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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319767/potential-for-thermochemical-conversion-of-biomass-residues-from-the-integrated-sugar-ethanol-process-fate-of-ash-and-ash-forming-elements
#1
Meheretu Jaleta Dirbeba, Anders Brink, Nikolai DeMartini, Maria Zevenhoven, Mikko Hupa
In this work, potential for thermochemical conversion of biomass residues from an integrated sugar-ethanol process and the fate of ash and ash-forming elements in the process are presented. Ash, ash-forming elements, and energy flows in the process were determined using mass balances and analyses of eight different biomass samples for ash contents, elemental compositions, and heating values. The results show that the ash content increases from the sugarcane to the final residue, vinasse. The cane straw, which is left in the field, contains one-third of the energy and 25% of the K and Cl while the vinasse contains 2% of the energy and 40% of the K and Cl in the cane...
March 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316054/the-effect-of-fluid-intake-following-dehydration-on-subsequent-athletic-and-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: The deleterious effects of dehydration on athletic and cognitive performance have been well documented. As such, dehydrated individuals are advised to consume fluid in volumes equivalent to 1.25 to 1.5 L kg(-1) body mass (BM) lost to restore body water content. However, individuals undertaking subsequent activity may have limited time to consume fluid. Within this context, the impact of fluid intake practices is unclear. This systematic review investigated the effect of fluid consumption following a period of dehydration on subsequent athletic and cognitive performance...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314642/hypotensive-effects-of-renal-denervation-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-based-on-ultrasonic-contrast-imaging
#3
Ke Li, Jinwen Tian, Yuxiao Zhang, Qiao Xue, Caiyi Lu
BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerves-fire rate is generally enhanced in some types of hypertension models. Renal sympathetic denervation(RSD) by the radiofrequency ablation was used to treat the hypertension has achieved curative effect.HTN-1 and HTN-2 trial reported catheter-based renal denervation may cause substantial and sustained blood-pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension. However, recent controlled HTN-3 trial questioned the BP lowering effect of Renal denervation treatment...
February 9, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303719/pentanuclear-lanthanide-mono-organophosphates-synthesis-structure-and-magnetism
#4
Sandeep K Gupta, Stuart K Langley, Kamna Sharma, Keith S Murray, Ramaswamy Murugavel
Research on rare-earth phosphates has recently received substantial interest because of their unique physical and chemical properties. In recent years, because of their low solubility, research interest has been built on developing methodologies to prepare nanostructures and grow single crystals of inorganic rare-earth phosphates. The chemistry of rare-earth organophosphates, however, is still at a latent stage. Contrary to the traditional hydrothermal route, we report rare examples of discrete pentanuclear lanthanide(III) organophosphate clusters assembled from a sterically encumbered monoester of phosphoric acid under mild reaction conditions...
March 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303369/clinical-aspects-of-changes-in-water-and-sodium-homeostasis-in-the-elderly
#5
REVIEW
Christian A Koch, Tibor Fulop
The population of elderly individuals is increasing worldwide. With aging, various hormonal and kidney changes occur, both affecting water homeostasis. Aging is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and many features of CKD are reproduced in the aging kidney. Dehydration and hyperosmolarity can be triggered by diminished thirst perception in this population. Elderly with dementia are especially susceptible to abnormalities of their electrolyte and body water homeostasis and should be (re-)assessed for polypharmacy...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303198/impacts-of-leaf-age-and-heat-stress-duration-on-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-and-foliar-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-coffea-arabica
#6
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, Christopher Still
Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica. Treated plants were heated in a growth chamber at 49°C for 45 or 90 min. Physiological recovery was monitored in situ using gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence (the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, FV/FM), and leaf nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mature and expanding leaves before and 2, 15, 25, and 50 days after treatment...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301482/forest-biomass-density-across-large-climate-gradients-in-northern-south-america-is-related-to-water-availability-but-not-with-temperature
#7
Esteban Álvarez-Dávila, Luis Cayuela, Sebastián González-Caro, Ana M Aldana, Pablo R Stevenson, Oliver Phillips, Álvaro Cogollo, Maria C Peñuela, Patricio von Hildebrand, Eliana Jiménez, Omar Melo, Ana Catalina Londoño-Vega, Irina Mendoza, Oswaldo Velásquez, Fernando Fernández, Marcela Serna, Cesar Velázquez-Rua, Doris Benítez, José M Rey-Benayas
Understanding and predicting the likely response of ecosystems to climate change are crucial challenges for ecology and for conservation biology. Nowhere is this challenge greater than in the tropics as these forests store more than half the total atmospheric carbon stock in their biomass. Biomass is determined by the balance between biomass inputs (i.e., growth) and outputs (mortality). We can expect therefore that conditions that favor high growth rates, such as abundant water supply, warmth, and nutrient-rich soils will tend to correlate with high biomass stocks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299839/effect-of-cation-anion-balance-in-feed-on-urine-ph-in-rabbits-in-comparison-with-other-species
#8
F Heer, B Dobenecker, E Kienzle
In the present investigation, the impact of diet composition on urine pH in rabbits was compared with previous studies on rabbits, cats, dogs, pigs and horses. A total of 13 dwarf rabbits were fed six different diets with a cation-anion balance (CAB) between -39 and +320 mmol/kg dry matter (DM) using ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl) as an acidifier. CAB was calculated as follows: CAB (mmol/kg DM) = 49.9*Ca + 82.3*Mg +43.5*Na + 25.6*K - 59*P - 62.4*S - 28.2*Cl; minerals in g/kg DM. Urine, faeces and blood were collected...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#9
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294264/iron-cobalt-bimetal-oxide-nanorods-as-efficient-and-robust-water-oxidation-catalysts
#10
Xichen Zhou, Jingwei Huang, Fuming Zhang, Yukun Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yong Ding
Cobalt-based oxides are considered as potential water oxidation catalysts for future artificial photosynthetic systems because of their high abundance, strong stability and efficient performance. Herein, a series of cobalt-based oxides, MnCo3-nO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) samples, were synthesized through changing the metal sources by a low-temperature coprecipitation method. These catalysts were investigated under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation conditions. And they all exhibited efficient activity for water oxidation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions under visible light irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290590/the-ca-2-atpase-pump-facilitates-bidirectional-proton-transport-across-the-sarco-endoplasmic-reticulum
#11
L Michel Espinoza-Fonseca
Ca(2+) transport across the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays an essential role in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, signalling, cell differentiation and muscle contractility. During SR Ca(2+) uptake and release, proton fluxes are required to balance the charge deficit generated by the exchange of Ca(2+) and other ions across the SR. During Ca(2+) uptake by the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), two protons are countertransported from the SR lumen to the cytosol, thus partially compensating for the charge moved by Ca(2+) transport...
March 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290316/food-losses-shelf-life-extension-and-environmental-impact-of-a-packaged-cheesecake-a-life-cycle-assessment
#12
Michele Mario Gutierrez, Marta Meleddu, Antonio Piga
Packaging is associated with a high environmental impact. This is also the case in the food industry despite packaging being necessary for maintaining food quality, safety assurance and preventing food waste. The aim of the present study was to identify improvements in food packaging solutions able to minimize environmental externalities while maximizing the economic sustainability. To this end, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was applied to evaluate the environmental performance of new packaging solutions...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288420/molecular-characteristics-of-water-extractable-organic-matter-from-different-composted-biomasses-and-their-effects-on-seed-germination-and-early-growth-of-maize
#13
Hiarhi Monda, Vincenza Cozzolino, Giovanni Vinci, Riccardo Spaccini, Alessandro Piccolo
Four water extractable organic matter (WEOM) were obtained from composts made out of residues of: 1. artichoke (C-CYN), 2. artichoke/fennel (C-CYNF), 3. tomato/woodchips (C-TOM), 4. Municipal solid waste (C-MSW), and their bioactivity was tested for maize seed germination and maize seedling growth. The molecular properties of both original composts and their WEOM were characterized by spectroscopic ((13)C-CPMAS- and (1)H NMR, FTIR-ATR), thermochemolysis-GC/MS, and thermal methods (TGA, DSC). While all WEOM had significant effects on plant growth, CYN-WEOM was the only material that concomitantly increased germination rate and primary and lateral root length of maize seedlings...
March 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287716/biocide-runoff-from-building-facades-degradation-kinetics-in-soil
#14
Ulla Elisabeth Bollmann, David Fernández-Calviño, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Morten Swayne Storgaard, Hans Sanderson, Kai Bester
Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted runoff water (up to several mg L(-1) biocides) being infiltrated into the soil surrounding houses. In the present study the degradation rates in soil of eleven biocides used for the protection of building materials were determined in laboratory microcosms...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287648/monitoring-and-modeling-the-tibetan-plateau-s-climate-system-and-its-impact-on-east-asia
#15
Yaoming Ma, Weiqiang Ma, Lei Zhong, Zeyong Hu, Maoshan Li, Zhikun Zhu, Cunbo Han, Binbin Wang, Xin Liu
The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the "Third Pole" of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate patterns, the Asian monsoon process and atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere. However, little systematic knowledge is available regarding the changing climate system of the Tibetan Plateau and the mechanisms underlying its impact on East Asia. This study was based on "water-cryosphere-atmosphere-biology" multi-sphere interactions, primarily considering global climate change in relation to the Tibetan Plateau -East Asia climate system and its mechanisms...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285464/shodagor-family-strategies-balancing-work-and-family-on-the-water
#16
Kathrine E Starkweather
The Shodagor of Matlab, Bangladesh, are a seminomadic community of people who live and work on small wooden boats, within the extensive system of rivers and canals that traverse the country. This unique ecology places particular constraints on family and economic life and leads to Shodagor parents employing one of four distinct strategies to balance childcare and provisioning needs. The purpose of this paper is to understand the conditions that lead a family to choose one strategy over another by testing predictions about socioecological factors that impact the sexual division of labor, including a family's stage in the domestic cycle, aspects of the local ecology, and the availability of alloparents...
March 11, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284090/ancient-dissolved-methane-in-inland-waters-revealed-by-a-new-collection-method-at-low-field-concentrations-for-radiocarbon-14-c-analysis
#17
Joshua F Dean, Michael F Billett, Callum Murray, Mark H Garnett
Methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas that plays a prominent role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, and is released to the atmosphere from freshwater systems in numerous biomes globally. Radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis can indicate both the age and source of CH4 in natural environments. In contrast to CH4 present in bubbles released from aquatic sediments (ebullition), dissolved CH4 in lakes and streams can be present in low concentrations compared to carbon dioxide (CO2), and therefore obtaining sufficient aquatic CH4 for radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis remains a major technical challenge...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283476/alveolar-non-selective-channels-are-asic1a-%C3%AE-enac-channels-and-contribute-to-afc
#18
Phi T Trac, Tiffany L Thai, Valerie Linck, Li Zou, Megan M Greenlee, Qiang Yue, Otor K Al-Khalili, Abdel A Alli, Amity F Eaton, Douglas C Eaton
A thin fluid layer in alveoli is normal and results from a balance of fluid entry and fluid uptake by transepithelial salt and water reabsorption. Conventional wisdom suggests the reabsorption is via epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), but if all Na(+) reabsorption was via ENaC, then amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, should block AFC. But amiloride blocks only half of AFC. The reason for failure to block is clear from single channel measurements from alveolar epithelial cells: ENaC channels are observed, but another channel is present at the same frequency that is non-selective for Na(+) over K(+), has a larger conductance, and shorter open and closed times...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282428/solving-global-shallow-water-equations-on-heterogeneous-supercomputers
#19
Haohuan Fu, Lin Gan, Chao Yang, Wei Xue, Lanning Wang, Xinliang Wang, Xiaomeng Huang, Guangwen Yang
The scientific demand for more accurate modeling of the climate system calls for more computing power to support higher resolutions, inclusion of more component models, more complicated physics schemes, and larger ensembles. As the recent improvements in computing power mostly come from the increasing number of nodes in a system and the integration of heterogeneous accelerators, how to scale the computing problems onto more nodes and various kinds of accelerators has become a challenge for the model development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278768/effects-of-waste-glass-and-waste-foundry-sand-additions-on-reclaimed-tiles-containing-sewage-sludge-ash
#20
Deng-Fong Lin, Huan-Lin Luo, Kuo-Liang Lin, Zhe-Kun Liu
Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA...
March 3, 2017: Environmental Technology
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