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Feeding and eating disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324652/food-addiction-and-binge-eating-lessons-learned-from-animal-models
#1
REVIEW
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302261/how-to-approach-feeding-difficulties-in-young-children
#2
REVIEW
Hye Ran Yang
Feeding is an interaction between a child and caregiver, and feeding difficulty is an umbrella term encompassing all feeding problems, regardless of etiology, severity, or consequences, while feeding disorder refers to an inability or refusal to eat sufficient quantities or variety of food to maintain adequate nutritional status, leading to substantial consequences, including malnutrition, impaired growth, and possible neurocognitive dysfunction. There are 6 representative feeding disorder subtypes in young children: infantile anorexia, sensory food aversion, reciprocity, posttraumatic type, state regulation, and feeding disorders associated with concurrent medical conditions...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262334/modulation-of-sf1-neuron-activity-coordinately-regulates-both-feeding-behavior-and-associated-emotional-states
#3
Paulius Viskaitis, Elaine E Irvine, Mark A Smith, Agharul I Choudhury, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Justyna A Glegola, Darran G Hardy, Silvia M A Pedroni, Maria R Paiva Pessoa, Anushka B P Fernando, Loukia Katsouri, Alessandro Sardini, Mark A Ungless, Graeme Milligan, Dominic J Withers
Feeding requires the integration of homeostatic drives with emotional states relevant to food procurement in potentially hostile environments. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates feeding and anxiety, but how these are controlled in a concerted manner remains unclear. Using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic, and calcium imaging approaches with a battery of behavioral assays, we demonstrate that VMH steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons constitute a nutritionally sensitive switch, modulating the competing motivations of feeding and avoidance of potentially dangerous environments...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261550/misaligned-feeding-may-aggravate-pain-by-disruption-of-sleep-awake-rhythm
#4
Fangxia Xu, Xin Zhao, Huan Liu, Xueming Shao, Shuaishuai Chu, Xiangdan Gong, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that patients with eating disorders are more likely to develop chronic pain. A misaligned diet has been reported to disrupt the sleep-awake rhythms. Combined with our previous investigation on circadian pain, we aimed to investigate the role of misaligned diet in the pain sensitivity and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Two-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were administered chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery to establish neuropathic pain models...
December 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208483/initial-validation-of-the-nine-item-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-screen-nias-a-measure-of-three-restrictive-eating-patterns
#5
Hana F Zickgraf, Jordan M Ellis
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors...
December 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198971/characteristics-of-feeding-tube-dependency-with-respect-to-food-aversive-behaviour-and-growth
#6
Markus Wilken, Peter Bartmann, Terence M Dovey, Soyhan Bagci
The use of feeding tubes in pediatric medical procedures and management has dramatically increased over the last three decades. With this increase, the prevalence of Feeding Tube Dependency (FTD) - a reliance on enteral feeding following medical recovery due to lack of oral intake of nutrition, despite being able to eat- has increased too. It has been suggested, that cases with FTD show avoidant feeding behaviours such as food refusal, gagging or swallowing resistance, but evidence for this hypothesis is scarce...
December 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134507/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-orthorexia-nervosa-in-a-sample-of-university-students-in-italy
#7
L Dell'Osso, Barbara Carpita, D Muti, I M Cremone, G Massimetti, E Diadema, C Gesi, C Carmassi
AIMS: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been recently defined as a pathological approach to feeding related to healthiness concerns and purity of food and/or feeding habits. This condition recently showed an increasing prevalence particularly among young adults. In order to investigate the prevalence of ON and its relationship with gender and nutritional style among young adults, we explored a sample of students from the University of Pisa, Italy. METHODS: Assessments included the ORTO-15 questionnaire and a socio-demographic and eating habits form...
November 13, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097161/a-behavioral-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-palatable-diet-alternation-in-mice
#8
Catherine F Moore, Gabrielle S Schlain, Samantha Mancino, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Obesity and eating disorders are widespread in Western societies. Both the increased availability of highly palatable foods and dieting are major risk factors contributing to the epidemic of disorders of feeding. The purpose of this study was to characterize an animal model of maladaptive feeding induced by intermittent access to a palatable diet alternation in mice. In this study, mice were either continuously provided with standard chow food (Chow/Chow), or provided with standard chow for 2days and a high-sucrose, palatable food for 1day (Chow/Palatable)...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091821/are-gastrointestinal-and-sleep-problems-associated-with-behavioral-symptoms-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Xiao-Lei Yang, Shuang Liang, Ming-Yang Zou, Cai-Hong Sun, Pan-Pan Han, Xi-Tao Jiang, Wei Xia, Li-Jie Wu
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from concurrent medical symptoms, including gastrointestinal (GI) and sleeping problems. However, there is limited information on the correlation between co-morbidities and autistic behavioral symptoms. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of GI and sleep problems in Chinese ASD children, examined the impacts of GI and sleep problems on autistic behavioral symptoms, and investigated the factors associated with GI and sleep problems. The survey included 169 ASD and 172 healthy children...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091129/feeding-difficulties-in-preschool-children-previous-feeding-practices-and-nutritional-status
#10
Hélcio de Sousa Maranhão, Renata Cunha de Aguiar, Débora Teixeira Jales de Lira, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo Sales, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento Nóbrega
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected"...
October 30, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068721/adjunctive-use-of-olanzapine-in-the-treatment-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-in-an-eating-disorders-program
#11
Timothy D Brewerton, Meredith D'Agostino
OBJECTIVE: There is little information about the pharmacological treatment of avoidant and restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), a challenging feeding disorder associated with marked impairment and developmental arrest. This brief clinical report seeks to fill this gap. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of nine patients with ARFID treated in an eating disorder (ED) program (residential, partial hospital, and intensive outpatient levels of care) with adjunctive olanzapine was undertaken...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052014/predictive-validity-of-a-service-setting-based-measure-to-identify-infancy-mental-health-problems-a-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Janni Ammitzbøll, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Bjørn E Holstein, Anette Andersen, Anne Mette Skovgaard
Measures to identify infancy mental health problems are essential to guide interventions and reduce the risk of developmental psychopathology in early years. We investigated a new service-setting-based measure the Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Screening (CIMHS) within the general child health surveillance by community health nurses (CHN). The study population of 2973 infants was assessed by CIMHS at age 9-10 months. A subsample of 416 children was examined at age 1½ years, using parent interviews including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1½-5), Check List of Autism and Toddlers (CHAT), Infant-Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSCL), and the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) and observations of behavior, communication, and interaction...
October 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049935/intranasal-oxytocin-in-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-randomized-controlled-trial-during-re-feeding
#13
Janice Russell, Sarah Maguire, Glenn E Hunt, Alice Kesby, Anastasia Suraev, Jordyn Stuart, Jessica Booth, Iain S McGregor
BACKGROUND: Nutritional rehabilitation in anorexia nervosa (AN) is impeded by fear of food, eating and change leading to treatment resistance. Oxytocin (OT) exerts prosocial effects and modulates trust, fear, anxiety and neuroplasticity. The current placebo-controlled RCT examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) in AN. The aim was to ascertain whether repeated doses of IN-OT enhance treatment outcomes in AN. METHODS: AN patients self-administered 36 IU IN-OT or placebo daily for 4-6 weeks during hospital treatment...
October 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994619/biological-evaluation-of-benzosuberones
#14
Haider Behbehani, Kamal M Dawood, Thoraya A Farghaly
Several natural products containing benzosuberone moiety are clinically reported as anti-tumor agents. Furthermore, several synthetic benzosuberones cited in this review exhibited wide range of theraputic activities such as bacteriostatic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressants and anti-tumor activities. Our recent review provides an overview of the different methods to synthesize the benzosuberones and their extensive biological activities. Areas covered: Thirty-two patents among 130 references are cited in this review that covered the recent inhibitory activities of the benzosuberone scaffolds and their broad area of biological applications up to the first quarter of 2017...
October 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991767/anorexia-anormal-phobia-of-normal-weight
#15
Nada Pop-Jordanova, Tatjana Zorcec, Aneta Demerdzieva
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder of feeding behavior associated with distortion of body image, mood disturbance and a wide variety of hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. It is supposed that the disease could be the consequence of a combination of cultural-social, psychological and biological factors. Our study confirmed that anorexia mentalis is a serious, life threatening disorder which in our country appears earlier than it was expected and that is strongly related to environmental factors (family, school, fashion, society)...
September 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955242/shortened-spadin-analogs-display-better-trek-1-inhibition-in-vivo-stability-and-antidepressant-activity
#16
Alaeddine Djillani, Mariel Pietri, Sébastien Moreno, Catherine Heurteaux, Jean Mazella, Marc Borsotto
Depression is a devastating mental disorder that affects 20% of the population worldwide. Despite their proven efficacy, antidepressants present a delayed onset of action and serious adverse effects. Seven years ago, we described spadin (PE 12-28) as a promising endogenous peptide with antidepressant activity. Spadin specifically blocks the TREK-1 channel. Previously, we showed in vivo that, spadin activity disappeared beyond 7 h after administration. In order to improve in vivo spadin stability and bioavailability, we screened spadin analogs and derivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955139/the-latent-class-structure-of-chinese-patients-with-eating-disorders-in-shanghai
#17
Yuchen Zheng, Qing Kang, Jiabin Huang, Wenhui Jiang, Qiang Liu, Han Chen, Qing Fan, Zhen Wang, Jue Chen, Zeping Xiao
BACKGROUND: Eating disorder is culture related, and the clinical symptoms are different between eastern and western patients. So the validity of feeding and eating disorders in the upcoming ICD-11 guide for Chinese patients is unclear. AIMS: To explore the latent class structure of Chinese patients with eating disorder and the cross-cultural validity of the eating disorder section of the new ICD-11 guide in China. METHODS: A total of 379 patients with eating disorders at Shanghai Mental Health Center were evaluated using the EDI questionnaire and a questionnaire developed by researchers from 2010 to 2016...
August 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951234/activity-based-anorexia-activates-nesfatin-1-immunoreactive-neurons-in-distinct-brain-nuclei-of-female-rats
#18
Sophie Scharner, Philip Prinz, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Reinhard Lommel, Peter Kobelt, Tobias Hofmann, Matthias Rose, Andreas Stengel
Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is an established animal model for the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). The pathophysiology of AN and the involvement of food intake-regulatory peptides is still poorly understood. Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide also involved in the mediation of stress, anxiety and depression might be a likely candidate involved in the pathogenesis of AN. Therefore, activation of nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (ir) brain nuclei was investigated under conditions of ABA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into four groups (n=6/group): activity-based anorexia (ABA), restricted feeding (RF), activity (AC) and ad libitum fed (AL)...
December 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948079/influence-of-tfap2b-and-kctd15-genetic-variability-on-personality-dimensions-in-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa
#19
Carmen Gamero-Villarroel, Luz M González, Raquel Rodríguez-López, David Albuquerque, Juan A Carrillo, Angustias García-Herráiz, Isalud Flores, Guillermo Gervasini
INTRODUCTION: TFAP2B and KCTD15 are obesity-related genes that interact to regulate feeding behavior. We hypothesize that variability in these loci, isolated or in combination, could also be related to the risk of eating disorders (ED) and/or associated psychological traits. METHODS: We screened 425 participants (169 ED patients, 75 obese subjects, and 181 controls) for 10 clinically relevant and tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCTD15 and TFAP2B by the Sequenom MassARRAY platform and direct sequencing...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946763/dissociation-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-meta-analysis-of-studies-using-the-dissociative-experiences-scale
#20
Lisa Lyssenko, Christian Schmahl, Laura Bockhacker, Ruben Vonderlin, Martin Bohus, Nikolaus Kleindienst
OBJECTIVE: Dissociation is a complex, ubiquitous construct in psychopathology. Symptoms of dissociation are present in a variety of mental disorders and have been connected to higher burden of illness and poorer treatment response, and not only in disorders with high levels of dissociation. This meta-analysis offers a systematic and evidence-based study of the prevalence and distribution of dissociation, as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale, within different categories of mental disorders, and it updates an earlier meta-analysis...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
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