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autoimmune liver diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070199/performance-and-utility-of-transient-elastography-and-non-invasive-markers-of-liver-fiibrosis-in-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-single-centre-experience
#1
Olympia E Anastasiou, Matthias Büchter, Hideo A Baba, Johannes Korth, Ali Canbay, Guido Gerken, Alisan Kahraman
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a relatively rare cause of hepatic dysfunction, which can lead to acute liver failure (ALV) and cirrhosis if not treated. The performance of transient elastography (TE) compared to liver biopsy has been evaluated in many liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of TE and other non-invasive markers for liver fiibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven AIH. METHODS: Fifty-three patients who were treated at the department of gastroenterology and hepatology of the University Clinic Essen from 2008 to 2013 included in this retrospective study...
November 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070198/clinical-course-and-genetic-susceptibility-of-primary-biliary-cirrhosis-analysis-of-a-prospective-cohort
#2
Piero Luigi Almasio, Anna Licata, Marcello Maida, Fabio Salvatore Macaluso, Andrea Costantino, Nicola Alessi, Stefania Grimaudo, Giulia Accardi, Calogero Caruso, Antonio Craxi
BACKGROUND: Natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is partially characterized in patients from the Mediterranean area whose genetic background differs from that of Northern Europeans. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe genetic susceptibility and clinical course of PBC in patients from Southern Italy. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical, biochemical and histological data at diagnosis as well as disease progression of 81 PBC consecutive patients were collected...
November 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065940/cd24-aggravates-acute-liver-injury-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-by-promoting-ifn-%C3%AE-production-by-cd4-t-cells
#3
Chenhong Zheng, Shulei Yin, Yang Yang, Yizhi Yu, Xiaohua Xie
The T-cell-mediated immune response is implicated in many clinical hepatic injuries, such as autoimmune hepatitis and acute virus hepatitis. CD24 is widely expressed by different immune cells and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. However, the role of CD24 in T-cell-mediated liver injury has not been elucidated until now. Here we showed that CD24 deficiency protects mice from concanavalin A (ConA)-induced fulminant liver injury by reducing serum interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels...
January 9, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058210/biology-of-chronic-graft-vs-host-disease-immune-mechanisms-and-progress-in-biomarker-discovery
#4
REVIEW
Richard B Presland
Chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) is the leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It presents as a chronic inflammatory and sclerotic autoimmune-like condition that most frequently affects the skin, oral mucosa, liver, eyes and gastrointestinal tract. Both clinical and animal studies have shown that multiple T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper cells and regulatory T-cells play some role in cGVHD development and progression; B cells also play an important role in the disease including the production of antibodies to HY and nuclear antigens that can cause serious tissue damage...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052464/thymoma-associated-multi-organ-autoimmunity-two-cases-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
K Shiba, Y Fujita, H Miyazawa, K Muramatsu, M Watanabe, M Nishimura, S Shinkuma, T Nomura, W Nishie, J Taguchi, I Kinoshita, H Shimizu
Thymoma-associated multi-organ autoimmunity (TAMA) is defined as a disease of the liver, intestine, and skin, which histopathologically resembles graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).(1,2) Several sporadic cases imply that cutaneous manifestations of TAMA are associated with a poor prognosis.(2-5) However, it is difficult to examine the association because of the rarity of the disease. Herein we describe two cases of TAMA with cutaneous lesions and fatal courses, and review the literature with a focus on the prognosis...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051806/%C3%A2-acute-hepatitis-e-mimicking-a-flare-of-disease-in-a-patient-with-chronic-autoimmune-hepatitis
#6
Giorgio Calisti, Dianne N Irish, Samreen Ijaz, Richard S Tedder, Kevin Moore
 Acute hepatitis E is becoming increasingly recognised in Europe with up to 40% of the population in Southern France being exposed to the virus, which is harboured in pigs. Patients with known liver disease may present with acute hepatitis E and present a diagnostic challenge. For example patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) who are immunosuppressed and contract hepatitis E may be at increased risk of developing chronicity due to concurrent immunosuppression. Importantly, the diagnosis may be missed with the infection misdiagnosed as an autoimmune flare, and immunosuppression increased by the attending physician, thus enhancing the risk of chronicity of infection leading to progressive liver injury in immunocompromised patients...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051792/-u-u-%C3%A2-management-strategies-for-liver-fibrosis
#7
Alejandra Altamirano-Barrera, Beatriz Barranco-Fragoso, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
 Liver fibrosis resulting from chronic liver injury are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among causes of hepatic fibrosis, viral infection is most common (hepatitis B and C). In addition, obesity rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of liver injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Also liver fibrosis is associated with the consumption of alcohol, or autoimmune hepatitis and chronic cholangiophaties. The response of hepatocytes to inflammation plays a decisive role in the physiopathology of hepatic fibrosis, which involves the recruitment of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cells such as monocytes and macrophages...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049044/lymphocytes-contribute-to-biliary-injury-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-xenobiotic-induced-cholestasis
#8
Nikita Joshi, Anna K Kopec, Holly Cline-Fedewa, James P Luyendyk
The etiology of chronic bile duct injury and fibrosis in patients with autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases is complex, and likely involves immune cells such as lymphocytes. However, most models of biliary fibrosis are not autoimmune in nature. Biliary fibrosis can be induced experimentally by prolonged exposure of mice to the bile duct toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). We determined whether lymphocytes contributed to ANIT-mediated biliary hyperplasia and fibrosis in mice. Hepatic accumulation of T-lymphocytes and increased serum levels of anti-nuclear-autoantibodies were evident in wild-type mice exposed to ANIT (0...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043581/common-features-of-tuberculosis-and-sarcoidosis
#9
Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Atefeh Abedini, Soheila Matroodi, Arda Kiani, Dina Soroush, Ian M Adcock
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the availability of novel therapeutic approaches, TB is considered as one of the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against M. tuberculosis; they ingest and sequester the bacilli within granulomatous structures. Control and resolution of the infection requires activated T lymphocytes as well as Th1 cytokines. There are two forms of TB: active TB and latent TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040558/complement-in-autoimmune-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Madhubala Sharma, Surjit Singh
The complement system is an ancient and evolutionary conserved element of the innate immune mechanism. It comprises of more than 20 serum proteins most of which are synthesized in the liver. These proteins are synthesized as inactive precursor proteins which are activated by appropriate stimuli. The activated forms of these proteins act as proteases and cleave other components successively in amplification pathways leading to exponential generation of final effectors. Three major pathways of complement pathways have been described, namely the classical, alternative and lectin pathways which are activated by different stimuli...
December 28, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035084/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulators-and-drug-discovery
#11
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Park, Dong-Soon Im
Initial discovery on sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as an intracellular second messenger was faced unexpectedly with roles of S1P as a first messenger, which subsequently resulted in cloning of its G protein-coupled receptors, S1P₁₋₅. The molecular identification of S1P receptors opened up a new avenue for pathophysiological research on this lipid mediator. Cellular and molecular in vitro studies and in vivo studies on gene deficient mice have elucidated cellular signaling pathways and the pathophysiological meanings of S1P receptors...
January 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011280/risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-chronic-liver-diseases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Yuga Komaki, Fukiko Komaki, Dejan Micic, Akio Ido, Atsushi Sakuraba
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in various chronic liver diseases compared with the general population remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the risk of CRC in patients with chronic liver diseases before and after liver transplantation. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies assessing the risk of CRC in patients with chronic liver diseases. The primary outcome was the pooled risk of CRC among studies that reported the risk as standardized incidence rate (SIR)...
December 20, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005031/-follow-up-of-patients-with-ixodes-tick-borne-borrelioses-caused-by-borrelia-miyamotoi-or-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato
#13
L I Bagautdinova, A E Platonov, D S Sarksyan, O V Stukolova, G A Shipulin, V V Maleev, M V Dudarev
: Ixodes tick-borne borrelioses (ITBB) are caused by two different spirochetes: Borrelia from the group of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agents of the classic Lyme borreliosis (LB), and Borrelia miyamotoi that belongs to the group of Borrelia causing tick-borne relapsing fevers. ITBB caused by B. miyamotoi (BM-ITBB) is a previously unknown infectious disease discovered in Russia. It is known that the LB sequelae may reduce the long-term life guality of convalescents. AIM: To study the follow-up of those who have recovered from new BM-ITBB infection in comparison with persons who have had LB...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003721/primary-biliary-cholangitis-disease-pathogenesis-and-implications-for-established-and-novel-therapeutics
#14
REVIEW
Amitkumar Patel, Anil Seetharam
Primary Biliary Cholangitis is a progressive, autoimmune cholestatic liver disorder. Cholestasis with disease progression may lead to dyslipidemia, osteodystrophy and fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. Portal hypertension may develop prior to advanced stages of fibrosis. Untreated disease may lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer and need for orthotopic liver transplantation. Classically, diagnosis is made with elevation of alkaline phosphatase, demonstration of circulating antimitochondrial antibody, and if performed: asymmetric destruction/nonsupperative cholangitis of intralobular bile ducts on biopsy...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002731/cholesterol-accumulation-in-cd11c-immune-cells-is-a-causal-and-targetable-factor-in-autoimmune-disease
#15
Ayaka Ito, Cynthia Hong, Kazuhiro Oka, Jon V Salazar, Cody Diehl, Joseph L Witztum, Mercedes Diaz, Antonio Castrillo, Steven J Bensinger, Lawrence Chan, Peter Tontonoz
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are regulators of cholesterol metabolism that also modulate immune responses. Inactivation of LXR α and β in mice leads to autoimmunity; however, how the regulation of cholesterol metabolism contributes to autoimmunity is unclear. Here we found that cholesterol loading of CD11c(+) cells triggered the development of autoimmunity, whereas preventing excess lipid accumulation by promoting cholesterol efflux was therapeutic. LXRβ-deficient mice crossed to the hyperlipidemic ApoE-deficient background or challenged with a high-cholesterol diet developed autoantibodies...
December 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002308/clinical-updates-in-women-s-health-care-summary-liver-disease-reproductive-considerations
#16
(no author information available yet)
All women are at risk of acute and chronic liver diseases. Of particular importance are those diseases that exclusively affect pregnant women and have adverse effects on maternal, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. Acute viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver disease in pregnant women, and hepatitis E infection is associated with substantial mortality. An increasing number of women have chronic liver diseases caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, and genetic liver diseases...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999888/imaging-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-overlap-syndromes
#17
Neera Malik, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon, chronic inflammatory, and relapsing liver disease of unknown origin that may lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, or death. AIH occurs in all age groups and races but can frequently manifest as acute fulminant hepatitis. Clinical presentation of AIH can have features similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and these diseases may coexist leading to overlap syndromes. Although histological diagnosis is necessary, imaging features often can demonstrate characteristics that may be helpful to distinguish these diseases...
December 20, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997975/primary-biliary-cirrhosis-and-the-microbiome
#18
Eamonn M M Quigley
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a rather uncommon, slowly progressive, cholestatic liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged women. Apart from the changes in the gut microbiome that have been described in liver disease in general, little is known of the composition of the microbiome in primary biliary cirrhosis. Nevertheless, epidemiological, clinical, and some experimental evidence points to the possible role of a bacterium (or bacteria) in the initiation of the autoimmune process that leads to the development of this unique clinical phenotype...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996360/liver-transplantation-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-young-adults-a-united-network-for-organ-sharing-study
#19
Stefanie M Thomas, Diana Moke, Rocio Lopez, Rabi Hanna, Mohammad Nasser Kabbany, Naim Alkhouri
PURPOSE: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is typically a disease of older adults (OAs); therefore, characteristics and outcomes of OLT for young adults (YAs) (ages 18-40) are not described. The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of YAs with HCC receiving OLT and compare these to OAs (ages >40 years). METHODS: YAs with HCC who had OLT from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database were included in this study...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995906/acg-clinical-guideline-evaluation-of-abnormal-liver-chemistries
#20
Paul Y Kwo, Stanley M Cohen, Joseph K Lim
Clinicians are required to assess abnormal liver chemistries on a daily basis. The most common liver chemistries ordered are serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. These tests should be termed liver chemistries or liver tests. Hepatocellular injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of AST and ALT levels compared with alkaline phosphatase levels. Cholestatic injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of alkaline phosphatase level as compared with AST and ALT levels...
January 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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