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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055260/swimming-exercise-reverses-cums-induced-changes-in-depression-like-behaviors-and-hippocampal-plasticity-related-proteins
#1
Weina Liu, Xiangli Xue, Jie Xia, Jiatong Liu, Zhengtang Qi
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced failed resilience of brain plasticity can contribute to the onset and recurrence of depression. Chronic stress has been reported to open windows of epigenetic plasticity in hippocampus. However, how hippocampal plasticity underlies depression-like behaviors and how it adapts in response to stress has not been addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the signaling mechanisms of CUMS affecting hippocampal plasticity-related proteins expression and the regulation of swimming exercise in mice...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054826/viral-infections-in-common-carp-lead-to-a-disturbance-of-mucin-expression-in-mucosal-tissues
#2
Mikolaj Adamek, Dennis Hazerli, Marek Matras, Felix Teitge, Michal Reichert, Dieter Steinhagen
In response to the constant challenge by potential pathogens, external surfaces of fish, their skin, gills and intestinal tract, are coated with mucus, a gel like substance which largely prevents the entry of pathogens. This mucus gel consists mainly of water and mucins, large O-glycosylated proteins, which are responsible for forming a gel like mixture. A modulation of the mRNA expression of mucins, was described in viral diseases in mammals however there is a knowledge gap about the regulation of mucins during viral infection in fish...
October 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054607/repigmentation-of-human-vitiligo-skin-by-nbuvb-is-controlled-by-transcription-of-gli1-and-activation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-the-hair-follicle-bulge-stem-cells
#3
Nathaniel B Goldstein, Maranke I Koster, Kenneth L Jones, Bifeng Gao, Laura G Hoaglin, Steven E Robinson, Michael J Wright, Smaranda I Birlea, Abigail Luman, Karoline A Lambert, Yiqun G Shellman, Mayumi Fujita, William A Robinson, Dennis R Roop, David A Norris, Stanca A Birlea
Vitiligo repigmentation is a complex process in which the melanocyte-depleted interfollicular epidermis (IE) is repopulated by melanocyte precursors from hair follicle (HF) bulge that proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into mature melanocytes on their way to the epidermis. The strongest stimulus for vitiligo repigmentation is narrow band UVB (NBUVB), but how the HF melanocyte precursors are activated by UV light has not been extensively studied. To better understand this process, we developed an application that combined laser capture microdissection and subsequent whole transcriptome RNA sequencing of HF bulge melanocyte precursors, and compared their gene signature to that of regenerated mature epidermal melanocytes from the NBUVB-treated vitiligo skin...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054465/combating-malignant-astrocytes-strategies-mitigating-tumor-invasion
#4
REVIEW
Robyn A Umans, Harald Sontheimer
Malignant gliomas are glial-derived, primary brain tumors that carry poor prognosis. Existing therapeutics are largely ineffective and dramatically affect quality of life. The standard of care details a taxing combination of surgical resection, radiation of the resection cavity, and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy, with treatment extending life by only an average of months (Maher et al., 2001; Stupp et al., 2005). Despite scientific and technological advancement, surgery remains the most important treatment modality...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052212/technical-review-microscopy-and-image-processing-tools-to-analyze-plant-chromatin-practical-considerations
#5
Célia Baroux, Veit Schubert
In situ nucleus and chromatin analyses rely on microscopy imaging that benefits from versatile, efficient fluorescent probes and proteins for static or live imaging. Yet the broad choice in imaging instruments offered to the user poses orientation problems. Which imaging instrument should be used for which purpose? What are the main caveats and what are the considerations to best exploit each instrument's ability to obtain informative and high-quality images? How to infer quantitative information on chromatin or nuclear organization from microscopy images? In this review, we present an overview of common, fluorescence-based microscopy systems and discuss recently developed super-resolution microscopy systems, which are able to bridge the resolution gap between common fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050232/progressive-modulation-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb-transcriptome-during-alzheimer%C3%A2-s-disease-evolution-novel-insights-into-the-olfactory-signaling-across-proteinopathies
#6
Mercedes Lachen-Montes, María Victoria Zelaya, Víctor Segura, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaría
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive dementia, initially presenting olfactory dysfunction. Despite the olfactory bulb (OB) is the first central structure of the olfactory pathway, we lack a complete molecular characterization of the transcriptional events that occurs in this olfactory area during AD progression. To address this gap in knowledge, we have assessed the genome-wide expression in postmortem OBs from subjects with varying degree of AD pathology. A stage-dependent deregulation of specific pathways was observed, revealing transmembrane transport, and neuroinflammation as part of the functional modules that are disrupted across AD grading...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046990/active-force-maintains-the-stability-of-a-contractile-ring
#7
Stanard Mebwe Pachong, Kristian K Müller-Nedebock
We investigate a system of sufficiently dense polar actin filaments considered rigid and cross-linked by dimer myosin II protein within the contractile ring. The Langevin dynamics of this system is cast in a functional integral formalism and then transformed into density variables. Using the dynamical Random Phase Approximation (RPA) along with the a one-dimensional Langevin dynamics simulation (LDS), we investigate the structural integrity of the actin bundle network. The active force and the networking force reveal a non-trivial diffusive behaviour of the filaments within the ring...
October 23, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046426/phosphorylation-of-connexin-43-induced-by-traumatic-brain-injury-promotes-exosome-release
#8
Wei Chen, Yijun Guo, Wenjin Yang, Lei Chen, Dabin Ren, Chenxing Wu, Bin He, Ping Zheng, Wusong Tong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by the external force leads to the neuronal dysfunction and even death. TBI has been reported to significantly increase the phosphorylation of glial gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), which in turn propagates damages into surrounding brain tissues. However, the neuroprotective and anti-apoptosis effects of glia-derived exosomes have also been implicated in recent studies. Therefore, we detected whether TBI-induced phosphorylation of Cx43 would promote exosome release in rat brain...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046349/differential-regulation-of-the-rac1-gtpase-activating-protein-gap-bcr-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-in-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons
#9
Katharine R Smith, Dipen Rajgor, Jonathan G Hanley
Brain ischemia causes oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in neurons, triggering a cascade of events leading to synaptic accumulation of glutamate. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitotoxicity and delayed cell death in vulnerable neurons. Following global cerebral ischemia, hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are more vulnerable to injury than their cortical counterparts, but the mechanisms that underlie this difference are unclear. Signalling via Rho-family small GTPases, their upstream Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) and GTPase Activating Proteins (GAPs) is differentially dysregulated in response to OGD/ischemia in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045729/knockout-mice-for-dyslexia-susceptibility-gene-homologs-kiaa0319-and-kiaa0319l-have-unaffected-neuronal-migration-but-display-abnormal-auditory-processing
#10
Luiz G Guidi, Jane Mattley, Isabel Martinez-Garay, Anthony P Monaco, Jennifer F Linden, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Zoltán Molnár
Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects reading ability caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. Amongst the susceptibility genes identified to date, KIAA0319 is a prime candidate. RNA-interference experiments in rats suggested its involvement in cortical migration but we could not confirm these findings in Kiaa0319-mutant mice. Given its homologous gene Kiaa0319L (AU040320) has also been proposed to play a role in neuronal migration, we interrogated whether absence of AU040320 alone or together with KIAA0319 affects migration in the developing brain...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043078/a-gap-that-divides
#11
REVIEW
Angika Basant, Michael Glotzer
Cytokinesis in metazoan cells is mediated by an actomyosin-based contractile ring that assembles in response to activation of the small GTPase RhoA. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates RhoA during cytokinesis, ECT-2, is highly regulated. In most metazoan cells, with the notable exception of the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, RhoA activation and furrow ingression require the centralspindlin complex. This exception is due to the existence of a parallel pathway for RhoA activation in C...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042599/progesterone-via-its-type-a-receptor-promotes-myometrial-gap-junction-coupling
#12
Lubna Nadeem, Oksana Shynlova, Sam Mesiano, Stephen Lye
Effective labour contractions require synchronization of myometrial cells through gap junctions (GJs). Clasically, progesterone (P4) is known to inhibit the expression of connexin-43 (Cx43, major component of GJs) and GJ formation in myometrium. Our current study is based on a striking observation that challenges this dogma. We observed conspicuous differences in the intracellular localization of Cx43 protein in PRA versus PRB expressing myocytes. Thus in P4 stimulated PRA cells Cx43 protein forms GJs, whereas in PRB cells the forward trafficking of Cx43 and GJ formation is inhibited even when Cx43 is overexpressed...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042495/impact-of-dietary-resistant-starch-on-the-human-gut-microbiome-metaproteome-and-metabolome
#13
Tanja V Maier, Marianna Lucio, Lang Ho Lee, Nathan C VerBerkmoes, Colin J Brislawn, Jörg Bernhardt, Regina Lamendella, Jason E McDermott, Nathalie Bergeron, Silke S Heinzmann, James T Morton, Antonio González, Gail Ackermann, Rob Knight, Katharina Riedel, Ronald M Krauss, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Janet K Jansson
Diet can influence the composition of the human microbiome, and yet relatively few dietary ingredients have been systematically investigated with respect to their impact on the functional potential of the microbiome. Dietary resistant starch (RS) has been shown to have health benefits, but we lack a mechanistic understanding of the metabolic processes that occur in the gut during digestion of RS. Here, we collected samples during a dietary crossover study with diets containing large or small amounts of RS. We determined the impact of RS on the gut microbiome and metabolic pathways in the gut, using a combination of "omics" approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039919/the-molecular-tweezer-clr01-stabilizes-a-disordered-protein-protein-interface
#14
David Bier, Sumit Mittal, Kenny Bravo-Rodriguez, Andrea Sowislok, Xavier Guillory, Jeroen Briels, Christian Heid, Maria Bartel, Burkhard Wettig, Luc Brunsveld, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Thomas Schrader, Christian Ottmann
Protein regions that are involved in Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) very often display a high degree of intrinsic disorder, which is reduced during the recognition process. A prime example is binding of the rigid 14-3-3 adapter proteins to their numerous partner proteins, whose recognition motifs undergo an extensive disorder-to-order transition. In this context, it is highly desirable to control this entropy-costly process using tailored stabilizing agents. This study reveals how the molecular tweezer CLR01 tunes the 14-3-3/Cdc25CpS216 protein-protein interaction...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039790/prolango-protein-function-prediction-using-neural-machine-translation-based-on-a-recurrent-neural-network
#15
Renzhi Cao, Colton Freitas, Leong Chan, Miao Sun, Haiqing Jiang, Zhangxin Chen
With the development of next generation sequencing techniques, it is fast and cheap to determine protein sequences but relatively slow and expensive to extract useful information from protein sequences because of limitations of traditional biological experimental techniques. Protein function prediction has been a long standing challenge to fill the gap between the huge amount of protein sequences and the known function. In this paper, we propose a novel method to convert the protein function problem into a language translation problem by the new proposed protein sequence language "ProLan" to the protein function language "GOLan", and build a neural machine translation model based on recurrent neural networks to translate "ProLan" language to "GOLan" language...
October 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037777/multipotency-of-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-on-their-native-substrate-and-the-expression-of-connexin-43-during-adoption-of-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-fate
#16
Mohamed I Elashry, Manuela Heimann, Sabine Wenisch, Ketan Patel, Stefan Arnhold
Muscle regeneration is performed by resident muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SC). However they are multipotent, being able to adopt adipogenic and osteogenic fate under the correct stimuli. Since SC behavior can be regulated by the extra-cellular matrix, we examined the robustness of the myogenic programme of SC on their native substrate-the surface of a myofiber. We show that the native substrate supports myogenic differentiation judged by the expression of members of the Myogenic Determination Factor (MRF) family...
October 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035400/protein-recognition-by-a-pattern-generating-fluorescent-molecular-probe
#17
Zohar Pode, Ronny Peri-Naor, Joseph M Georgeson, Tal Ilani, Vladimir Kiss, Tamar Unger, Barak Markus, Haim M Barr, Leila Motiei, David Margulies
Fluorescent molecular probes have become valuable tools in protein research; however, the current methods for using these probes are less suitable for analysing specific populations of proteins in their native environment. In this study, we address this gap by developing a unimolecular fluorescent probe that combines the properties of small-molecule-based probes and cross-reactive sensor arrays (the so-called chemical 'noses/tongues'). On the one hand, the probe can detect different proteins by generating unique identification (ID) patterns, akin to cross-reactive arrays...
October 16, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035140/cytoskeleton-genes-expression-and-survival-rate-comparison-between-immature-and-mature-yak-oocyte-after-ops-vitrification
#18
Xia Wei, Ye Sijie, Zeng Weibin, Xu Qing, Zheng Jie, Zi Xiangdong
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitrification on survival rate and cytoskeleton gene expression during yak oocyte maturation. The yak oocytes were incubated for 0 h [germinal vesicle (GV) stage] and in vitro matured for 24 h [metaphase II (MII) stage] to obtain immature and mature oocytes. Survival rate after vitrification were compared between immature and mature yak oocytes and cytoskeleton-related genes [cytokeratin 8 (CK8), β-actin (ACTB), and gap junction protein, alpha 1 (GJA1)] were tested by real-time PCR...
October 16, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035051/integrating-carbamylation-and-ultraviolet-photodissociation-mass-spectrometry-for-middle-down-proteomics
#19
James D Sanders, Sylvester M Greer, Jennifer S Brodbelt
The most popular bottom-up proteomics workflow uses trypsin to enzymatically cleave proteins C-terminal to lysine and arginine residues prior to LCMS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The high frequency of these residues generates short peptides, some of which are too small or uninformative for optimal analysis and which potentially contribute to gaps in sequence coverage of proteins. Analysis of larger peptides, termed "middle-down", has the potential to span greater sections of protein sequences if the larger peptides are adequately characterized based on their fragmentation patterns...
October 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034528/patients-with-a-new-variant-of-endemic-pemphigus-foliaceus-have-autoantibodies-against-arrector-pili-muscle-colocalizing-with-myzap-p0071-desmoplakins-1-and-2-and-arvcf
#20
A M Abreu-Velez, C A Valencia-Yepes, Y A Upegui-Zapata, E Upegui-Quiceno, N R Mesa-Herrera, J E Velazquez-Velez, M S Howard
BACKGROUND: We identified a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia, South America, which we term El Bagre-EPF, and observed reactivity to arrector pili muscle (APM), thus we tested for autoimmunity to APM. METHODS: We took skin biopsies from 30 patients with El Bagre-EPF and 30 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, sex and occupation, who were all from the endemic area, and tested these using direct immunofluorescence (DIF), confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting (IB)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
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