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Feeding and eating disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228713/metabolic-and-cardiovascular-benefits-and-risks-of-emd386088-a-5-ht6-receptor-partial-agonist-and-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor
#1
Magdalena Kotańska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Marcin Kołaczkowski, Karolina Pytka
Since 5-HT6 receptors play role in controlling feeding and satiety and dopamine is essential for normal feeding behavior, we evaluated the ability of EMD 386088-5-HT6 receptor partial agonist and dopamine transporter inhibitor-to reduce body weight in obese rats, as well as its anorectic properties (calorie intake reduction) in rat model of excessive eating and the influence on metabolism (plasma glucose and glycerol levels). We also determined the effect of the studied compound on pica behavior in rats and its influence on blood pressure after single administration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215543/the-mediating-role-of-child-self-regulation-of-eating-in-the-relationship-between-parental-use-of-food-as-a-reward-and-child-emotional-overeating
#2
Elisabeth M Powell, Leslie A Frankel, Daphne Hernandez
Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating. Yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating...
February 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146472/gamma-oscillations-organize-top-down-signalling-to-hypothalamus-and-enable-food-seeking
#3
Marta Carus-Cadavieco, Maria Gorbati, Li Ye, Franziska Bender, Suzanne van der Veldt, Christin Kosse, Christoph Börgers, Soo Yeun Lee, Charu Ramakrishnan, Yubin Hu, Natalia Denisova, Franziska Ramm, Emmanouela Volitaki, Denis Burdakov, Karl Deisseroth, Alexey Ponomarenko, Tatiana Korotkova
Both humans and animals seek primary rewards in the environment, even when such rewards do not correspond to current physiological needs. An example of this is a dissociation between food-seeking behaviour and metabolic needs, a notoriously difficult-to-treat symptom of eating disorders. Feeding relies on distinct cell groups in the hypothalamus, the activity of which also changes in anticipation of feeding onset. The hypothalamus receives strong descending inputs from the lateral septum, which is connected, in turn, with cortical networks, but cognitive regulation of feeding-related behaviours is not yet understood...
February 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122125/development-of-a-new-statewide-eating-disorder-service-the-role-of-evidence-in-a-real-world-setting
#4
Tracey Wade, Eva Vall, Angeline Kuek, Emma Altman, Randall Long, John Mannion
OBJECTIVE: There are three aims of this report. First, to describe how research evidence informed a service development rationale for a new statewide eating disorder service (SEDS) for people aged 15 years and older. Second, to examine the profile of people accessing SEDS in the first 2 years of its operation with respect to the three broad dimensions: illness stage, illness severity, and previous history of treatment. Finally, to examine which patient characteristics resulted in the recommendation of ongoing treatment contact with SEDS...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094121/mealtime-behavior-among-parents-and-their-young-children-with-food-allergy
#5
Linda Jones Herbert, Priya Mehta, Hemant Sharma
BACKGROUND: Food allergies are increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. Balancing allergen avoidance with the promotion of healthy eating behaviors can be challenging for families. OBJECTIVE: To characterize mealtime behaviors among parents of young children with food allergy. METHODS: Seventy-four parents of young children with food allergies (≤7 years of age) completed measures of mealtime behavior, perceptions of food allergy risk and severity, pediatric parenting stress, and food allergy-related quality of life...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078576/feeding-problems-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-and-without-autism-a-comparative-study
#6
Prahbhjot Malhi, Lolam Venkatesh, Bhavneet Bharti, Pratibha Singhi
OBJECTIVE: To compare parent reported feeding difficulties and nutritional adequacy of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to an age and socio-economically matched group of typically developing children. METHODS: The scores on Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI), three-day food records, anthropometric measures and adequacy of micro- and macro- nutrients were compared for 63 children diagnosed with ASD and 50 typically developing children enrolled from the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital from North India...
January 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054099/feeding-modulatory-effects-of-mu-opioids-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-review-of-recent-findings-and-comparison-to-opioid-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#7
REVIEW
Ryan A Selleck, Brian A Baldo
RATIONALE: Whereas reward-modulatory opioid actions have been intensively studied in subcortical sites such as the nucleus accumbens (Acb), the role of cortical opioid transmission has received comparatively little attention. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe recent findings on the motivational actions of opioids in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), emphasizing studies of food motivation and ingestion. PFC-based opioid effects will be compared/contrasted to those elicited from the Acb, to glean possible common functional principles...
January 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053702/outcomes-of-an-inpatient-refeeding-protocol-in-youth-with-anorexia-nervosa-rady-children-s-hospital-san-diego-university-of-california-san-diego
#8
Tamara R Maginot, Maya M Kumar, Jacqueline Shiels, Walter Kaye, Kyung E Rhee
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for nutritional rehabilitation in hospitalized restrictive eating disorder patients recommend a cautious approach to refeeding. Several studies suggest that higher calorie diets may be safe and effective, but have traditionally excluded severely malnourished patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of a higher calorie nutritional rehabilitation protocol (NRP) in a broad sample of inpatients with restrictive eating disorders, including those who were severely malnourished...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018696/alagille-syndrome-a-case-report-highlighting-dysmorphic-facies-chronic-illness-and-depression
#9
James J Bresnahan, Zachary A Winthrop, Rabia Salman, Salman Majeed
Alagille syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder affecting the liver, heart, vertebrae, eyes, and face. Alagille syndrome shares multiple phenotypic variants of other congenital or chronic childhood illnesses such as DiGeorge syndrome, Down syndrome, spina bifida, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis. All of these chronic illnesses have well-established links to psychiatric conditions. There are few community resources for Alagille patients, as it is an extremely rare condition. Despite the overlap with other chronic childhood illnesses, the psychiatric manifestations of Alagille syndrome have not been previously discussed in literature...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013169/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-in-a-japanese-sample
#10
Yoshikatsu Nakai, Kazuko Nin, Shun'ichi Noma, Seiji Hamagaki, Ryuro Takagi, Satoshi Teramukai, Stephen A Wonderlich
We conducted a study of the clinical presentation and outcome in patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), aged 15-40years, and compared this group to an anorexia nervosa (AN) group in a Japanese sample. A retrospective chart review was completed on 245 patients with feeding and eating disorders (FEDs), analyzing prevalence, clinical presentation, psychopathological properties, and outcomes. Using the DSM-5 criteria, 27 (11.0%) out of the 245 patients with a FED met the criteria for ARFID at entry...
December 21, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011401/the-role-of-reward-circuitry-and-food-addiction-in-the-obesity-epidemic-an-update
#11
Sarah-Jane Leigh, Margaret J Morris
The increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity is partially related to the ready availability of highly palatable foods which increases the incidence of hedonic, non-homeostatic feeding. The "food addiction" hypothesis postulates that exposure to these foods alters the brain's reward circuitry, driving an addiction-like behavioural phenotype of compulsive overeating. This review highlights recent evidence that examines changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic circuit, the primary component of the reward system, associated with exposure to highly palatable foods and obesity...
December 21, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998722/intermittent-access-to-a-nutritionally-complete-high-fat-diet-attenuates-alcohol-drinking-in-rats
#12
Sunil Sirohi, Arriel Van Cleef, Jon F Davis
Binge eating disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur in the presence of other psychiatric conditions. Data suggest that binge eating engages similar behavioral and neurochemical processes common to AUD, which might contribute to the etiology or maintenance of alcoholism. However, it is unclear how binge feeding behavior and alcohol intake interact to promote initiation or maintenance of AUD. We investigated the impact of binge-like feeding on alcohol intake and anxiety-like behavior in male Long Evans rats...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984048/hypothalamic-expression-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-an-animal-model-of-binge-eating
#13
Silvia Alboni, Maria Vittoria Micioni di Bonaventura, Cristina Benatti, Maria Elena Giusepponi, Nicoletta Brunello, Carlo Cifani
Binge eating episodes are characterized by uncontrollable, distressing eating of a large amount of highly palatable food and represent a central feature of bingeing related eating disorders. Research suggests that inflammation plays a role in the onset and maintenance of eating-related maladaptive behavior. Markers of inflammation can be selectively altered in discrete brain region where they can directly or indirectly regulate food intake. In the present study we measured expression levels of different components of cytokine systems (IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α and IFN-ɣ) and related molecules (iNOS and COX2) in the preoptic and anterior-tuberal parts of the hypothalamus of a validated animal model of binge eating...
October 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979627/sex-differences-in-response-to-activity-based-anorexia-model-in-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Najate Achamrah, Séverine Nobis, Alexis Goichon, Jonathan Breton, Romain Legrand, Jean Luc do Rego, Jean Claude do Rego, Pierre Déchelotte, Sergueï O Fetissov, Liliana Belmonte, Moïse Coëffier
Anorexia nervosa is a severe eating disorder often associated with physical hyperactivity and is more frequently observed in female sex. Activity-Based Anorexia (ABA) model combines physical activity (PA) and reduced food intake and thus allows a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa. We aimed to assess sex differences in response to ABA model in C57Bl/6 mice. Twenty four male and 16 female C57BL/6 mice were studied. ABA mice were placed in individual cages with a continuously recorded activity wheel...
December 12, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979049/medical-management-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-expert%C3%A2-review-from-the-clinical-practice-updates-committee-of%C3%A2-the-aga-institute
#15
Mack C Mitchell, Lawrence S Friedman, Craig J McClain
The purpose of this clinical practice update is to review diagnostic criteria for severe acute alcoholic hepatitis and to determine the current best practices for this life-threatening condition. The best practices in this review are based on clinical trials, systematic reviews including meta-analysis and expert opinion to develop an approach to diagnosis and management. Best Practice Advice 1: Abstinence from drinking alcohol is the cornerstone of treatment for alcohol hepatitis (AH). Best Practice Advice 2: Patients with jaundice and suspected AH should have cultures of blood, urine, and ascites, if present, to determine the presence of bacterial infections regardless of whether they have fever...
January 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922596/pathological-overeating-emerging-evidence-for-a-compulsivity-construct
#16
REVIEW
Catherine F Moore, Valentina Sabino, George F Koob, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behavior is a transdiagnostic construct that is characteristic of medical and psychiatric conditions such as forms of obesity and eating disorders. While feeding research is moving towards a better understanding of the proposed addictive properties of food, the components and the mechanisms contributing to compulsive eating are not yet clearly defined or understood. Current understanding highlights three elements of compulsive behavior as it applies to pathological overeating: 1) habitual overeating; 2) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state; and 3) overeating despite aversive consequences...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918948/adult-autism-subthreshold-spectrum-adas-spectrum-validation-of-a-questionnaire-investigating-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#17
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
November 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911750/homeostasis-meets-motivation-in-the-battle-to-control-food-intake
#18
Carrie R Ferrario, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Shuai Liu, Edward H Nieh, Vanessa H Routh, Shengjin Xu, Eoin C O'Connor
Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence distinct components of motivated feeding behavior...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904991/eat-up%C3%A2-family-centered-feeding-intervention-to-promote-food-acceptance-and-decrease-challenging-behaviors-a-single-case-experimental-design-replicated-across-three-families-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Joanna Cosbey, Deirdre Muldoon
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-centered feeding intervention, Easing Anxiety Together with Understanding and Perseverance (EAT-UP™), for promoting food acceptance of children with autism spectrum disorder at home. A concurrent multiple-baseline design was used with systematic replication across three families. Baseline was followed by an 'Intervention-Coaching' phase and then an 'Intervention-Independent' phase. Using direct observation and pre- and post-intervention questionnaires, data on acceptance of less preferred foods and challenging mealtime behaviors were collected...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889494/maternal-history-of-eating-disorders-diet-quality-during-pregnancy-and-infant-feeding
#20
Anh N Nguyen, Lisanne M de Barse, Henning Tiemeier, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Pauline W Jansen, Trudy Voortman
We studied associations of maternal history of eating disorders (EDs) with diet quality of pregnant women and their infants, and breastfeeding practices. We included 6196 mother-child pairs from Generation R, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Maternal history of lifetime EDs was assessed during pregnancy with a questionnaire. Dietary intake during pregnancy and in infancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires and diet quality scores were calculated, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines...
February 1, 2017: Appetite
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