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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092919/compensatory-water-effects-link-yearly-global-land-co2-sink-changes-to-temperature
#1
Martin Jung, Markus Reichstein, Christopher R Schwalm, Chris Huntingford, Stephen Sitch, Anders Ahlström, Almut Arneth, Gustau Camps-Valls, Philippe Ciais, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fabian Gans, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K Jain, Etsushi Kato, Dario Papale, Ben Poulter, Botond Raduly, Christian Rödenbeck, Gianluca Tramontana, Nicolas Viovy, Ying-Ping Wang, Ulrich Weber, Sönke Zaehle, Ning Zeng
Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data and process-based models to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089924/water-juice-or-soda-mothers-and-grandmothers-of-preschoolers-discuss-the-acceptability-and-accessibility-of-beverages
#2
Karin Eli, Agneta Hörnell, Mahnoush Etminan Malek, Paulina Nowicka
Intake of sugary beverages is strongly associated with weight gain and obesity among children; however, differences between mothers' and grandmothers' attitudes and practices concerning young children's beverage consumption remain unclear. This is notable since about a quarter of families in the US and the UK rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare. The aim of this study is to examine mothers' and maternal grandmothers' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding preschool-age children's beverage consumption...
January 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089681/steatorrhea-and-hyperoxaluria-in-severely-obese-patients-before-and-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#3
Amber M Moreland, Carol A Santa Ana, John R Asplin, Joseph A Kuhn, Ross P Holmes, Jason A Cole, Elizabeth A Odstrcil, Thomas G Van Dinter, Juan G Martinez, John S Fordtran
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxaluria after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is generally attributed to fat malabsorption. If hyperoxaluria is indeed caused by fat malabsorption, magnitudes of hyperoxaluria and steatorrhea should correlate. Severely obese patients, prior to bypass, ingest excess dietary fat, which can produce hyperphagic steatorrhea. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether urine oxalate excretion correlates with elements of fat balance in severely obese patients before and after RYGB...
January 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088413/short-communication-associations-between-feed-push-up-frequency-feeding-and-lying-behavior-and-milk-yield-and-composition-of-dairy-cows
#4
E K Miller-Cushon, T J DeVries
Feeding management factors have great potential to influence activity patterns and feeding behavior of dairy cows, which may have implications for performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of feed push-up frequency on the behavioral patterns of dairy cows, and to determine associations between behavior and milk yield and composition. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 28, parity = 1.9 ± 1.1; mean ± SD) were housed in tiestalls, milked twice per day, and offered ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration (containing, on a dry matter basis: 25% corn silage, 25% grass/alfalfa haylage, 30% high-moisture corn, and 20% protein/mineral supplement), provided twice per day...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087147/immune-responses-to-in-ovo-vaccine-formulations-containing-inactivated-fowl-adenovirus-8b-with-poly-di-sodium-carboxylatoethylphenoxy-phosphazene-pcep-and-avian-beta-defensin-as-adjuvants-in-chickens
#5
Mishal Sarfraz, Muhammed Suleman, Suresh K Tikoo, Colette Wheler, Andrew A Potter, Volker Gerdts, Arshud Dar
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major viral infections causing substantial economic loss to the global poultry industry. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of mortality (2-30%) and high morbidity (60-70%). IBH is caused by a number of serotypes of fowl adenovirus with substantially low levels of serotype cross protection. Thus far, there is no effective and safe vaccine commercially available in the North America for the control of IBH in chickens. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) is a high molecular weight, biodegradable water soluble polymer that has been well characterized as a safe and effective adjuvant for a number of experimental veterinary vaccines...
January 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079705/prescribed-drinking-leads-to-better-cycling-performance-than-ad-libitum-drinking
#6
Costas N Bardis, Stavros A Kavouras, J D Adams, Nickos D Geladas, Demosthenis B Panagiotakos, Labros S Sidossis
: Drinking ad libitum during exercise often leads to dehydration ranging from -1 to -3% of body weight. PURPOSE: To study the effect of a prescribed hydration protocol matching fluid losses on a simulated 30-km criterium-like cycling performance in the heat (31.6±0.5 °C). METHOD: Ten elite, heat-acclimatized, male endurance cyclists (30±5 y, 76.5±7.2 kg, 1.81±0.07 m, VO2peak: 61.3±5.2 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]min[BULLET OPERATOR]kg, body fat: 10...
January 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079355/self-assembled-architectures-of-alkynylplatinum-ii-amphiphiles-and-their-structural-optimization-a-balance-of-the-interplay-among-pt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-pt-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-and-hydrophobic-hydrophobic-interactions
#7
Heidi Li-Ki Fu, Charlotte Po, Sammual Yu-Lut Leung, Vivian Wing-Wah Yam
A series of alkynylplatinum(II) terpyridine complexes with triethylene glycol units was synthesized, and their self-assembly properties were investigated in solution by UV-vis absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The aggregation behaviors of several water-soluble complexes were investigated in aqueous media. Some of them were found to give rise to uniform fibers, suggesting the important role that triethylene glycol units has in regulating their self-assembly properties. Further modifications of these structures through the incorporation of alkyl chains and changes in counter-anions have rendered the complexes more amphiphilic in nature, and the effect of their alkyl chain lengths was studied and optimized...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078649/acidogenic-digestion-of-pre-pulping-extracts-for-production-of-fuels-and-bioproducts-via-carboxylate-platform-processing
#8
Rakhi Baddam, G Peter van Walsum
Hemicellulose extracted from wood prior to processing the wood into paper or composite materials can be a resource for the production of biofuels or bioproducts. Mixed microbial cultures are capable of converting biomass into mixed carboxylic acids, which can be purified as products or converted to biofuels or other biochemicals. Mixed cultures are robust conversion systems and do not require added enzymes to hydrolyze biomass to sugars. We produced mixed carboxylic acids using mesophilic and thermophilic fermentation of raw, unconditioned green liquor and hot water hardwood extracts, as well as baseline sugar solutions...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078522/long-term-impact-of-reduced-tillage-on-water-and-pesticide-flow-in-a-drained-context
#9
R Dairon, A Dutertre, J Tournebize, J Marks-Perreau, N Carluer
Influence of more than 20 years (1988-2010) of reduced tillage (RT) practices on water and pesticide balances and dynamics is analyzed and compared to results from a conventional tillage plot (CT). The field study soils are described as silty clay stagnic luvisol, developed on a low permeable schist layer. A drainage network was set up according to French criteria (0.9 m deep, 10 m space) to avoid soil winter waterlogging. Climate is temperate oceanic and drainage generally occurs from November to March...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078240/effect-of-methanol-leaf-extract-of-dalbergia-saxatilis-hook-f-fabaceae-on-renal-function
#10
Fatima Ismail Hassan, Zezi Abdulkadir Umar, Danmalam Umar Habib, Yaro Abdullahi Hamza
OBJECTIVE: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075118/uranyl-peroxide-cage-cluster-solubility-in-water-and-the-role-of-the-electrical-double-layer
#11
Kathryn M Peruski, Varinia Bernales, Mateusz Dembowski, Haylie L Lobeck, Kristi L Pellegrini, Ginger E Sigmon, Sarah Hickam, Christine M Wallace, Jennifer E S Szymanowski, Enrica Balboni, Laura Gagliardi, Peter C Burns
Uranium concentrations as high as 2.94 × 10(5) parts per million (1.82 mol of U/1 kg of H2O) occur in water containing nanoscale uranyl cage clusters. The anionic cage clusters, with diameters of 1.5-2.5 nm, are charge-balanced by encapsulated cations, as well as cations within their electrical double layer in solution. The concentration of uranium in these systems is impacted by the countercations (K, Li, Na), and molecular dynamics simulations have predicted their distributions in selected cases. Formation of uranyl cages prevents hydrolysis reactions that would result in formation of insoluble uranyl solids under alkaline conditions, and these spherical clusters reach concentrations that require close packing in solution...
January 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073473/how-rising-co2-and-global-warming-may-stimulate-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms
#12
REVIEW
Petra M Visser, Jolanda M H Verspagen, Giovanni Sandrini, Lucas J Stal, Hans C P Matthijs, Timothy W Davis, Hans W Paerl, Jef Huisman
Climate change is likely to stimulate the development of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic waters, with negative consequences for water quality of many lakes, reservoirs and brackish ecosystems across the globe. In addition to effects of temperature and eutrophication, recent research has shed new light on the possible implications of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Depletion of dissolved CO2 by dense cyanobacterial blooms creates a concentration gradient across the air-water interface. A steeper gradient at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations will lead to a greater influx of CO2, which can be intercepted by surface-dwelling blooms, thus intensifying cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic waters...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073440/climate-variability-and-dinophysis-acuta-blooms-in-an-upwelling-system
#13
Patricio A Díaz, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Yolanda Pazos, Teresa Moita, Beatriz Reguera
Dinophysis acuta is a frequent seasonal lipophilic toxin producer in European Atlantic coastal waters associated with thermal stratification. In the Galician Rías, populations of D. acuta with their epicentre located off Aveiro (northern Portugal), typically co-occur with and follow those of Dinophysis acuminata during the upwelling transition (early autumn) as a result of longshore transport. During hotter than average summers, D. acuta blooms also occur in August in the Rías, when they replace D. acuminata...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072458/liana-effects-on-biomass-dynamics-strengthen-during-secondary-forest-succession
#14
Hao Ran Lai, Jefferson S Hall, Benjamin L Turner, Michiel van Breugel
Secondary forests are important carbon sinks, but their biomass dynamics vary markedly within and across landscapes. The biotic and abiotic drivers of this variation are still not well understood. We tested the effects of soil resource availability and competition by lianas on the biomass dynamics of young secondary tropical forests in Panama and assessed the extent to which liana effects were mediated by soil resource availability. Over a five year period, growth, mortality, and recruitment of woody plants of ≥1 cm diameter were monitored in 84 plots in 3-30 y-old secondary forests across the Agua Salud site in central Panama...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070286/influence-of-hydrological-pathways-on-dissolved-organic-carbon-fluxes-in-tropical-streams
#15
Eline Nayara Dantas da Costa, Jéssica Carneiro de Souza, Marilane Andrade Pereira, Marcelo Friederichs Landim de Souza, Weber Friederichs Landim de Souza, Daniela Mariano Lopes da Silva
Water flow pathways and water balance are fundamental components for understanding the dynamics of C in the soil/water interface of small basins. The objective of this study was to describe the seasonal variations and estimate the annual balance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by comparing two tropical microbasins (preserved forest-PF and cacao plantation-CP). Twenty-one weekly collections were conducted from September to December 2012 and from April to June 2013. The calculation of the partial balance considered precipitation (P) as inflow and the stream as outflow...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069223/sustained-release-formulations-of-citronella-oil-nanoemulsion-using-cavitational-techniques
#16
Naveen Agrawal, Ganesh L Maddikeri, Aniruddha B Pandit
Nanoemulsion synthesis has proven to be an effective way for transportation of immobile, insoluble bioactive compounds. Citronella Oil (lemongrass oil), a natural plant extract, can be used as a mosquito repellent and has less harmful effects compared to its available market counterpart DEET (N, N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Nanoemulsion of citronella oil in water was prepared using cavitation-assisted techniques while investigating the effect of system parameters like HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance), surfactant concentration, input energy density and mode of power input on emulsion quality...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068476/phosphorus-fate-and-dynamics-in-greywater-biofiltration-systems
#17
Harsha S Fowdar, Belinda E Hatt, Tom Cresswell, Jennifer J Harrison, Perran Louis Miall Cook, Ana Deletic
Phosphorus, a critical environmental pollutant, is effectively removed from stormwater by biofiltration systems, mainly via sedimentation and straining. However, the fate of dissolved inflow phosphorus concentrations in these systems is unknown. Given the growing interest in using biofiltration systems to treat other polluted waters, for example greywater, such an understanding is imperative to optimise designs for successful long-term performance. A mass balance method and a radiotracer, 32P (as H3PO4), were used to investigate the partitioning of phosphorus (concentrations of 2...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068101/supramolecular-big-bang-in-single-ionic-surfactant-water-system-driven-by-electrostatic-repulsions-from-vesicles-to-micelles
#18
Loïc Leclercq, Pierre Bauduin, Véronique Nardello-Rataj
In aqueous solution, dimethyl-di-n-octylammonium chloride, [DiC8][Cl], forms spontaneously dimers at low concentrations (1-10 mM) in order to decrease the hydrophobic/water contact. Dimers represent ideal building blocks for the abrupt edification of vesicles at 10 mM. These vesicles are fully characterized by dynamic and static light scattering, self-diffusion NMR and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy. An increase in concentration leads to electrostatic repulsions between vesicles which explode into small micelles at 30 mM...
January 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067242/submesoscale-transition-from-geostrophic-flows-to-internal-waves-in-the-northwestern-pacific-upper-ocean
#19
Bo Qiu, Toshiya Nakano, Shuiming Chen, Patrice Klein
With radar interferometry, the next-generation Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission will improve the measured sea surface height resolution down to 15 km, allowing us to investigate for the first time the global upper ocean variability at the submesoscale range. Here, by analysing shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements along 137°E in the northwest Pacific of 2004-2016, we show that the observed upper ocean velocities are comprised of balanced geostrophic flows and unbalanced internal waves...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066913/dialysate-sodium-rationale-for-evolution-over-time
#20
Jennifer E Flythe, Finnian R Mc Causland
Oligo-anuric individuals receiving hemodialysis (HD) are dependent on the dialysis machine to regulate sodium and water balance. Interest in adjusting the dialysate sodium concentration to promote tolerance of the HD procedure dates back to the early years of dialysis therapy. Evolution of dialysis equipment technologies and clinical characteristics of the dialysis population have prompted clinicians to increase the dialysate sodium concentration over time. Higher dialysate sodium concentrations generally promote hemodynamic stabilization and reduce intradialytic symptoms but often do so at the expense of stimulating thirst and promoting volume expansion...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
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