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Feeding and eating disorders

Andrea B Goldschmidt, Ross D Crosby, Li Cao, Markus Moessner, Kelsie T Forbush, Erin C Accurso, Daniel Le Grange
Classifying eating disorders in youth is challenging in light of developmental considerations and high rates of diagnostic migration. Understanding the transactional relationships among eating disorder symptoms, both across the transdiagnostic spectrum and within specific diagnostic categories, may clarify which core eating disorder symptoms contribute to, and maintain, eating-related psychopathology in youth. We utilized network analysis to investigate interrelationships among eating disorder symptoms in 636 treatment-seeking children and adolescents (90...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Oda Bjørklund, Jay Belsky, Lars Wichstrøm, Silje Steinsbekk
Children's eating behavior influences energy intake and thus weight through choices of type and amount of food. One type of eating behavior, food responsiveness, defined as eating in response to external cues such as the sight and smell of food, is particularly related to increased caloric intake and weight. Because little is known about the potential determinants of such behavior, we focus herein on child and parent predictors of food responsiveness in a large community sample of Norwegian 6-year-olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10...
March 8, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Josué O Suárez-Ortiz, Felipe Cortés-Salazar, Ariadna L Malagón-Carrillo, Verónica E López-Alonso, Juan M Mancilla-Díaz, Juan G Tejas-Juárez, Rodrigo E Escartín-Pérez
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joanne L Gusella, Anna G Campbell, Kristin Lalji
Family-based treatment (FBT) has emerged as a promising approach for medically stable youth with anorexia nervosa (AN). While there is evidence that therapists embrace the core principles of FBT, most face barriers in implementing the model with fidelity. Little research has been conducted to determine whether adhering to the core methods of placing parents in charge are sufficient in restoring weight in youth with AN. This study involved a chart review of youth under 16 years of age, treated by a Canadian tertiary care health centre-based eating disorders team (EDT)...
August 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Song Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Stacy M Ku, Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Nikos Tzavaras, Sarah Montgomery, Georgia E Hodes, Anna Brancato, Scott J Russo, Jun-Li Cao, Ming-Hu Han
Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder. However, fewer studies in rodent models of depression have used female animals, leading to a relative lack of understanding of the female brain's response to stress, especially at a neural circuit level. In this study, we utilized a 6-day subchronic variable stress (SCVS) mouse model and measured novelty suppressed feeding as behavioral criteria to evaluate susceptibility to SCVS in male and female mice. First, we showed that SCVS induced a decrease in latency to eat (susceptible phenotype) in female mice, but not in males (resilient phenotype)...
February 22, 2018: Neuroscience
S E Chuprina, O V Nebogina, N A Zhigulskaya
Eating disorders in stroke patients are always accompanied by structural and functional changes in the body, which leads to violations of adaptive reserves and trophic homeostasis. It is known that trophic homeostasis, together with optimal oxygen supply, forms the basis of the vital activity of the organism and is a necessary condition for overcoming of many pathological conditions. Insufficient nutrition leads to a slower recovery of patients, increases the risk of complications, predicts prolonged hospital stay, increases mortality...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Valentina Satta, Maria Scherma, Fabiana Piscitelli, Paolo Usai, M Paola Castelli, Tiziana Bisogno, Walter Fratta, Paola Fadda
Emerging evidence suggest an impaired endocannabinoid activity in the pathophysiology of binge eating disorder (BED). Herein, we investigated whether endocannabinoid tone could be modified as a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating in female rats. For this purpose, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), as well as two endocannabinoid-like lipids, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), were assessed in different brain areas involved in the hedonic feeding (i...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Guillermo Gervasini, Luz M González, Carmen Gamero-Villarroel, Sonia Mota-Zamorano, Juan Antonio Carrillo, Isalud Flores, Angustias Garcia-Herráiz
Among the many candidate genes analyzed in eating disorder (ED) patients, those involved in dopaminergic functions may be of special relevance, as dopamine is known to play a significant role in feeding behavior, the distortion of body image, hyperactivity and reward and reinforcement processes. We aimed to determine the effect of functional polymorphisms and haplotypes in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) gene on general psychopathological symptoms in ED patients. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three ED patients [199 with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and 74 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN)] completed the SCL-90R inventory and were genotyped for four functional, clinically relevant DRD4 polymorphisms: three variants in the promoter region [120-bp tandem repeat (TR, long vs...
February 15, 2018: Gene
Anna Capasso, Walter Milano, Omar Cauli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Eating Disorder (ED) is characterized by persistently and severely disturbed eating behaviours. They arise from a combination of long-standing behavioural, emotional, psychological, interpersonal, and social factors and result in insufficient nutrient ingestion and/or adsorption. The three main EDs are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We review the role of peripheral endocannabinoids in eating behaviour. DISCUSSION: The neuronal pathways involved in feeding behaviours are closely related to catecholaminergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic systems...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Grace A Kennedy, Madeline R Wick, Pamela K Keel
Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a current diagnosis in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition) and captures a heterogeneous presentation of eating disturbances. In recent years, ARFID has been studied primarily within the context of eating disorders despite having historical roots as a feeding disorder. The following review examines ARFID's similarities with and differences from feeding disorders and eating disorders, focusing on research published within the last three years...
2018: F1000Research
Deirdre Muldoon, Joanna Cosbey
Purpose: This research note outlines the usefulness of Easing Anxiety Together with Understanding and Perseverance (EAT-UP), a train-the-trainer, family-centered feeding intervention, for promoting food acceptance of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This report is a follow-up on a pilot study (n = 4) of the EAT-UP intervention previously completed by the same authors. Method: Participants were 3 families of children with ASD receiving services from an outpatient department of a larger rehabilitation hospital in the northeastern United States...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Jordan M Ellis, Rebecca R Schenk, Amy T Galloway, Hana F Zickgraf, Rose Mary Webb, Denise M Martz
OBJECTIVE: Adult picky eating (PE) has received increased attention in the eating behavior literature due to its important association with adult avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study tested a model of potential risk factors of adult PE behavior, including perceived early parental feeding practices. An exploratory model was also utilized to understand associations with different aspects of adult PE behaviors. METHODS: A sample of 1339 US adults recruited through Amazon's MTurk completed an online survey that included the recently developed Adult Picky Eating Questionnaire (APEQ), retrospective reports of parental feeding practices, and other measures of eating behavior and demographic variables...
January 26, 2018: Appetite
Ramush Bejiqi, Ragip Retkoceri, Hana Bejiqi, Arlinda Maloku, Armend Vuçiterna, Naim Zeka, Abdurrahim Gerguri, Rinor Bejiqi
BACKGROUND: A feeding disorder in infancy and during childhood is a complex condition involving different symptoms such as food refusal and faddiest, both leading to a decreased food intake. AIM: We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictor factors of feeding difficulties in children who underwent cardiac open heart surgery in neonatal period and infancy. We address selected nutritional and caloric requirements for children after cardiac surgery and explore nutritional interdependence with other system functions...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Catherine F Moore, Julia I Panciera, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive eating behaviour is a transdiagnostic construct observed in certain forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as in the proposed construct of 'food addiction'. Compulsive eating can be conceptualized as comprising three elements: (i) habitual overeating, (ii) overeating to relieve a negative emotional state, and (iii) overeating despite adverse consequences. Neurobiological processes that include maladaptive habit formation, the emergence of a negative affect, and dysfunctions in inhibitory control are thought to drive the development and persistence of compulsive eating behaviour...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Marta G Novelle, Carlos Diéguez
The feeding process is required for basic life, influenced by environment cues and tightly regulated according to demands of the internal milieu by regulatory brain circuits. Although eating behaviour cannot be considered "addictive" under normal circumstances, people can become "addicted" to this behaviour, similarly to how some people are addicted to drugs. The symptoms, cravings and causes of "eating addiction" are remarkably similar to those experienced by drug addicts, and both drug-seeking behaviour as eating addiction share the same neural pathways...
January 11, 2018: Nutrients
Hye Ran Yang
Feeding is an interaction between a child and caregiver, and feeding difficulty is an umbrella term encompassing all feeding problems, regardless of etiology, severity, or consequences, while feeding disorder refers to an inability or refusal to eat sufficient quantities or variety of food to maintain adequate nutritional status, leading to substantial consequences, including malnutrition, impaired growth, and possible neurocognitive dysfunction. There are 6 representative feeding disorder subtypes in young children: infantile anorexia, sensory food aversion, reciprocity, posttraumatic type, state regulation, and feeding disorders associated with concurrent medical conditions...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Paulius Viskaitis, Elaine E Irvine, Mark A Smith, Agharul I Choudhury, Elisa Alvarez-Curto, Justyna A Glegola, Darran G Hardy, Silvia M A Pedroni, Maria R Paiva Pessoa, Anushka B P Fernando, Loukia Katsouri, Alessandro Sardini, Mark A Ungless, Graeme Milligan, Dominic J Withers
Feeding requires the integration of homeostatic drives with emotional states relevant to food procurement in potentially hostile environments. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates feeding and anxiety, but how these are controlled in a concerted manner remains unclear. Using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic, and calcium imaging approaches with a battery of behavioral assays, we demonstrate that VMH steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons constitute a nutritionally sensitive switch, modulating the competing motivations of feeding and avoidance of potentially dangerous environments...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
Fangxia Xu, Xin Zhao, Huan Liu, Xueming Shao, Shuaishuai Chu, Xiangdan Gong, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that patients with eating disorders are more likely to develop chronic pain. A misaligned diet has been reported to disrupt the sleep-awake rhythms. Combined with our previous investigation on circadian pain, we aimed to investigate the role of misaligned diet in the pain sensitivity and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Two-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were administered chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery to establish neuropathic pain models...
December 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hana F Zickgraf, Jordan M Ellis
Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating or feeding disorder characterized by inadequate nutritional or caloric intake leading to weight loss, nutritional deficiency, supplement dependence, and/or significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 lists three different eating patterns that can lead to symptoms of ARFID: avoidance of foods due to their sensory properties (e.g., picky eating), poor appetite or limited interest in eating, or fear of negative consequences from eating. Research on the prevalence and psychopathology of ARFID is limited by the lack of validated instruments to measure these eating behaviors...
April 1, 2018: Appetite
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