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DRG neurons

Y-Q He, X-Q Lang, L Lin, L Ji, X-Y Yuan, Q Chen, Y-M Ran, H-S Chen, L Li, J-M Wang, Z-G Wang, H Gregersen, D-W Zou, H-P Liang, M Yang
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often share co-morbidity with chronic pain conditions. Recent studies suggest a role of P2X3 receptors and ATP signaling in pain conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms of visceral hyperalgesia following exposure to PTSD-like stress conditions remain unclarified. METHODS: The behavior and hormones relevant for PTSD were studied. Visceromotor responses (VMR) and the abdominal withdrawal reflexes (AWR) to colorectal distention (CRD) were recorded to determine P2X3-receptor-mediated alteration of hyperalgesia following single-prolonged stress (SPS) exposure...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Zhongyuan Xia, Yun Xiao, Yang Wu, Bo Zhao
Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is not completely known. Since the sodium channel Nav1.7 has been implicated in pain perception, and is upregulated in pain disorders, we investigated the effect of paclitaxel on Nav1.7 expression in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either 2 mg/kg paclitaxel or vehicle on days 0, 2, 4 and 6. To evaluate nociceptive responses, paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was measured by von Frey anesthesiometer on days 7, 14 and 21 after first paclitaxel administration...
2016: SpringerPlus
Dilip Sharma, Jitendra Narain Singh, Shyam S Sharma
Mechanisms and pathways involving in diabetic neuropathy are still not fully understood but can be unified by the process of overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, downstream intracellular signaling pathways and their modulation. Susceptibility of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) to internal/external hyperglycemic environment stress contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic neuropathy. ER stress leads to abnormal ion channel function, gene expression, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and protein folding...
October 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
In Ae Chang, Hee Don Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Hwachul Shin, Uk Namgung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological symptoms, and recent experimental studies have begun to provide evidence showing its protective effects on neural cells. Yet, its function for the regenerative responses of axons in the peripheral nerve after injury is not known. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective of the present study was to explore that BYHWD is involved in growth-promoting activity of the peripheral nerve axons after injury...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
So Hyun Ahn, In Ae Chang, Ki-Joong Kim, Chul-Jung Kim, Uk Namgung, Chung-Sik Cho
BACKGROUND: Bogijetong decoction (BGJTD) is a herbal drug formulation used in the traditional Asian medicine to treat neuropathic insults associated with diabetes and anticancer therapy. To understand the biological basis of BGJTD on protective effects against neuropathy, we investigated physiological and biochemical responses of the sciatic nerves deranged by taxol injection or crush injury in the rats. METHODS: Dissociated Schwann cells and neurons were prepared from the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respectively and were treated with taxol and BGJTD...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Zhen Lei, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Wenshuai Zheng, Xiao Yu, Jingui Yu, Jingxin Li
Itch, the unpleasant sensation that evokes a desire to scratch, accompanies numerous skin and nervous system disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of itch are unclear. Acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of Chloroquine (CQ)on ASICs currents in primary sensory neurons or the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with rat-ASIC1a or- ASIC3. Site-directed mutagenesis of plasmid was performed...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kerui Gong, Peter T Ohara, Luc Jasmin
Patch clamp studies from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons have increased our understanding of the peripheral nervous system. Currently, the majority of recordings are conducted on dissociated DRG neurons, which is a standard preparation for most laboratories. Neuronal properties, however, can be altered by axonal injury resulting from enzyme digestion used in acquiring dissociated neurons. Further, dissociated neuron preparations cannot fully represent the microenvironment of the DRG since loss of contact with satellite glial cells that surround the primary sensory neurons is an unavoidable consequence of this method...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Petra Mrozkova, Diana Spicarova, Jiri Palecek
Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear...
2016: PloS One
Ming-Fong Chang, Jung-Hsien Hsieh, Hao Chiang, Hung-Wei Kan, Cho-Min Huang, Luke Chellis, Bo-Shiou Lin, Shi-Chuen Miaw, Chun-Liang Pan, Chi-Chao Chao, Sung-Tsang Hsieh
Delivering gene constructs into the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is a powerful but challenging therapeutic strategy for sensory disorders affecting the DRG and their peripheral processes. The current delivery methods of direct intra-DRG injection and intrathecal injection have several disadvantages, including potential injury to DRG neurons and low transfection efficiency, respectively. This study aimed to develop a spinal nerve injection strategy to deliver polyethylenimine mixed with plasmid (PEI/DNA polyplexes) containing green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wei Sun, Fei Yang, Yan Wang, Han Fu, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Hannes Schmidt, Stefanie Peters, Katharina Frank, Lai Wen, Robert Feil, Fritz G Rathjen
A cGMP signaling pathway, comprising C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), its guanylate cyclase receptor Npr2, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI), is critical for the bifurcation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cranial sensory ganglion axons when entering the mouse spinal cord and the hindbrain, respectively. However, the identity and functional relevance of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that degrade cGMP in DRG neurons are not completely understood. Here we asked whether regulation of the intracellular cGMP concentration by PDEs modulates the branching of sensory axons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
W Ma, B St-Jacques, U Rudakou, Y N Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent peripheral sensitization contributes to chronic pain. Plasticity of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) induced by pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to sensitization. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in injured tissues is known not only directly to sensitize DRG neurons, but also to potentiate sensitizing effects of other pain mediators such as capsaicin and its receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It remains unknown whether PGE2 potentiates TRPV1 activity by stimulating its synthesis, cell surface and axonal trafficking in DRG neurons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Azusa Yoneshige, Man Hagiyama, Takao Inoue, Tomonori Tanaka, Aritoshi Ri, Akihiko Ito
Internal pressure is often involved in neurodegeneration; intraocular and intraventricular pressure elevations over 20-30 cmH2O cause glaucoma and hydrocephalus, respectively. Here, we investigated enteric nerve degeneration in colon segments having tumor-induced stenosis and dilation and examined the mechanism of intraluminal pressure involvement. Histological examination revealed that the enteric ganglion neurons and neurites decreased in density in the dilated colons proportionate to the degree of dilation...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Viacheslav Viatchenko-Karpinski, Jianguo G Gu
Primary afferent fibers use mechanically activated (MA) currents to transduce innocuous and noxious mechanical stimuli. However, it is largely unknown about the differences in MA currents between the afferents for sensing innocuous and noxious stimuli. In the present study, we used dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons acutely dissociated from rats and studied their MA currents and also their intrinsic membrane properties. Recorded from small-sized DRG neurons, we found that most of these neurons were mechanically sensitive (MS) showing MA currents...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
André Schwambach Vieira, Dionéia Araldi, Elayne Vieira Dias, Filipe César do Prado, Claudia Herrera Tambeli, Carlos Amilcar Parada
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is one of the major signaling molecules involved in hyperalgesia, acting directly on nociceptors and resulting in the activation of PKA and PKC. Once active, these kinases phosphorylate many cellular proteins, resulting in changes on nociceptors sensorial transduction properties. The Janus Kinases (JAKs) are a family of intracellular signaling molecules generally associated with cytokine signaling, and their activity can be increased in nociceptors after peripheral inflammation. However, there are no evidences of JAKs direct involvement in PGE2 mediated sensitization of nociceptors...
October 4, 2016: Life Sciences
Xiao-Bo Wu, De-Li Cao, Xin Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Lin-Xia Zhao, Bin Qian, Yong-Jing Gao
CXCL13 is a B lymphocyte chemoattractant and activates CXCR5 receptor in the immune system. Here we investigated whether CXCL13/CXCR5 mediates inflammatory pain in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the underlying mechanisms. Peripheral injection of complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) increased the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in DRG neurons. In Cxcr5(-/-) mice, CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity were attenuated. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that the excitability of dissociated DRG neurons was increased after CFA injection or CXCL13 incubation from wild-type (WT) mice, but not from Cxcr5(-/-) mice...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Li-Na Yu, Li-Hong Sun, Min Wang, Min Yan
Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), is an important member of ERK family, which is a subfamily of the large MAPK family. ERK5 is expressed in many tissues, including the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and the spinal cord. In this review, we focus on elaborating ERK5-associated pathway in pathological pain, in which the ERK5/CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein) pathway plays a crucial role in the transduction of pain signal and contributes to pain hypersensitivity...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
De-Li Cao, Bin Qian, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Yong-Jing Gao, Xiao-Bo Wu
Chemokines and their receptors have been demonstrated to be important contributors to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Recent studies showed that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and its major receptor CXCR2 are respectively expressed in astrocytes and neurons in the spinal cord and are involved in the maintenance of neuropathic pain and inflammatory pain via astrocytic-neuronal interaction. Here we investigated how CXCL1 and CXCR2 are regulated in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after peripheral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and its implication in inflammatory pain...
September 30, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Sydney K Vaughan, Olivia L Stanley, Gregorio Valdez
The impact of aging on proprioceptive sensory neurons and intrafusal muscle fibers (IMFs) remains largely unexplored despite the central function these cells play in modulating voluntary movements. Here, we show that proprioceptive sensory neurons undergo deleterious morphological changes in middle age (11- to 13-month-old) and old (15- to 21-month-old) mice. In the extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of middle age and old mice, there is a significant increase in the number of Ia afferents with large swellings that fail to properly wrap around IMFs compared with young adult (2- to 4-month-old) mice...
September 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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