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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426967/an-intrinsic-epigenetic-barrier-for-functional-axon-regeneration
#1
Yi-Lan Weng, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Jessica Joseph, Ruifa Mi, Chen Wang, Chun Zhong, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Alfonso Bellacosa, Xinzhong Dong, Ahmet Hoke, Zhigang He, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424991/expression-and-role-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-human-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-with-special-focus-on-nav1-7-species-differences-and-regulation-by-paclitaxel
#2
Wonseok Chang, Temugin Berta, Yong Ho Kim, Sanghoon Lee, Seok-Yong Lee, Ru-Rong Ji
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play an important role in human pain sensation. However, the expression and role of Nav subtypes in native human sensory neurons are unclear. To address this issue, we obtained human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) tissues from healthy donors. PCR analysis of seven DRG-expressed Nav subtypes revealed that the hDRG has higher expression of Nav1.7 (~50% of total Nav expression) and lower expression of Nav1.8 (~12%), whereas the mouse DRG has higher expression of Nav1.8 (~45%) and lower expression of Nav1...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419410/selective-and-state-dependent-activation-of-tresk-background-potassium-channel-by-cloxyquin
#3
Miklós Lengyel, Alice Dobolyi, Gábor Czirják, Péter Enyedi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cloxyquin (5-cloroquinolin-8-ol) has been previously described as an activator of TRESK (K2P 18.1, TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) channel) background potassium channel. We have examined the specificity of the drug by testing several K2P channels. We have investigated the mechanism of cloxyquin-mediated TRESK activation, focusing on the differences between the physiologically relevant regulatory states of the channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Potassium currents were measured by two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes and by whole-cell patch clamp in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
April 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415063/neuron-restrictive-silencer-factor-mediated-downregulation-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-contributes-to-the-reduced-morphine-analgesia-in-bone-cancer-pain
#4
Chao Zhu, Jun Tang, Tan Ding, Lei Chen, Wei Wang, Xiao-Peng Mei, Xiao-Tao He, Wen Wang, Li-Dong Zhang, Yu-Lin Dong, Zhuo-Jing Luo
Bone cancer pain has been reported to have unique mechanisms and is resistant to morphine treatment. Recent studies have indicated that neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF) plays a crucial role in modulating the expression of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) gene. The present study elucidates the regulatory mechanisms of MOR and its ability to affect bone cancer pain. Using a sarcoma-inoculated murine model, pain behaviors that represent continuous or breakthrough pain were evaluated. Expression of NRSF in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn was quantified at the transcriptional and translational levels, respectively...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410966/vincristine-induced-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-and-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-in-rat
#5
Terumasa Chiba, Yusuke Oka, Hiroya Sashida, Toshie Kanbe, Kenji Abe, Iku Utsunomiya, Kyoji Taguchi
The clinical anti-cancer efficacy of vincristine is limited by the development of dose-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Up-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is correlated with peripheral neuropathy following anti-cancer drug treatment. To analyze the contribution of TRPV1 to the development of vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, TRPV1 expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was analyzed after vincristine treatment. Mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia was tested with von Frey filaments 14 days after intraperitoneal administration of 0...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408328/trpa1-expression-levels-and-excitability-brake-by-kv-channels-influence-cold-sensitivity-of-trpa1-expressing-neurons
#6
Tosifa Memon, Kevin Chase, Lee S Leavitt, Baldomero M Olivera, Russell W Teichert
The molecular sensor of innocuous (painless) cold sensation is well-established to be transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8 (TRPM8). However, the role of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) in noxious (painful) cold sensation has been controversial. We find that TRPA1 channels contribute to the noxious cold sensitivity of mouse somatosensory neurons, independent of TRPM8 channels, and that TRPA1-expressing neurons are largely non-overlapping with TRPM8-expressing neurons in mouse dorsal-root ganglia (DRG)...
April 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406999/dorsal-root-ganglia-neurite-outgrowth-measured-as-a-function-of-changes-in-microelectrode-array-resistance
#7
Jordan M Renna, Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits, Erik D Engeberg
Current research in prosthetic device design aims to mimic natural movements using a feedback system that connects to the patient's own nerves to control the device. The first step in using neurons to control motion is to make and maintain contact between neurons and the feedback sensors. Therefore, the goal of this project was to determine if changes in electrode resistance could be detected when a neuron extended a neurite to contact a sensor. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested from chick embryos and cultured on a collagen-coated carbon nanotube microelectrode array for two days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398601/antidepressant-imipramine-protects-bupivacaine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-through-co-activation-of-trka-and-trkb
#8
Jianrong Guo, Huan Wang, Qiang Tao, Shiyu Sun, Li Liu, Jianping Zhang, Dawei Yang
PURPOSE: In our work, we used an in vitro culture model to investigate whether antidepressant imipramine (Ip) may protect bupivacaine (Bv)-induced neurotoxicity in mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG). METHODS: Adult mouse DRG was treated with 5 mM Bv in vitro to induce neurotoxicity. DRG was then pre-treated with Ip, prior to Bv, to examine its effects on protecting Bv-induced DRG apoptosis and neurite degeneration. Ip-induced dynamic changes in Trk receptors, including TrkA/B/C and phosphor (p-)TrkA/B/C, were examined by qPCR and western blot...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396446/identification-of-a-cono-rfamide-from-the-venom-of-conus-textile-that-targets-asic3-and-enhances-muscle-pain
#9
Catharina Reimers, Cheng-Han Lee, Hubert Kalbacher, Yuemin Tian, Chih-Hsien Hung, Axel Schmidt, Lea Prokop, Silke Kauferstein, Dietrich Mebs, Chih-Cheng Chen, Stefan Gründer
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na(+) channels that are expressed throughout the nervous system. ASICs have been implicated in several neuronal disorders, like ischemic stroke, neuronal inflammation, and pathological pain. Several toxins from venomous animals have been identified that target ASICs with high specificity and potency. These toxins are extremely useful in providing protein pharmacophores and to characterize function and structure of ASICs. Marine cone snails contain a high diversity of toxins in their venom such as conotoxins, which are short polypeptides stabilized by disulfide bonds, and conopeptides, which have no or only one disulfide bond...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391556/microtubule-targeting-agents-eribulin-and-paclitaxel-differentially-affect-neuronal-cell-bodies-in-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#10
Sarah J Benbow, Krystyna M Wozniak, Bridget Kulesh, April Savage, Barbara S Slusher, Bruce A Littlefield, Mary Ann Jordan, Leslie Wilson, Stuart C Feinstein
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of anticancer treatment with microtubule-targeted agents (MTAs). The frequency of severe CIPN, which can be dose limiting and even life threatening, varies widely among different MTAs. For example, paclitaxel induces a higher frequency of severe CIPN than does eribulin. Different MTAs also possess distinct mechanisms of microtubule-targeted action. Recently, we demonstrated that paclitaxel and eribulin differentially affect sciatic nerve axons, with paclitaxel inducing more pronounced neurodegenerative effects and eribulin inducing greater microtubule stabilizing biochemical effects...
April 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391554/translesion-synthesis-dna-polymerase-kappa-is-indispensable-for-dna-repair-synthesis-in-cisplatin-exposed-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#11
Ming Zhuo, Murat F Gorgun, Ella W Englander
In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in the absence of tight blood barrier, neurons are at increased risk of DNA damage, yet the question of how effectively PNS neurons manage DNA damage remains largely unanswered. Genotoxins in systemic circulation include chemotherapeutic drugs that reach peripheral neurons and damage their DNA. Because neurotoxicity of platinum-based class of chemotherapeutic drugs has been implicated in PNS neuropathies, we utilized an in vitro model of Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRGs) to investigate how peripheral neurons respond to cisplatin that forms intra- and interstrand crosslinks with their DNA...
April 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388364/piezo2-expression-in-mechanosensitive-dental-primary-afferent-neurons
#12
J Won, H Vang, P R Lee, Y H Kim, H W Kim, Y Kang, S B Oh
Mechanosensitive ion channels have been suggested to be expressed in dental primary afferent (DPA) neurons to transduce the movement of dentinal fluid since the proposal of hydrodynamic theory. Piezo2, a mechanosensitive, rapidly inactivating (RI) ion channel, has been recently identified in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to mediate tactile transduction. Here, we examined the expression of Piezo2 in DPA neurons by in situ hybridization, single-cell reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385191/stz-causes-depletion-of-immune-cells-in-sciatic-nerve-and-dorsal-root-ganglion-in-experimental-diabetes
#13
Asa S Hidmark, Peter P Nawroth, Thomas Fleming
Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment, a common model for inducing diabetes in rodent models, induces thermal hyperalgesia and neuronal toxicity independently of hyperglycemia by oxidizing and activating TRPA1 and TRPV1. Following treatment with STZ, CD45(+) immune cells were found to be depleted in sciatic nerve (SN) and DRG in mice, prior to hyperglycemia. Macrophages were also lost in DRG and NFκB-p65-activation was increased in SN macrophages. Immune cells were significantly reduced in both SN and DRG up to three weeks, post-treatment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381989/bioactive-fraction-of-annona-reticulata-bark-or-ziziphus-jujuba-root-bark-along-with-insulin-attenuates-painful-diabetic-neuropathy-through-inhibiting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-cascade
#14
Raghuram Kandimalla, Suvakanta Dash, Sanjeeb Kalita, Bhaswati Choudhury, Sandeep Malampati, Rajlakshmi Devi, Muthiah Ramanathan, Narayan C Talukdar, Jibon Kotoky
The present study explains the neuroprotective ability of bioactive fractions of Annona reticulata bark (ARB) and Ziziphus jujuba root bark (ZJ) along with insulin against diabetic neuropathy. By using different solvents of increasing polarity ARB and ZJ were undergone for bioactive guided fractionation. The neuroprotective ability of the all the plant fractions were tested against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and DRG neuronal cells. Among all the fractions tested, the methanol extract of ARB and ZJ (ARBME and ZJME) and its water fractions (ARBWF and ZJWF) exhibited significant neuroprotection against H2O2 induced toxicity in SHSY5Y cells and DRG neuronal cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377582/nociceptive-drg-neurons-express-muscle-lim-protein-upon-axonal-injury
#15
Evgeny Levin, Anastasia Andreadaki, Philipp Gobrecht, Frank Bosse, Dietmar Fischer
Muscle lim protein (MLP) has long been regarded as a cytosolic and nuclear muscular protein. Here, we show that MLP is also expressed in a subpopulation of adult rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in response to axonal injury, while the protein was not detectable in naïve cells. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis of L4/L5 DRG revealed ~3% of MLP-positive neurons 2 days after complete sciatic nerve crush and maximum ~10% after 4-14 days. Similarly, in mixed cultures from cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral DRG ~6% of neurons were MLP-positive after 2 days and maximal 17% after 3 days...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373151/neuroprotective-effect-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-a-rat-model-of-experimental-diabetic-neuropathy
#16
Rezvan Najafi, Asieh Hosseini, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ali M Sharifi
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathies are a nerve disorders that caused by diabetes. Neuropathy affects over 50 percent of diabetic patients. High blood glucose and their toxic byproducts are the main causes for nerve dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the neroprotective effects of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in diabetic rats. METHOD: Rats divided into four groups: control group, diabetic group, the diabetic group treated with CeO2 nanoparticle at a dose of 65mg/kg and diabetic group received CeO2 nanoparticle at a dose of 85mg/kg...
March 31, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360836/genetic-tracing-of-cav3-2-t-type-calcium-channel-expression-in-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#17
Yinth A Bernal Sierra, Julia Haseleu, Alexey Kozlenkov, Valérie Bégay, Gary R Lewin
Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Cav3.2 channel is predominantly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359950/whole-transcriptome-expression-of-trigeminal-ganglia-compared-to-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-rattus-norvegicus
#18
Lisette Johanna Antonia Kogelman, Rikke Elgaard Christensen, Sara Hougaard Pedersen, Marcelo Bertalan, Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Inger Jansen-Olesen, Jes Olesen
The trigeminal ganglia (TG) subserving the head and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) subserving the rest of the body are homologous handling sensory neurons. Differences exist, as a number of signaling substances cause headache but no pain in the rest of the body. To date, very few genes involved in this difference have been identified. We aim to reveal basal gene expression levels in TG and DRG and detect genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between TG and DRG. RNA-Sequencing from six naïve rats describes the whole transcriptome expression profiles of TG and DRG...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359290/suppression-of-myd88-dependent-signaling-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-the-rat
#19
Fan Liu, Zhiyao Wang, Yue Qiu, Min Wei, Chunyan Li, Yikuan Xie, Le Shen, Yuguang Huang, Chao Ma
BACKGROUND: MyD88 is the adaptor protein of MyD88-dependent signaling pathway of TLRs and IL-1 receptor and regulates innate immune response. However, it was not clear whether and how MyD88 and related signaling pathways in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn (SDH) are involved in neuropathic pain. METHODS: Chronic constriction injury (CCI) was used to induce neuropathic pain in the rat. The expression of MyD88, TRIF, IBA1, and GFAP was detected with immunofluorescent staining and Western blot...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349969/minoxidil-is-a-potential-neuroprotective-drug-for-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#20
Yi-Fan Chen, Li-Hsien Chen, Yu-Min Yeh, Pei-Ying Wu, Yih-Fung Chen, Lian-Yun Chang, Jang-Yang Chang, Meng-Ru Shen
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer treatment. No medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of CIPN. This study aims to integrate the image-based high-content screening, mouse behavior models and mechanistic cell-based assays to discover potential neuroprotective drugs. Among screened compounds, minoxidil showed the most potent neuroprotective effect against paclitaxel, with regard to neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Minoxidil protected mice from thermal insensitivity and alleviated mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated mice...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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