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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045886/poly-amidoamine-pamam-dendrimers-as-a-pharmaceutical-excipient-are-we-there-yet
#1
REVIEW
Daniel P Otto, Melgardt M de Villiers
Drug solubility could affect the therapeutic use of a drug because the biological activity of a drug is only possible if some fraction of a dissolved drug can permeate and overcome biological membranes to reach its site of action. The solubility-permeation interplay is therefore, probably the most important factor in determining a successful therapeutic outcome of any drug because more than 40% of marketed drugs and more than 70% of pipeline drugs show poor water solubility. Several solubilization techniques are used and include, balancing of pH-pKa properties, employment of cosolvents and the solubilization by host-guest carriers...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043393/characterization-of-a-set-of-abdominal-neuroendocrine-cells-that-regulate-stress-physiology-using-colocalized-diuretic-peptides-in-drosophila
#2
Meet Zandawala, Richard Marley, Shireen A Davies, Dick R Nässel
Multiple neuropeptides are known to regulate water and ion balance in Drosophila melanogaster. Several of these peptides also have other functions in physiology and behavior. Examples are corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone (diuretic hormone 44; DH44) and leucokinin (LK), both of which induce fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs), but also regulate stress responses, feeding, circadian activity and other behaviors. Here, we investigated the functional relations between the LK and DH44 signaling systems...
October 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042460/storage-compartments-for-capillary-water-rarely-refill-in-an-intact-woody-plant
#3
Thorsten Knipfer, Italo Cuneo, Jeffrey Mason Earles, Clarissa Reyes, Craig Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Water storage is thought to play an integral role in the maintenance of whole plant water balance. The contribution of both living and dead cells to water storage can be derived from rehydration and pressure-volume curves on excised plant material, but the underlying tissue-specific emptying/refilling dynamics remain unclear. Here, we used X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) to characterize refilling of xylem fibers, pith cells and vessels under both excised and in-vivo conditions in Laurus nobilis. In excised stems supplied with H2O, water uptake exhibited a biphasic response curve, and microCT images showed that high water storage capacitance was associated with fiber and pith refilling as driven by capillary forces; fibers refilled more rapidly than pith cells while vessel refilling was minimal...
October 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042105/total-mercury-flux-and-offshore-transport-via-submarine-groundwater-discharge-and-coal-fired-power-plant-in-the-jiulong-river-estuary-china
#4
Jigang Wang, Qian Liu, Jinmin Chen, Hongzhe Chen, Hui Lin, Xiuwu Sun
A mass balance of total mercury (HgT, dissolved+particulate) is constructed for China's Jiulong River estuary based on measured HgT concentrations in the surface water, sediment, porewater, and groundwater for May, August, and November 2009, combined with data from the literature. The HgT mass budget results show that the dominant source (39-55%) is desulfurized seawater discharged from the Songyu coal-fired power plant. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)-derived HgT flux into the estuary is equivalent to 8-58% of the HgT input from the Jiulong River, which is remarkable when compared with SGD-derived HgT fluxes reported in coastal systems worldwide...
October 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041883/-molecular-aspects-of-translational-cardiology-in-vascular-wall-research
#5
V A Maksimenko
Clinical-biochemical research of vascular wall hydrated state, water-electrolyte balance has broadened substantially our notions concerning initiation mechanism of vessel damages, methods of their prevention and treatment. Consecutive study of endothelial glycocalyx functioning, computational research of its interaction with oxidative stress, regulation of its state has been aimed at development of novel means of the vascular system protection. Mutual efforts of clinicians and scientists should contribute to the productivity of results of translational cardiology...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040901/high-efficiency-stratification-of-apple-cultivar-ligol-seed-dormancy-by-phytohormones-heat-shock-and-pulsed-radio-frequency
#6
Mieczysław Grzesik, Krzysztof Górnik, Regina Janas, Mariusz Lewandowki, Zdzislawa Romanowska-Duda, Bert van Duijn
The aim of the study was to improve the effect of stratification of apple "Ligol" seeds by application of selected compounds, phytohormones, and physical methods For this purpose the seeds were stratified at 3°C in distilled water or in the presence of potassium nitrate (KNO3), ethephon (ET), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mixture of KNO3, ET, CO, H2O2, gibberellins (GA3), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and a mixture of SA, GA3, BAP, JA, nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen chloride (HCL)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039188/updated-polychlorinated-biphenyl-mass-budget-for-lake-michigan
#7
Jiehong Guo, Kevin Romanak, Stephen Westenbroek, An Li, Russell G Kreis, Ronald A Hites, Marta Venier
This study revisits and updates the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that was conducted in 1994-1995. This work uses recent concentrations of PCBs in tributary and open lake water, air, and sediment to calculate an updated mass budget. Five of the 11 LMMBP tributaries were revisited in 2015. In these five tributaries, the geometric mean concentrations of ∑PCBs (sum of 85 congeners) ranged from 1.52 to 22.4 ng L(-1). The highest concentrations of PCBs were generally found in the Lower Fox River and in the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037690/multi-response-modeling-of-reaction-diffusion-to-explain-alpha-galactoside-behavior-during-the-soaking-cooking-process-in-cowpea
#8
Fanny Coffigniez, Aurélien Briffaz, Christian Mestres, Pascaline Alter, Noel Durand, Philippe Bohuon
A modelling approach was developed to better understand the behavior of the flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in cowpea seeds during isothermal water soaking-cooking process. Concentrations of verbascose, stachyose and raffinose were measured both in the seed and in the soaking water during the process (T=30, 60 and 95°C). A reaction-diffusion model was built for the three considered alpha-galactosides both in the seed and in the soaking water, together with a model of water transport in the seed. The model reproduced coupled reaction-diffusion of alpha-galactosides during the soaking-cooking process with a good fit...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037599/neural-basis-of-ventromedial-hypothalamic-oxytocin-driven-decrease-in-appetite
#9
Oscar A Klockars, Joseph R Waas, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OT) administration in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) reduces chow intake. The nature of VMH OT's anorexigenic action remains unclear. Here we provide insight into neural mechanisms underlying VMH OT-driven anorexia by (a) identifying feeding-related brain sites activated by VMH OT injection; (b) measuring VMH OT receptor (OTr) mRNA changes in response to hunger and palatability; and (c) examining how VMH OT affects episodic sweet solution intake in sated and hungry rats...
October 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036926/evaluation-of-sensible-heat-flux-and-evapotranspiration-estimates-using-a-surface-layer-scintillometer-and-a-large-weighing-lysimeter
#10
Jerry E Moorhead, Gary W Marek, Paul D Colaizzi, Prasanna H Gowda, Steven R Evett, David K Brauer, Thomas H Marek, Dana O Porter
Accurate estimates of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET) are important for optimal irrigation water management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Common ET sensing methods include Bowen Ratio, Eddy Covariance (EC), and scintillometers. Large weighing lysimeters are considered the ultimate standard for measurement of ET, however, they are expensive to install and maintain. Although EC and scintillometers are less costly and relatively portable, EC has known energy balance closure discrepancies. Previous scintillometer studies used EC for ground-truthing, but no studies considered weighing lysimeters...
October 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036408/physiological-differences-between-root-suckers-and-saplings-enlarge-the-regeneration-niche-in-eucryphia-cordifolia-cav
#11
Antonio B Escandón, Roke Rojas, Loreto V Morales, Luis J Corcuera, Rafael E Coopman, Susana Paula
Many clonal plants produce vegetative recruits that remain connected to the parent plant. Such connections permit resource sharing among ramets, explaining the high survival rates of vegetative recruits during establishment under suboptimal conditions for sexual regeneration. We propose that differences in the regeneration niches of sexual and vegetative recruits reflect different physiological adjustments caused by parental supply of resources to the ramets. We conducted ecophysiological measurements in saplings and root suckers of Eucryphia cordifolia Cav...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035270/quantifying-trace-element-and-isotope-fluxes-at-the-ocean-sediment-boundary-a-review
#12
William B Homoky, Thomas Weber, William M Berelson, Tim M Conway, Gideon M Henderson, Marco van Hulten, Catherine Jeandel, Silke Severmann, Alessandro Tagliabue
Quantifying fluxes of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) at the ocean's sediment-water boundary is a pre-eminent challenge to understand their role in the present, past and future ocean. There are multiple processes that drive the uptake and release of TEIs, and properties that determine their rates are unevenly distributed (e.g. sediment composition, redox conditions and (bio)physical dynamics). These factors complicate our efforts to find, measure and extrapolate TEI fluxes across ocean basins. GEOTRACES observations are unveiling the oceanic distributions of many TEIs for the first time...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035258/neodymium-in-the-oceans-a-global-database-a-regional-comparison-and-implications-for-palaeoceanographic-research
#13
Tina van de Flierdt, Alexander M Griffiths, Myriam Lambelet, Susan H Little, Torben Stichel, David J Wilson
The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition of seawater has been used extensively to reconstruct ocean circulation on a variety of time scales. However, dissolved neodymium concentrations and isotopes do not always behave conservatively, and quantitative deconvolution of this non-conservative component can be used to detect trace metal inputs and isotopic exchange at ocean-sediment interfaces. In order to facilitate such comparisons for historical datasets, we here provide an extended global database for Nd isotopes and concentrations in the context of hydrography and nutrients...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034927/exploring-the-role-of-gs-gogat-cycle-in-microcystin-synthesis-and-regulation-a-model-based-analysis
#14
Swarnendu Banerjee, Abhishek Subramanian, Joydev Chattopadhyay, Ram Rup Sarkar
Toxic cyanobacteria blooms populate water bodies by consuming external nutrients and releasing cyanotoxins that are detrimental for other aquatic species, producing a significant impact on the plankton ecosystem and food web. To exercise population-level control of toxin production, understanding the biochemical mechanisms that explain cyanotoxin regulation within a bacterial cell is of utmost importance. In this study, we explore the mechanistic events to investigate the dependence of toxin microcystin on external nitrogen, a known regulator of the toxin, and for the first time, propose a kinetic model that analyzes the intracellular conditions required to ensure nitrogen dependence on microcystin...
October 16, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031578/short-term-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-affects-water-and-salt-intakes-differently-in-male-and-ovariectomised-female-rats
#15
Paula Nuñez, Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan
Thirst and sodium appetite are motivational states that lead to the search for and ingestion of water and sodium, thus contributing to maintenance of hydromineral balance. Oestrogens affect fluid intake and sodium preference. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting substance with oestrogenic activity. Whether there are sex differences in the ingestive effects of BPA is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of short-term treatment of low doses of BPA on thirst and sodium appetite in adult male and ovariectomised Wistar rats...
October 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030890/influences-of-different-dietary-contents-of-macrominerals-on-the-availability-of-trace-elements-in-horses
#16
L-T Neustädter, J Kamphues, C Ratert
In this study, influences of a reduced macromineral intake on the trace element metabolism in horses at maintenance were investigated. Background of this study is the revised recommendation on the macromineral supply for horses (GfE ). Balance studies on three adult pony geldings with body weights of 405 / 348 / 384 kg were performed to obtain data on apparent digestibility (aD), retention and serum concentrations of different trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se) at different dietary macromineral levels. A mineral supplement or a complementary feed-with a reduced macromineral content-was added to a hay-based diet (daily 5...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029618/balneotherapeutic-effects-of-high-mineral-spring-water-on-the-atopic-dermatitis-like-inflammation-in-hairless-mice-via-immunomodulation-and-redox-balance
#17
Johny Bajgai, Ailyn Fadriquela, Jesmin Ara, Rahima Begum, Md Faruk Ahmed, Cheol-Su Kim, Soo-Ki Kim, Kwang-Yong Shim, Kyu-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing allergic inflammatory skin disease that currently affects millions of children and adults worldwide. Drugs used to treat these inflammatory diseases include anti-histamines, corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors but these drugs have their limitations such as adverse effects with their long-term usage. Thus, researcher's interest in several alternative and complementary therapies are continually growing and balneotherapy is one of these approaches...
October 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028541/tuning-the-structure-of-aminoferrocene-based-anticancer-prodrugs-to-prevent-their-aggregation-in-aqueous-solution
#18
Steffen Daum, Svetlana Babiy, Helen Konovalova, Walter Hofer, Alexander Shtemenko, Natalia Shtemenko, Christina Janko, Christoph Alexiou, Andriy Mokhir
Aminoferrocene-based prodrugs are activated in cancer cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS). They were shown to exhibit high cytotoxicity towards a variety of cancer cell lines and primary cancer cells, but remain not toxic towards non-malignant cells. However, these prodrugs have rather high lipophilicity leading to relatively low water solubility. In particular, an n-octanol/water partition coefficient for the best aminoferrocene-based prodrug (2) was found to be 4.51±0.03. Though the approaches for decreasing lipophilicity are straightforward and include the addition of polar residues to the drug structure, these modifications also lead to dramatic decrease of cell permeability and, correspondingly, lower the activity of the drug...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028464/should-physicians-consider-the-environmental-effects-of-prescribing-antibiotics
#19
Jeremy Balch, Julia H Schoen, Payal K Patel
Pharmaceuticals are beginning to receive attention as a source of pollution in aquatic environments. Yet the impact of physician prescription patterns on water resources is not often discussed in clinical decision making. Here, we comment on a case in which empiric antibiotic treatment might benefit a patient while simultaneously being detrimental to the aquatic environment. We first highlight the potential harm caused by this prescription from its production to its disposal. We then suggest that Van Rensselaer Potter's original conceptualization of bioethics can be used to balance clinicians' obligations to protect individual, public, and environmental health...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028315/nanoparticles-of-short-cationic-peptidopolysaccharide-self-assembled-by-hydrogen-bonding-with-antibacterial-effect-against-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#20
Zheng Hou, Yogesh Vikhe Shankar, Yang Liu, Feiqing Ding, Jothy Lachumy Subramanion, Vikashini Ravikumar, Rubí Zamudio-Vázquez, Damien Keogh, Huiwen Lim, Moon Yue Feng Tay, Surajit Bhattacharjya, Scott A Rice, Jian Shi, Hongwei Duan, Xue-Wei Liu, Yuguang Mu, Nguan Soon Tan, Kam Michael Chiu Tam, Kevin Pethe, Mary B Chan-Park
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and polymers are active against many multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria but only a limited number of these compounds are in clinical use due to their unselective toxicity. The typical strategy for achieving selective antibacterial efficacy with low mammalian cell toxicity is through balancing the ratio of cationicity to hydrophobicity. Herein, we report a cationic nanoparticle self-assembled from chitosan-graft-oligolysine (CSM5-K5) chains with ultra-low molecular weight (1450 Daltons) that selectively kills bacteria...
October 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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