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Protein gap

Meng Li, Qiong Wu, Qiangwei Wang, Dandan Xiang, Guonian Zhu
In aquatic environment, the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported to modify the bioavailability and toxicity of the organic toxicants. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NPs and the pesticides that were used world-widely still remains unclear. Cypermethrin (CYP), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is commonly used for controlling agricultural and indoor pests. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO2 ) on CYP bioconcentration and its effects on the neuronal development in zebrafish were investigated in our study...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Christina D King, Daljeet Singh, Kyle Holden, Annie B Govan, Scott A Keith, Arjumand Ghazi, Renã A S Robinson
The molecular mechanisms that distinguish immunosenescence from general age-related decline are poorly understood. We addressed this by exposing Day 1 and Day 5 adults of Caenorhabditis elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01, an opportunistic pathogen. Day 5 adult C. elegans exhibited greater vulnerability to infection as compared to Day 1 C. elegans. Using TMT6 -plex isobaric labeling and reductive dimethylation, we identified 55 proteins whose levels were altered following infection of Day 1 and Day 5 adults...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Luca Navarini, Tiziana Bisogno, Pamela Mozetic, Fabiana Piscitelli, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Fabio Basta, Antonella Afeltra, Mauro Maccarrone
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in many physiological and pathological conditions and its dysregulation has been described in several rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Yet, its possible alteration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has never been investigated. Here, we aimed filling this gap in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with SLE and age- and sex- matched healthy subjects (HS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitation of eCB levels highlighted that plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were significantly increased in SLE patients compared to HS (p = 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Weilin Liu, Junmeng Lu, Aiqian Ye, Qingqing Xu, Mengmeng Tian, Youyu Kong, Fuqiang Wei, Jianzhong Han
There remain gaps in our understanding of the fate of liposomes in the infant gastrointestinal tract, especially regarding essential proteins such as lactoferrin. Models in vitro that mirrored digestion in the stomach and intestine of infants and adults were used to explore the behaviour of lactoferrin-loaded liposomes. The liposomes behaved differently in these environments, with less hydrolysis of encapsulated lactoferrin under infant model conditions. Compared to the adult model (1000 ± 66 μM mL-1 ), fewer free fatty acids were released (500 ± 43 μM mL-1 ) from liposomal bilayers and there was less alteration in functional groups of phospholipids membranes, based on pH and FTIR after infant model digestion...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Karsten Hinrichs, Timur Shaykhutdinov
Infrared techniques enable nondestructive and label-free studies of thin films with high chemical and structural contrast. In this work, we review recent progress and perspectives in the nanoscale analysis of anisotropic materials using an extended version of the atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) technique. This advanced photothermal technique, includes polarization control of the incoming light and bridges the gap in IR spectroscopic analysis of local anisotropic material properties. Such local anisotropy occurs in a wide range of materials during molecular nucleation, aggregation, and crystallization processes...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
L Wang, G Wei, L Song, C Li, F Zhang, Y Yang, C Lu
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the therapeutic effects of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) on post-myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodeling and sympathetic neural remodeling in dogs. The possible mechanisms and optimal time for treatment are discussed. METHODS: We randomly assigned 30 dogs to five groups: RDN 1 week before MI (RDN1w + MI; n = 6), RDN 1 week after MI (MI1w + RDN; n = 6), RDN 2 weeks after MI (MI2w + RDN; n = 6), control (N; n = 6), and MI (n = 6)...
April 12, 2018: Herz
Hannah R Spaulding, Joshua T Selsby
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease caused by a dystrophin protein deficiency. Dystrophin functions to stabilize and protect the muscle fiber during muscle contraction, thus the absence of functional dystrophin protein leads to muscle injury. DMD patients experience progressive muscle necrosis, loss of function, and ultimately succumb to respiratory failure or cardiomyopathy. Exercise is known to improve muscle health and strength in healthy individuals as well as positively impact other systems...
April 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Frank R Fontaine, Stephen Goodall, Jeremy W Prokop, Christopher B Howard, Mehdi Moustaqil, Somuah Kumble, Daniel T Rasicci, Geoffrey W Osborne, Yann Gambin, Emma Sierecki, Martina L Jones, Johannes Zuegg, Stephen Mahler, Mathias Francois
Antibodies are routinely used to study the activity of transcription factors, using various in vitro and in vivo approaches such as electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, genome-wide method analysis coupled with next generation sequencing, or mass spectrometry. More recently, a new application for antibodies has emerged as crystallisation scaffolds for difficult to crystallise proteins, such as transcription factors. Only in a few rare cases, antibodies have been used to modulate the activity of transcription factors, and there is a real gap in our knowledge on how to efficiently design antibodies to interfere with transcription...
April 12, 2018: MAbs
Shama Khan, Imane Bjij, Robin M Betz, Mahmoud Es Soliman
AIM: Irreversible covalent drug inhibition is an emerging paradigm; however, critical gaps in unraveling the efficacy of molecular determinants still persist. METHODOLOGY: We compare two ERK2 inhibitors with different binding modes. A 5-7-Oxozeaenol is selective inhibitor which irreversibly binds ERK2 by the formation of covalent bond with Cys166 while 5-iodotubercidin binds noncovalently. Result & discussion: Covalent inhibition showed greater protein stability, favorable binding energetics (irreversible inhibition binding free energy [ΔGbind ] = -40...
April 9, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Bijan Keikhaei, Pejman Slehi-Fard, Gholamreza Shariati, Abbas Khosravi
Alpha thalassemia is the most prevalent monogenic gene disorder in the world, especially in Mediterranean countries. In the current hematological phenotype of patients with different genotypes, the effects of missense mutations on the protein function and also stability were evaluated in a large cohort study. A total of 1,560 subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups: 259 normal subjects; and 1301 alpha-thalassemia carriers. Genomic DNA was extracted and analyzed using ARMS PCR, Multiplex Gap, and direct sequencing...
April 7, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Jian Sun, Qianwen Hu, Hong Peng, Cheng Peng, Liheng Zhou, Jinsong Lu, Chuanxin Huang
Connexin 43 (Cx43, also known as GJA1), is the most ubiquitously expressed connexin isoform in mammalian tissues. It forms intercellular gap junction (GJ) channels, enabling adjacent cells to communicate both electrically and metabolically. Cx43 is a short-lived protein which can be quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal, endolysosomal and autophagosomal pathways. Here, we report that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) interacts with and deubiquitinates Cx43. USP8 reduces both multiple monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination of Cx43 to prevent autophagy-mediated degradation...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jennifer M S Sucre, Christopher S Jetter, Holli Loomans, Janice Williams, Erin J Plosa, John T Benjamin, Lisa R Young, Jonathan A Kropski, Carla L Calvi, Seunghyi Kook, Ping Wang, Linda Gleaves, Adel Eskaros, Laura Goetzl, Timothy S Blackwell, Susan H Guttentag, Andries Zijlstra
Alveolar type 2 (AT2) epithelial cells are uniquely specialized to produce surfactant in the lung and act as progenitor cells in the process of repair after lung injury. AT2 cell injury has been implicated in several lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The inability to maintain primary AT2 cells in culture has been a significant barrier in the investigation of pulmonary biology. We have addressed this knowledge gap by developing a 3-dimensional organotypic co-culture using primary human fetal AT2 cells and pulmonary fibroblasts...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Yu Xiao, Bing Li, Jun Liu
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of microRNA‑148a downregulation on osteoporosis by using an ovariectomized rat model. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze microRNA‑148a expression levels, MTT and flow cytometry assays were used to examine cytotoxicity and apoptosis, respectively. The gap‑associated proteins were quantified using western blotting. The expression of microRNA‑148a was significantly increased in osteoporosis rat following ovariectomy...
April 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chikara Sato, Mari Sato, Shinichi Ogawa
Helium ion microscopy (HIM) scans samples with a fine ion beam exploiting the very short de Broglie wavelength of helium ions. Because the radiation induces only a small sample region to emit secondary electrons (SEs), very high resolution is expected. In order to explore the applications of SE-HIM in biology, COS7 kidney fibroblast cells and C2C12 myoblast cells cultured on a silicon (Si) nitride (SiN)/Si bilayer were dried and directly observed in high vacuum, without coating or staining. High contrast, high depth-of-field images were obtained revealing the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton and putative mitochondria above a bright background from the support...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Meng-Yan Sun, Yuchong Wang, Ji Zhu, Chuan Lv, Kai Wu, Xin-Wei Wang, Chun-Yu Xue
Regulator of G‑protein signaling 1 (RGS1) has been found to be a critical factor in melanoma and other malignancies. However, the mechanism involved in the RGS1‑mediated promotion of melanoma progression is not clear. We based our study on samples collected from pathological specimens of melanoma patients. We found by immunohistochemistry that RGS1 expression was significantly higher in melanoma than that noted in nevus tissue (P<0.05). Kaplan‑Meier analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between increased RGS1 expression and reduced disease‑specific survival (P<0...
March 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jingwei Huang, Tingqi Liu, Ke Li, Xiaokai Song, Ruofeng Yan, Lixin Xu, Xiangrui Li
BACKGROUND: Eimeria maxima initiates infection by invading the jejunal epithelial cells of chicken. However, the proteins involved in invasion remain unknown. The research of the molecules that participate in the interactions between E. maxima sporozoites and host target cells will fill a gap in our understanding of the invasion system of this parasitic pathogen. METHODS: In the present study, chicken jejunal epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro...
April 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jacqueline M Doyle, Douglas A Bell, Peter H Bloom, Gavin Emmons, Amy Fesnock, Todd E Katzner, Larry LaPré, Kolbe Leonard, Phillip SanMiguel, Rick Westerman, J Andrew DeWoody
BACKGROUND: Management requires a robust understanding of between- and within-species genetic variability, however such data are still lacking in many species. For example, although multiple population genetics studies of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) have been conducted, no similar studies have been done of the closely-related prairie falcon (F. mexicanus) and it is unclear how much genetic variation and population structure exists across the species' range. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship of F...
April 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
Wang Ou, Huihui Liu, Junyi He, Xianhai Yang
Muscle protein was one of critical accumulation protein for anthropogenic chemicals. However, few predictive models were constructed for muscle protein up to now. In addition, some ionizable chemicals classes e.g. sulfonates were not successfully modeled in previously models, indicating considerable work would be needed. The major objective of this study was to develop quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting the muscle protein-water partition coefficient (logKMP/w ) of chicken and fish...
April 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
David Moore, Ravi F Saraf
Microcontact printing (µCP) is a valuable technique used to fabricate complex patterns on surfaces for applications such as sensors, cell seeding, self-assembled monolayers of proteins and nanoparticles, and micromachining. The process is very precise but is typically confined to depositing a single type of ink per print, which limits the complexity of using multifunctionality patterns. Here we describe a process by which two inks are printed concomitantly in a single operation to create an alternating pattern of hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics...
April 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Karim Mekhail
Eukaryotic genomes are non-randomly arranged inside the nucleus. Despite this ordered spatial genome organization, damaged DNA exhibits increased random mobility within nuclear space. This increased random movement is thought to promote DNA repair by facilitating homology search, allowing targeting to repair-conducive nuclear domains, or releasing damage from repair-repressive locations. Recent studies focusing on the relationship between telomeres, DNA repair processes, and nuclear organization have revealed that the disruption of motor proteins or microtubules, which typically mediate the directed motion of cargo, disrupts the random mobility of damaged DNA...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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