level taxonomy of the stingrays (Dasyatidae) has never been comprehensively reviewed. Recent phylogenetic studies, supported by morphological data, have provided evidence that the group is monophyletic and consists of four major subgroups, the subfamilies Dasyatinae, Neotrygoninae, Urogymninae and Hypolophinae. A morphologically based review of 89 currently recognised species, undertaken for a guide to the world's rays, indicated that most of the currently recognised dasyatid genera are not monophyletic groups...
2016: Zootaxa
Jacqueline Naylor, Arthur T Suckow, Asha Seth, David J Baker, Isabelle Sermadiras, Peter Ravn, Rob Howes, Jianliang Li, Mike R Snaith, Matthew P Coghlan, David C Hornigold
Dual-agonist molecules combining glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) activity represent an exciting therapeutic strategy for diabetes treatment. Although challenging due to shared downstream signalling pathways, determining the relative activity of dual agonists at each receptor is essential when developing potential novel therapeutics. The challenge is exacerbated in physiologically relevant cell systems expressing both receptors. To this end, either GIP receptors (GIPR) or GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) were ablated via RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 endonucleases in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Peter R Last, Bernard Séret, Gavin J P Naylor
A new guitarfish, Rhinobatos borneensis sp. nov., is described from material collected at fish markets in Malaysian Borneo (South China Sea). This ray, which is almost plain coloured with faint orange blotches in adults, has a more colourful embryo marked with small pale ocelli with dark centres. Confused with R. schlegelii (Japan to Taiwan) and its junior synonym R. formosensis, new molecular data suggests it is more closely related to a subgroup of Rhinobatos from the Indo-Malay Archipelago that includes R...
2016: Zootaxa
S J Henderson, A Konkar, D C Hornigold, J L Trevaskis, R Jackson, M Fritsch Fredin, R Jansson-Löfmark, J Naylor, A Rossi, M A Bednarek, N Bhagroo, H Salari, S Will, S Oldham, G Hansen, M Feigh, T Klein, J Grimsby, S Maguire, L Jermutus, C M Rondinone, M P Coghlan
AIMS: To characterize the pharmacology of MEDI0382, a peptide dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDI0382 was evaluated in vitro for its ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in cell lines expressing transfected recombinant or endogenous GLP-1 or glucagon receptors, to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cell lines and stimulate hepatic glucose output (HGO) by primary hepatocytes...
July 5, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
S W M Scott, A J Batchelder, D Kirkbride, A R Naylor, J P Thompson
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Historical studies report high rupture rates in patients with nonoperated abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) of > 5.5 cm diameter, although a recent audit has questioned this. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of 138/764 (18%) patients with AAAs evaluated in a preassessment anaesthetic clinic (PAC) between 2006 and 2012, who either did not undergo elective AAA repair or who underwent deferred repair. The remaining 626 underwent repair...
June 30, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
I M Loftus, K I Paraskevas, A Johal, S Waton, K Heikkila, A R Naylor, D A Cromwell
OBJECTIVE: Guidelines recommend that patients suffering an ischaemic transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke caused by carotid artery stenosis should undergo carotid endarterectomy (CEA) within 14 days. METHOD: The degree to which UK vascular units met this standard was examined and whether rapid interventions were associated with procedural risks. The study analysed patients undergoing CEA between January 2009 and December 2014 from 100 UK NHS hospitals. Data were collected on patient characteristics, intervals of time from symptoms to surgery, and 30-day postoperative outcomes...
June 27, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Richard D Bagnall, Robert G Weintraub, Jodie Ingles, Johan Duflou, Laura Yeates, Lien Lam, Andrew M Davis, Tina Thompson, Vanessa Connell, Jennie Wallace, Charles Naylor, Jackie Crawford, Donald R Love, Lavinia Hallam, Jodi White, Christopher Lawrence, Matthew Lynch, Natalie Morgan, Paul James, Desirée du Sart, Rajesh Puranik, Neil Langlois, Jitendra Vohra, Ingrid Winship, John Atherton, Julie McGaughran, Jonathan R Skinner, Christopher Semsarian
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death among children and young adults is a devastating event. We performed a prospective, population-based, clinical and genetic study of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical, demographic, and autopsy information on all cases of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults 1 to 35 years of age in Australia and New Zealand from 2010 through 2012. In cases that had no cause identified after a comprehensive autopsy that included toxicologic and histologic studies (unexplained sudden cardiac death), at least 59 cardiac genes were analyzed for a clinically relevant cardiac gene mutation...
June 23, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
J M Broughan, D Maye, P Carmody, L A Brunton, A Ashton, W Wint, N Alexander, R Naylor, K Ward, A V Goodchild, S Hinchliffe, R D Eglin, P Upton, R Nicholson, G Enticott
While much is known about the risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in herds located in high incidence areas, the drivers of bTB spread in areas of emerging endemicity are less well established. Epidemiological analysis and intensive social research identified natural and social risk factors that may prevent or encourage the spread of disease. These were investigated using a case-control study design to survey farmers in areas defined as recently having become endemic for bTB (from or after 2006). Telephone surveys were conducted for 113 farms with a recent history of a bTB incident where their officially tuberculosis free status had been withdrawn (OTFW) (cases) and 224 controls with no history of a bTB incident, matched on location, production type and the rate of endemic bTB spread...
July 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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