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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221348/self-assembly-of-nanoparticles-into-biomimetic-capsid-like-nanoshells
#1
Ming Yang, Henry Chan, Gongpu Zhao, Joong Hwan Bahng, Peijun Zhang, Petr Král, Nicholas A Kotov
Nanoscale compartments are one of the foundational elements of living systems. Capsids, carboxysomes, exosomes, vacuoles and other nanoshells easily self-assemble from biomolecules such as lipids or proteins, but not from inorganic nanomaterials because of difficulties with the replication of spherical tiling. Here we show that stabilizer-free polydispersed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously organize into porous nanoshells. The association of water-soluble CdS NPs into self-limited spherical capsules is the result of scale-modified electrostatic, dispersion and other colloidal forces...
March 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221018/low-efficiency-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-high-resolution-coalignment-of-near-infrared-and-visible-light-paths-on-a-light-microscope
#2
Sriramkumar Sundaramoorthy, Adrian Garcia Badaracco, Sophia M Hirsch, Jun Hong Park, Tim Davies, Julien Dumont, Mimi Shirasu-Hiza, Andrew C Kummel, Julie C Canman
The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and visible wavelengths in light microscopy for biological studies is increasingly common. For example, many fields of biology are developing the use of NIR for optogenetics, in which an NIR laser induces a change in gene expression and/or protein function. One major technical barrier in working with both NIR and visible light on an optical microscope is obtaining their precise coalignment at the imaging plane position. Photon upconverting particles (UCPs) can bridge this gap as they are excited by NIR light but emit in the visible range via an anti-Stokes luminescence mechanism...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220769/a-connexin30-mutation-rescues-hearing-and-reveals-roles-for-gap-junctions-in-cochlear-amplification-and-micromechanics
#3
Victoria A Lukashkina, Snezana Levic, Andrei N Lukashkin, Nicola Strenzke, Ian J Russell
Accelerated age-related hearing loss disrupts high-frequency hearing in inbred CD-1 mice. The p.Ala88Val (A88V) mutation in the gene coding for the gap-junction protein connexin30 (Cx30) protects the cochlear basal turn of adult CD-1Cx30(A88V/A88V) mice from degeneration and rescues hearing. Here we report that the passive compliance of the cochlear partition and active frequency tuning of the basilar membrane are enhanced in the cochleae of CD-1Cx30(A88V/A88V) compared to CBA/J mice with sensitive high-frequency hearing, suggesting that gap junctions contribute to passive cochlear mechanics and energy distribution in the active cochlea...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220297/what-roles-do-colon-stem-cells-and-gap-junctions-play-in-the-left-and-right-location-of-origin-of-colorectal-cancers
#4
James E Trosko, Heinz-Josef Lenz
This "Commentary" examines an important clinical observation that right-sided colorectal cancers appear less treatable than the left-sided cancers. The concepts of (a) the "initiation/promotion/progression" process, (b) the stem cell hypothesis, (c) the role gap junctional intercellular communication, (d) cancer cells lacking GJIC either because of the non-expression of connexin genes or of non-functional gap junction proteins, and (e) the role of the microbiome in promoting initiated colon stem cells to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically are examined to find an explanation...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219393/molecular-and-genetic-alterations-associated-with-therapy-resistance-and-relapse-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Hubert Hackl, Ksenia Astanina, Rotraud Wieser
BACKGROUND: The majority of individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) respond to initial chemotherapy and achieve a complete remission, yet only a minority experience long-term survival because a large proportion of patients eventually relapse with therapy-resistant disease. Relapse therefore represents a central problem in the treatment of AML. Despite this, and in contrast to the extensive knowledge about the molecular events underlying the process of leukemogenesis, information about the mechanisms leading to therapy resistance and relapse is still limited...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218626/building-discontinuous-liver-sinusoidal-vessels
#6
Courtney T Griffin, Siqi Gao
Blood vessels have a unified mission to circulate blood throughout the body; however, they have additional diverse and specialized roles in various organs. For example, in the liver, discontinuous sinusoids, which are fenestrated capillaries with intercellular gaps and a fragmented basement membrane, facilitate delivery of macromolecules to highly metabolic hepatocytes. During embryonic development, discontinuous sinusoids also allow circulating hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells to populate the liver and promote blood cell differentiation...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216567/wine-flavonoids-in-health-and-disease-prevention
#7
Iva Fernandes, Rosa Pérez-Gregorio, Susana Soares, Nuno Mateus, Victor de Freitas
Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216239/interaction-between-nitric-oxide-signaling-and-gap-junctions-during-ischemic-preconditioning-importance-of-s-nitrosylation-vs-protein-kinase-g-activation
#8
REVIEW
Fei Xie, Bing Rong, Tian-Cheng Wang, Li Hao, Ming-Jie Lin, Jing-Quan Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215711/biomarkers-for-cystic-fibrosis-drug-development
#9
REVIEW
Marianne S Muhlebach, J P Clancy, Sonya L Heltshe, Assem Ziady, Tom Kelley, Frank Accurso, Joseph Pilewski, Nicole Mayer-Hamblett, Elizabeth Joseloff, Scott D Sagel
PURPOSE: To provide a review of the status of biomarkers in cystic fibrosis drug development, including regulatory definitions and considerations, a summary of biomarkers in current use with supportive data, current gaps, and future needs. METHODS: Biomarkers are considered across several areas of CF drug development, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulation, infection, and inflammation. RESULTS: Sweat chloride, nasal potential difference, and intestinal current measurements have been standardized and examined in the context of multicenter trials to quantify CFTR function...
November 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214467/paxillin-a-crossroad-in-pathological-cell-migration
#10
REVIEW
Ana María López-Colomé, Irene Lee-Rivera, Regina Benavides-Hidalgo, Edith López
Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214023/using-aequorin-probes-to-measure-ca-2-in-intracellular-organelles
#11
REVIEW
María Teresa Alonso, Macarena Rodríguez-Prados, Paloma Navas-Navarro, Jonathan Rojo-Ruiz, Javier García-Sancho
Aequorins are excellent tools for measuring intra-organellar Ca(2+) and assessing its role in physiological and pathological functions. Here we review targeting strategies to express aequorins in various organelles. We address critical topics such as probe affinity tuning as well as normalization and calibration of the signal. We also focus on bioluminescent Ca(2+) imaging in nucleus or mitochondria of living cells. Finally, recent advances with a new chimeric GFP-aequorin protein (GAP), which can be used either as luminescent or fluorescent Ca(2+) probe, are presented...
January 16, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213860/epidemiology-of-stone-disease-across-the-world
#12
Igor Sorokin, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Katsuhito Miyazawa, Allen Rodgers, Jamsheer Talati, Yair Lotan
Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with rates ranging from 7 to 13% in North America, 5-9% in Europe, and 1-5% in Asia. Due to high rates of new and recurrent stones, management of stones is expensive and the disease has a high level of acute and chronic morbidity. The goal of this study is to review the epidemiology of stone disease in order to improve patient care. A review of the literature was conducted through a search on Pubmed(®), Medline(®), and Google Scholar(®). This review was presented and peer-reviewed at the 3rd International Consultation on Stone Disease during the 2014 Société Internationale d'Urologie Congress in Glasgow...
February 17, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212376/the-legionella-pneumophila-genome-evolved-to-accommodate-multiple-regulatory-mechanisms-controlled-by-the-csra-system
#13
Tobias Sahr, Christophe Rusniok, Francis Impens, Giulia Oliva, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Carmen Buchrieser
The carbon storage regulator protein CsrA regulates cellular processes post-transcriptionally by binding to target-RNAs altering translation efficiency and/or their stability. Here we identified and analyzed the direct targets of CsrA in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Genome wide transcriptome, proteome and RNA-Co-immunoprecipitaion followed by deep sequencing of a wild type and a csrA mutant strain identified 479 RNAs with potential CsrA interaction sites located in the untranslated and/or coding regions of mRNAs or of known non-coding sRNAs...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212107/rheb-in-neuronal-degeneration-regeneration-and-connectivity
#14
Veena Nambiar Potheraveedu, Miriam Schöpel, Raphael Stoll, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Rheb was originally detected as an immediate early response protein whose expression was induced by NMDA-dependent synaptic activity in the brain. Rheb's activity is highly regulated by its GTPase activating protein (GAP), the tuberous sclerosis complex protein, which stimulates the conversion from the active, GTP-loaded into the inactive, GDP-loaded conformation. Rheb has been established as an evolutionarily conserved molecular switch protein regulating cellular growth, cell volume, cell cycle, autophagy, and amino acid uptake...
February 17, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211606/nrf2-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-fragile-x-syndrome-is-modulated-by-nnz2566
#15
Robert M J Deacon, Michael J Hurley, Camila Martínez Rebolledo, Mike Snape, Francisco J Altimiras, Leandro Farías, Michael Pino, Rodolfo Biekofsky, Larry Glass, Patricia Cogram
Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of genetic conditions resulting from the partial or complete loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Among these disorders is fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. Progress in basic neuroscience has led to identification of molecular targets for treatment in FXS; however, there is a gap in translation to targeted therapies in humans. The present study introduces a novel therapeutic target for FXS: nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor known to induce expression of over 100 cytoprotective genes...
February 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211584/csf-ykl-40-and-gap-43-are-related-to-suicidal-ideation-in-older-women
#16
I Rymo, S Kern, M Bjerke, H Zetterberg, T Marlow, K Blennow, P Gudmundsson, I Skoog, M Waern
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible relationships between suicidal ideation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glial markers YKL-40 (also known as chitinase-3-like protein 1), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and myelin basic protein (MBP). METHOD: The sample was obtained from the Prospective Population Study of Women and included 86 women without dementia who underwent both psychiatric examinations and lumbar puncture (LP). Eight of these women reported past-month suicidal ideation...
February 17, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210955/the-effects-of-igf-1-on-tnf-%C3%AE-treated-drg-neurons-by-modulating-atf3-and-gap-43-expression-via-pi3k-akt-s6k-signaling-pathway
#17
Lei Zhang, Yaping Yue, Meishuo Ouyang, Huaxiang Liu, Zhenzhong Li
Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in the development and progression of numerous neurological disorders. Recent reports have challenged the concept that TNF-α exhibits only deleterious effects of pro-inflammatory destruction, and have raised the awareness that it may play a beneficial role in neuronal growth and function in particular conditions, which prompts us to further investigate the role of this cytokine. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a cytokine possessing powerful neuroprotective effects in promoting neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, neurite elongation, and neurite regeneration...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210739/retinal-oxidative-stress-at-the-onset-of-diabetes-determined-by-synchrotron-ftir-widefield-imaging-towards-diabetes-pathogenesis
#18
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Mahsa Ranji, Christine M Sorenson, Reyhaneh Sepehr, Nader Sheibani, Carol J Hirschmugl
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that can lead to blindness. In the present study, we aimed to determine the nature of diabetes-induced, highly localized biochemical changes in the neuroretina at the onset of diabetes. High-resolution synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (s-FTIR) wide field microscopy coupled with multivariate analysis (PCA-LDA) was employed to identify biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy with spatial resolution at the cellular level. We compared the retinal tissue prepared from 6-week-old Ins2(Akita/+) heterozygous (Akita/+, N = 6; a model of diabetes) male mice with the wild-type (control, N = 6) mice...
February 17, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209199/making-life-difficult-for-clostridium-difficile-augmenting-the-pathogen-s-metabolic-model-with-transcriptomic-and-codon-usage-data-for-better-therapeutic-target-characterization
#19
Sara Saheb Kashaf, Claudio Angione, Pietro Lió
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a bacterium which can infect various animal species, including humans. Infection with this bacterium is a leading healthcare-associated illness. A better understanding of this organism and the relationship between its genotype and phenotype is essential to the search for an effective treatment. Genome-scale metabolic models contain all known biochemical reactions of a microorganism and can be used to investigate this relationship. RESULTS: We present icdf834, an updated metabolic network of C...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207192/temporal-spatial-establishment-of-initial-niche-for-the-primary-spermatogonial-stem-cell-formation-is-determined-by-an-arid4b-regulatory-network
#20
Ray-Chang Wu, Yang Zeng, Yu-Fang Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Mei-Yi Wu
During neonatal testis development, centrally located gonocytes migrate to basement membrane of the seminiferous cords, where physical contact with a niche established by Sertoli cells is essential for transition of gonocytes into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To provide structural support and signaling stimuli for the gonocyte-to-SSC transition that occurs at a specific location during a finite phase, temporal-spatial establishment of the niche is critical. To date, the factors that guide Sertoli cells to establish the initial stem cell niche remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
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