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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781158/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-distention-associated-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction
#1
Y Fu, Y M Lin, J H Winston, R Radhakrishnan, L-Y M Huang, X Z Shi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that visceral sensitivity is increased in bowel obstruction (BO). We hypothesized that mechanical stress-induced expression of BDNF in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the distended bowel plays a critical role in visceral hypersensitivity in BO by altering voltage-gated K+ channel (Kv ) activity in sensory neurons. METHODS: Partial colon obstruction was maintained in rats for 7 days. Colon-projecting neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were isolated for electrophysiological and gene expression studies...
May 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772357/modelling-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-a-platform-to-study-peripheral-neuropathies
#2
Serena Viventi, Mirella Dottori
Sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary responders to stimuli inducing feelings of touch, pain, temperature, vibration, pressure and muscle tension. They consist of multiple subpopulations based on their morphology, molecular and functional properties. Our understanding of DRG sensory neurons has been predominantly driven by rodent studies and using transformed cell lines, whereas less is known about human sensory DRG neurons simply because of limited availability of human tissue. Although these previous studies have been fundamental for our understanding of the sensory system, it is imperative to profile human DRG subpopulations as it is becoming evident that human sensory neurons do not share the identical molecular and functional properties found in other species...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769557/nde1-positively-regulates-oligodendrocyte-morphological-differentiation
#3
Shoko Shimizu, Yugo Ishino, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), undergo morphological differentiation characterized by elaborated branched processes to enwrap neuronal axons. However, the basic molecular mechanisms underlying oligodendrocyte morphogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we describe the essential roles of Nuclear Distribution E Homolog 1 (NDE1), a dynein cofactor, in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. In the mouse corpus callosum, Nde1 mRNA expression was detected in oligodendrocyte lineage cells at the postnatal stage...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768200/sensory-afferents-use-different-coding-strategies-for-heat-and-cold
#4
Feng Wang, Erik Bélanger, Sylvain L Côté, Patrick Desrosiers, Steven A Prescott, Daniel C Côté, Yves De Koninck
Primary afferents transduce environmental stimuli into electrical activity that is transmitted centrally to be decoded into corresponding sensations. However, it remains unknown how afferent populations encode different somatosensory inputs. To address this, we performed two-photon Ca2+ imaging from thousands of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in anesthetized mice while applying mechanical and thermal stimuli to hind paws. We found that approximately half of all neurons are polymodal and that heat and cold are encoded very differently...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761119/antibodies-against-cell-adhesion-molecules-and-neural-structures-in-paraneoplastic-neuropathies
#5
Ana M Siles, Eugenia Martínez-Hernández, Josefa Araque, Jordi Diaz-Manera, Ricard Rojas-Garcia, Eduard Gallardo, Isabel Illa, Francesc Graus, Luis Querol
Objective: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare neurological disorders in which ectopic expression of neural antigens by a tumor results in an autoimmune attack against the nervous system. Onconeural antibodies not only guide PNS diagnosis but may also help detecting underlying malignancies. Our project aims to uncover new potential antibodies in paraneoplastic neuropathies (PN). Methods: Thirty-four patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria of possible ( n = 9; 26...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758584/inhibition-of-sympathetic-sprouting-in-ccd-rats-by-lacosamide
#6
Yuying Wang, Fuquan Huo
BACKGROUND: Early hyperexcitability activity of injured nerve/neuron is critical for developing sympathetic nerve sprouting within dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Since lacosamide (LCM), an anticonvulsant, inhibits Na+ channel. The present study tried to test the potential effect of LCM on inhibiting sympathetic sprouting in vivo. METHODS: LCM (50 mg/kg) was daily injected intraperitoneally into rats subjected to chronic compression DRG (CCD), an animal model of neuropathic pain that exhibits sympathetic nerve sprouting, for the 1st 7 days after injury...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756027/translatome-regulation-in-neuronal-injury-and-axon-regrowth
#7
Meir Rozenbaum, Marek Rajman, Ida Rishal, Indrek Koppel, Sandip Koley, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Juan A Oses-Prieto, Riki Kawaguchi, Paul S Amieux, Alma L Burlingame, Giovanni Coppola, Mike Fainzilber
Transcriptional events leading to outgrowth of neuronal axons have been intensively studied, but the role of translational regulation in this process is not well understood. Here, we use translatome analyses by ribosome pull-down and protein synthesis characterization by metabolic isotopic labeling to study nerve injury and axon outgrowth proteomes in rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and sensory neurons. We identify over 1600 gene products that are primarily translationally regulated in DRG neurons after nerve injury, many of which contain a 5'UTR cytosine-enriched regulator of translation (CERT) motif, implicating the translation initiation factor Eif4e in the injury response...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755449/immunization-elicits-antigen-specific-antibody-sequestration-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-sensory-neurons
#8
Manojkumar Gunasekaran, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Andrew Shih, Gavin H Imperato, Meghan Addorisio, Gopal Kumar, Annette Lee, John F Graf, Dan Meyer, Michael Marino, Christopher Puleo, Jeffrey Ashe, Maureen A Cox, Tak W Mak, Chad Bouton, Barbara Sherry, Betty Diamond, Ulf Andersson, Thomas R Coleman, Christine N Metz, Kevin J Tracey, Sangeeta S Chavan
The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752567/inhibiting-ezh2-rescued-bupivacaine-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-mice
#9
Jinwei Zheng, Junping Chen, Guorong Wu, Chaoshuang Wu, Ruichun Wang, Wei Wang
PURPOSE: In the present work, we intended to explore the function of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in modulated anesthetic reagent bupivacaine-induced neuronal apoptosis in spinal cord dorsal root ganglia (DRG). METHODS: Murine DRG explant was treated with 5 mM bupivacaine in vitro to induce neuronal apoptosis, which was examined by a TUNEL assay. Protein and mRNA expressions of EZH2 in bupivacaine-treated DRG were examined by western blot and qRT-PCR assays...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749720/anti-calponin-3-autoantibodies-a-new-specificity-in-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#10
Julius Birnbaum, Ahmet Hoke, Aliya Lalji, Peter Calabresi, Pavan Bhargava, Livia Casciola-Rosen
OBJECTIVE: Autoantibodies are clinically useful for phenotyping patients across the spectrum of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Using serum from a patient with Sjögren's Syndrome (SS), we detected a new specificity by immunoblotting. The purpose of this study was to identify this autoantibody and to evaluate its disease specificity. METHODS: A prominent 40 kDa band was detected when immunoblots were performed using a SS patient serum and lysate from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
May 11, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746989/increased-expression-of-transcription-factor-sry-box-containing-gene-11-sox11-enhances-neurite-growth-by-regulating-neurotrophic-factor-responsiveness
#11
Michael P Jankowski, Lauren Miller, H Richard Koerber
The peripherally projecting axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons readily regenerate after damage while their centrally projecting branches do not regenerate to the same degree after injury. One important reason for this inconsistency is the lack of pro-regeneration gene expression that occurs in DRG neurons after central injury relative to peripheral damage. The transcription factor SRY-Box containing gene 11 (Sox11) may be a crucial player in the regenerative capacity of axons as previous evidence has shown that it is highly upregulated after peripheral axon damage but not after central injury...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746890/use-of-a-capillary-alginate-gel-capgel%C3%A2-to-study-the-three-dimensional-development-of-sensory-nerves-reveals-the-formation-of-a-rudimentary-perineurium
#12
Wesley A Anderson, Alicia R Willenberg, Alexander J Bosak, Bradley J Willenberg, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies affect approximately 20 million people in the United States and often stem from other chronic conditions, such as diabetes. In vitro methodologies to facilitate the understanding and treatment of these disorders often lack the cellular and functional complexity required to accurately model peripheral neuropathies. In particular, they are often 2D and fail to faithfully reproduce the 3D in vivo microenvironment. NEW METHOD: Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were inserted into laminin derivatized capillary alginate gel (Capgel™), a bioabsorbable, self-assembling biomaterial, possessing parallel microchannel architecture, and cultured to mimic normal nerve development, including Schwann cell myelination...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746088/structure-activity-studies-reveal-the-molecular-basis-for-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-high-voltage-activated-calcium-channels-by-%C3%AE-conotoxin-vc1-1
#13
Mahsa Sadeghi, Bodil B Carstens, Brid P Callaghan, James T Daniel, Han Shen Tae, Tracey O'Donnell, Joel Castro, Stuart M Brierley, David J Adams, David J Craik, Richard J Clark
α-Conotoxins are disulfide-bonded peptides from cone snail venoms and are characterized by their affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Several α-conotoxins with distinct selectivity for nAChR subtypes have been identified as potent analgesics in animal models of chronic pain. However, a number of α-conotoxins have been shown to inhibit N-type calcium channel currents in rodent dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons via activation of G protein-coupled GABAB receptors (GABABR). Therefore it is unclear whether activation of GABABR or inhibition of α9α10 nAChRs is the analgesic mechanism...
May 10, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743652/adeno-associated-virus-2-9-delivery-of-cre-recombinase-in-mouse-primary-afferents
#14
Khaled Abdallah, Francis Nadeau, Francis Bergeron, Sylvie Blouin, Véronique Blais, Kelly M Bradbury, Christine L Lavoie, Jean-Luc Parent, Louis Gendron
Genetically-modified animal models have significantly increased our understanding of the complex central nervous system circuits. Among these models, inducible transgenic mice whose specific gene expression can be modulated through a Cre recombinase/LoxP system are useful to study the role of specific peptides and proteins in a given population of cells. In the present study, we describe an efficient approach to selectively deliver a Cre-GFP to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. First, mice of different ages were injected in both hindpaws with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV2/9-CBA-Cre-GFP)...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742504/mir-142-3p-enhances-cell-viability-and-inhibits-apoptosis-by-targeting-cdkn1b-and-timp3-following-sciatic-nerve-injury
#15
Dong-Mei Wu, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Shan Wang, Yong-Jian Wang, Min Shen, Shao-Hua Fan, Juan Zhuang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Qun Shan, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MiRNAs are involved in phenotype modulation of neural cells after peripheral nerve injury. However, the roles of miRNAs on the survival of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have not yet been fully understood. METHODS: In this study, the expression of miR-142-3p was measured in rat DRGs (L4-L6) during the initial 24 hours post sciatic nerve transection by microarray profiling and quantitative PCR. The functional assays including the cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptosis assays were performed in miR-142-3p mimic or inhibitor transfected cell lines...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740961/expression-of-regeneration-associated-proteins-in-primary-sensory-neurons-and-regenerating-axons-after-nerve-injury-an-overview
#16
Petr Dubový, Ilona Klusáková, Ivana Hradilová-Svíženská, Marek Joukal
Peripheral nerve injury results in profound alterations of the affected neurons resulting from the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic molecular events. Restarting the neuronal regenerative program is an important prerequisite for functional recovery of the injured peripheral nerve. The primary sensory neurons with their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia provide a useful in vivo and in vitro model for studying the mechanisms that regulate intrinsic neuronal regeneration capacity following axotomy...
May 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736615/bdnf-reduces-eef2-phosphorylation-and-enhances-novel-protein-synthesis-in-the-growth-cones-of-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#17
Osamu Hoshi, Ayana Sugizaki, Yuichiro Cho, Nobuyuki Takei
The local translation, which is regulated by extracellular stimuli such as guidance molecules, in growth cones of neurons provides a molecular mechanism for axonal development. In this study, we performed immunocytochemistry together with atomic force microscopy to investigate the localization of ribosomal proteins in the growth cones of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The immunoreactivity of ribosomal protein P0/1/2 and S6, and novel protein synthesis were observed in the central, sterically bulky region of growth cones...
May 7, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735961/administration-of-oxygen-ultra-fine-bubbles-improves-nerve-dysfunction-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-model
#18
Hozo Matsuoka, Kosuke Ebina, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Makoto Hirao, Toru Iwahashi, Takaaki Noguchi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs) on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC) model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs) diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1) control, (sham operation + saline); (2) SNC, (crush + saline); (3) SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline); (4) SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline)...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729299/the-intriguing-nature-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-linking-structure-with-polarity-and-function
#19
REVIEW
Ana Isabel Nascimento, Fernando Milhazes Mar, Mónica Mendes Sousa
Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are the first neurons of the sensory pathway. They are activated by a variety of sensory stimuli that are then transmitted to the central nervous system. An important feature of DRG neurons is their unique morphology where a single process -the stem axon- bifurcates into a peripheral and a central axonal branch, with different functions and cellular properties. Distinctive structural aspects of the two DRG neuron branches may have important implications for their function in health and disease...
May 2, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723257/pharmacological-characterization-of-potent-and-selective-nav1-7-inhibitors-engineered-from-chilobrachys-jingzhao-tarantula-venom-peptide-jztx-v
#20
Bryan D Moyer, Justin K Murray, Joseph Ligutti, Kristin Andrews, Philippe Favreau, John B Jordan, Josie H Lee, Dong Liu, Jason Long, Kelvin Sham, Licheng Shi, Reto Stöcklin, Bin Wu, Ruoyuan Yin, Violeta Yu, Anruo Zou, Kaustav Biswas, Les P Miranda
Identification of voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 inhibitors for chronic pain therapeutic development is an area of vigorous pursuit. In an effort to identify more potent leads compared to our previously reported GpTx-1 peptide series, electrophysiology screening of fractionated tarantula venom discovered the NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide JzTx-V from the Chinese earth tiger tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao. The parent peptide displayed nominal selectivity over the skeletal muscle NaV1.4 channel. Attribute-based positional scan analoging identified a key Ile28Glu mutation that improved NaV1...
2018: PloS One
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