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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642760/interleukin-6-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-its-possible-importance-for-immunoregulation-and-as-a-therapeutic-target
#1
REVIEW
Tor Henrik Anderson Tvedt, Elisabeth Ersvaer, Anders Aune Tveita, Øystein Bruserud
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of treatment-related mortality mainly caused by infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD is characterized by severe immune dysregulation and impaired regeneration of different tissues, i.e., epithelial barriers and the liver. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine influences the risk of GVHD. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that previously has been associated with pro-inflammatory effects. However, more recent evidence from various autoimmune diseases (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640790/microrna-155-deficiency-in-kupffer-cells-ameliorates-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#2
Yakun Li, Dongxia Ma, Zhimin Wang, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is known to be involved in autoimmune diseases, inflammation, and transplantation. However, its role in a warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Partial hepatic IR was performed in wild-type and miR-155-deficient mice treated with or without GdCl3, and then the serum transaminase concentration and histology were analyzed. Kupffer cells (KCs) were isolated from the liver after IR, and immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate activation and polarization...
July 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638223/clinical-significance-of-changes-in-the-th17-treg-ratio-in-autoimmune-liver-disease
#3
Ting-Ting Feng, Ting Zou, Xin Wang, Wei-Feng Zhao, Ai-Lan Qin
AIM: To investigate the levels, ratios, and clinical significance of T helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells in the peripheral blood of patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD). METHODS: Forty-two AILD patients were included in the experimental group (group E), and 11 healthy subjects were recruited as the control group (group C). Flow cytometry was performed to determine the percentages of Th17 and Treg cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes...
June 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631887/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-is-expressed-in-human-corneal-stromal-cells-and-secreted-upon-protease-activated-receptor-1-activation
#4
Hongbo Yin, Yan Tian, Rongying Luo, Yingping Deng
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7 (IL-7) like cytokine that triggers inflammatory responses through activating dendritic cell. It is demonstrated to be involved in a number of disorders, including cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In addition, TSLP is also found to be able to induce itch sensation by directly activating the itch sensory neurons. The expression of human TSLP is detected in various tissues such as heart, liver, testis, and prostate. In this study, we report that TSLP was expressed in the human corneal stromal cells, the highly specialized cells that are critical for the function of the cornea...
June 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631096/a-case-of-nivolumab-related-cholangitis-and-literature-review-how-to-look-for-the-right-tools-for-a-correct-diagnosis-of-this-rare-immune-related-adverse-event
#5
Francesco Gelsomino, Giovanni Vitale, Andrea Ardizzoni
Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, used for the treatment of several tumors, can trigger effector T-cells against tumor- and self-antigens, leading to the occurrence of different immune-related adverse events. Among them, liver injuries are rare and usually transient. To date, only four cases of immune-related cholangitis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients have been described during nivolumab treatment. Here, we describe laboratory tests, imaging and liver biopsy features that confirm this diagnosis as opposed to other forms of autoimmune liver disease; nevertheless, we also provide evidence of the presence of different clinical-pathological patterns of immune-related cholangitis...
June 20, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630652/verification-of-b-lymphocyte-activating-factor-s-involvement-in-the-exacerbation-of-insulin-resistance-as-well-as-an-autoimmune-response-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-patients-with-hcv-related-chronic-liver-disease
#6
Takashi Himoto, Koji Fujita, Takako Nomura, Joji Tani, Asahiro Morishita, Hirohito Yoneyama, Reiji Haba, Tsutomu Masaki
BACKGROUND: Ten to forty percent of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HCV-related chronic liver disease (CLD-C) patients have antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). However, the relationship between autoimmune response and insulin resistance remains uncertain among those patients. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not ANA status was associated with the development of insulin resistance and obesity in NASH and CLD-C patients. METHODS: Degrees of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis were evaluated by the classification proposed by Brunt et al...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627935/interactions-between-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-implications-in-the-adult-liver-transplant-setting
#7
Ken Liu, Simone I Strasser, David J Koorey, Rupert W Leong, Michael Solomon, Geoffrey W McCaughan
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease which is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in most cases. As there is currently no medical therapy which alters the natural history of PSC, liver transplantation may be required. Areas covered: We searched for articles in PubMed and critically reviewed current literature on the interrelationship between PSC and IBD with a specific focus on considerations for patients in the liver transplant setting. Expert commentary: PSC is an uncommon disease which limits available studies to be either retrospective or contain relatively small numbers of patients...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626376/successful-treatment-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-autoimmune-hepatitis-overlap-syndrome-due-to-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir
#8
Ayumi Sugiura, Shuichi Wada, Hiromitsu Mori, Takefumi Kimura, Yoshiaki Matsuda, Naoki Tanaka, Eiji Tanaka, Kendo Kiyosawa
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may induce autoimmune diseases and chronic hepatitis C is sometimes accompanied by autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, we are worried about the treatment for chronic hepatitis C-AIH overlap syndrome because interferon-based antiviral therapies may enhance autoimmunity and immunosuppressive corticosteroid administration may promote viral replication. Here, we report a patient having chronic hepatitis C-AIH overlap syndrome treated with the direct-acting antivirals (DAA), daclatasvir and asunaprevir...
May 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617032/intraductal-papillary-neoplasia-of-the-bile-duct-with-malignancy-a-differentiated-entity-of-cholangiocarcinoma-with-a-better-prognosis-a-review-of-three-new-cases
#9
Baltasar Pérez Saborido, Martín Bailón Cuadrado, Mario Rodríguez López, Enrique Asensio Díaz, Beatriz Madrigal Rubiales, Asterio Barrera Rebollo
INTRODUCTION: Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct have been recognized as a differentiated entity to other biliary tumors since 2001. They are characterized by intraductal growth, with or without mucus production, and have malignant potential, although they have a better prognosis than other types of cholangiocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January 2010 to August 2015, we included three patients with a confirmed diagnosis of bile duct intraductal papillary neoplasia with malignancy that were treated at our center...
June 15, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614231/incidence-prevalence-and-natural-history-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
Huifang Liang, Sudhakar Manne, Jesse Shick, Trevor Lissoos, Paul Dolin
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare obliterative fibrotic condition of the bile ducts. We assessed PSC epidemiology and natural history within the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD).Incidence and natural history of PSC were evaluated in a retrospective cohort study using linkage of CPRD, Hospital Episode Statistics, and Office for National Statistics data. Data from age, sex, and general practice-matched population controls provided a context for the incident PSC patients. Liver disease other than PSC was defined as autoimmune hepatitis, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, liver failure, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, cholangiocarcinoma, or hepatobiliary cancer...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614198/the-almost-normal-liver-biopsy-presentation-clinical-associations-and-outcome
#11
Thomas W Czeczok, John S Van Arnam, Laura D Wood, Michael S Torbenson, Taofic Mounajjed
Liver biopsies obtained for abnormal liver enzymes or unexplained ascites occasionally appear histologically almost normal. The differential diagnosis for these cases is challenging because literature addressing this topic is lacking. We aimed to establish a differential diagnosis and determine clinical associations and outcomes for almost-normal liver biopsies. Ninety-seven histologically almost-normal liver biopsies were collected from 2 institutions. All cases lacked significant inflammation, fatty change, biliary tract disease, vascular disease, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, iron overload, inherited metabolic or storage disorder, viral hepatitis, or fibrosis...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612749/liver-biopsy-in-chronic-liver-diseases-is-there-a-favorable-benefit-risk-balance
#12
Dominique Larrey, Lucy Meunier, José Ursic-Bedoya
Liver biopsy is still useful in selected clinical situations in which it is the only tool to obtain information necessary for the diagnosis, the prognosis, and the decision for treatment. Main examples are viral hepatitis with confounding co-morbidities, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases.
August 1, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608637/regulatory-t-cell-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Gavin P Whitehouse, Andrew Hope, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo
Modern immunosuppression drug regimens have produced excellent short term survival after liver transplantation but it is generally accepted that the side effects of these medications remain a significant contributing factor for less satisfactory long term outcomes. The liver has unique tolerogenic properties as evidenced by the higher rates of operational tolerance seen in liver transplant recipients compared to other solid organ transplants and therefore liver transplantation offers an attractive setting in which to study tolerising therapies...
June 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603052/efficacy-and-safety-of-mycophenolate-mofetil-and-tacrolimus-as-second-line-therapy-for-patients-with-autoimmune-hepatitis
#14
Cumali Efe, Hannes Hagström, Henriette Ytting, Rahima A Bhanji, Niklas F Müller, Qixia Wang, Tugrul Purnak, Luigi Muratori, Mårten Werner, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Paolo Muratori, Fulya Gunşar, Daniel Klintman, Albert Parés, Alexandra Heurgué-Berlot, Thomas D Schiano, Mustafa Cengiz, Michele May-Sien Tana, Xiong Ma, Aldo J Montano-Loza, Thomas Berg, Sumita Verma, Fin Stolze Larsen, Ersan Ozaslan, Michael A Heneghan, Eric M Yoshida, Staffan Wahlin
BACKGROUND: Predniso(lo)ne, alone or in combination with azathioprine, is the standard of care (SOC) therapy for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, the SOC therapy is poorly tolerated or does not control disease activity in up to 20% of patients. We assessed the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus as second-line therapy for patients with AIH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of data (from 19 centres in Europe, the United States, Canada, and China) from 201 patients with AIH who received second-line therapy (121 received MMF and 80 received tacrolimus), for a median of 62 months (range, 6-190 months)...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601049/silymarin-livergol%C3%A2-decreases-disease-activity-score-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-non-randomized-single-arm-clinical-trial
#15
Mehrdad Shavandi, Ali Moini, Yadollah Shakiba, Ahamad Mashkorinia, Milad Dehghani, Shirin Asar, Amir Kiani
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which can lead to joint destruction and disability. Pannus formation due to chronic synovitis is the hallmark of RA. Oxidative stress as a consequence of immune cell activation and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs can prevent inflammation and tissue destruction. Silymarin, an antioxidant extract from Silybum marianum, has been traditionally used for the treatment of liver diseases for decades. In the present non-randomized single-arm clinical trial (NRSACT) study we evaluated the effects of silymarin tablet (Livergol®) on inflammatory markers in stable RA patients...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600202/pathophysiology-of-liver-fibrosis-and-the-methodological-barriers-to-the-development-of-anti-fibrogenic-agents
#16
Katrin Böttcher, Massimo Pinzani
Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis resulting from long-standing liver damage represents a major health care burden worldwide. To date, there is no anti-fibrogenic agent available, making liver transplantation the only curative treatment for decompensated cirrhotic liver disease. Liver fibrosis can result from different underlying chronic liver disease, such as chronic viral infection, excessive alcohol consumption, fatty liver disease or autoimmune liver diseases. It is becoming increasingly recognised that as a result from different pathogenic mechanisms liver fibrosis must be considered as many different diseases for which individual treatment strategies need to be developed...
June 6, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597951/treg-conditioning-endows-activated-teff-with-suppressor-function-in-autoimmune-hepatitis-autoimmune-sclerosing-cholangitis
#17
Rodrigo Liberal, Charlotte R Grant, Muhammed Yuksel, Jonathon Graham, Alireza Kalbasi, Yun Ma, Michael A Heneghan, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Maria Serena Longhi
Imbalance between T regulatory (Treg) and T effector (Teff) cells is likely to contribute to induction and perpetuation of liver damage in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (AISC) either through inability of Tregs to restrain proliferation and effector cytokine production by responders or through conversion of Tregs into T helper type 1 (Th1) or type 17 (Th17) effector lymphocytes. We investigated the effect of Treg skewing on the phenotypic and functional properties of CD4(+) CD127(+) CD25(high) cells, an activated subset of Teff, in 32 patients with AIH, 20 with AISC and in 36 healthy subjects (HS)...
June 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597552/branched-chain-%C3%AE-ketoacid-dehydrogenase-kinase-111-130-a-t-cell-epitope-that-induces-both-autoimmune-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-in-a-j-mice
#18
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Guobin Kang, Qingsheng Li, Francisco A Uzal, Jennifer L Strande, Gustavo A Delhon, Jean-Jack Riethoven, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
INTRODUCTION: Organ-specific autoimmune diseases are believed to result from immune responses generated against self-antigens specific to each organ. However, when such responses target antigens expressed promiscuously in multiple tissues, then the immune-mediated damage may be wide spread. METHODS: In this report, we describe a mitochondrial protein, branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDk ) that can act as a target autoantigen in the development of autoimmune inflammatory reactions in both heart and liver...
June 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597108/prevalence-of-histological-features-of-idiopathic-noncirrhotic-portal-hypertension-in-general-population-a-retrospective-study-of-incidental-liver-biopsies
#19
Chunlai Zuo, Vaibhav Chumbalkar, Peter F Ells, Daniel J Bonville, Hwajeong Lee
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is associated with histologic changes secondary to obliterative portal venopathy without cirrhosis. We studied the prevalence of individual histological features of INCPH in liver biopsies obtained incidentally during unrelated elective procedures and in elective liver biopsies with the diagnosis of fatty liver disease. METHODS: A total of 53 incidental liver biopsies obtained intraoperatively during unrelated elective procedures and an additional 28 elective biopsies with the diagnosis of fatty liver disease without portal hypertension and cirrhosis were studied...
June 8, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596110/crosstalk-between-type-ii-nkt-cells-and-t-cells-leads-to-spontaneous-chronic-inflammatory-liver-disease
#20
Xiufang Weng, Ying He, Lavanya Visvabharathy, Chia-Min Liao, Xiaosheng Tan, Arjun Balakumar, Chyung-Ru Wang
BACKGROUND & AIM: NKT cells are CD1d-restricted innate-like T cells that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike the well-characterized invariant/type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells with a diverse TCR repertoire are poorly understood. This study defines the pathogenic role of type II NKT cells in the etiology of chronic liver inflammation. METHODS: Transgenic mice with the Lck promoter directing CD1d overexpression on T cells in Jα18 wild-type (Lck-CD1dTgJα18(+); type I NKT cell sufficient) and Jα18-deficient (Lck-CD1dTgJα18(o), type I NKT cell deficient) mice were analyzed for liver pathology and crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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