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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457185/effect-of-large-deformation-and-surface-stiffening-on-the-transmission-of-a-line-load-on-a-neo-hookean-half-space
#1
Haibin Wu, Zezhou Liu, Anand Jagota, Chung-Yuen Hui
A line force acting on a soft elastic solid, say due to the surface tension of a liquid drop, can cause significant deformation and the formation of a kink close to the point of force application. Analysis based on linearized elasticity theory shows that sufficiently close to its point of application, the force is borne entirely by the surface stress, not by the elasticity of the substrate; this local balance of three forces is called Neumann's triangle. However, it is not difficult to imagine realistic properties for which this force balance cannot be satisfied...
February 19, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456267/inorganic-carbon-and-oxygen-dynamics-in-a-marsh-dominated-estuary
#2
Shiyu Rachel Wang, Daniela Di Iorio, Wei-Jun Cai, Charles S Hopkinson
We conducted a free-water mass balance-based study to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. We measured open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) dynamics seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2 ...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455968/nanostructured-electrospun-nonwovens-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-quaternized-chitosan-for-potential-biomedical-applications
#3
Danilo Martins Dos Santos, Ilaiáli Souza Leite, Andrea de Lacerda Bukzem, Rachel Passos de Oliveira Santos, Elisabete Frollini, Natalia Mayumi Inada, Sérgio Paulo Campana-Filho
Blend solutions of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and N-(2-hydroxy)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (QCh) were successfully electrospun. The weight ratio PCL/QCh ranged in the interval 95/5-70/30 while two QCh samples were used, namely QCh1 (DQ¯ = 47.3%; DPv¯ = 2218) and QCh2 (DQ¯ = 71.1%; DPv¯ = 1427). According to the characteristics of QCh derivative and to the QCh content on the resulting PCL/QCh nonwoven, the nanofibers displayed different average diameter (175 nm-415 nm), and the nonwovens exhibited variable porosity (57...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455337/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-facilitates-the-accumulation-of-glycyrrhizin-and-liquiritin-in-glycyrrhiza-uralensis-under-drought-stress
#4
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454461/fluoridation-advocacy-in-referenda-where-media-coverage-is-balanced-yet-biased
#5
John A Curiel, Anne E Sanders, Thu-Mai L Christian, Sophia Lafferty-Hess, Thomas M Carsey, Lewis N Lampiris, Gary D Slade
BACKGROUND: Despite supporting scientific evidence, community water fluoridation (CWF) often fails in public referenda. To understand why, the authors quantitatively analyzed text from news media coverage of CWF referenda. METHODS: The authors analyzed text from 234 articles covering 11 CWF referenda conducted in 3 US cities from 1956 through 2013. The authors used cluster analysis to identify each article's core rhetoric and classified it according to sentiment and tone...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453543/toxic-and-beneficial-potential-of-silver-nanoparticles-the-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#6
Lilian Rodrigues Rosa Souza, Veronica Santana da Silva, Leonardo Pereira Franchi, Tiago Alves Jorge de Souza
Nanotechnology has allowed great changes in chemical, biological and physical properties of metals when compared to their bulk counterparts. Within this context, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) play a major role due to their unique properties, being widely used in daily products such as fabrics, washing machines, water filters, food and medicine. However, AgNPs can enter cells inducing a "Trojan-horse" type mechanism which potentially leads to cellular autophagy, apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, this cytotoxicity mechanism can be optimized to develop drug nanocarriers and anticancer therapies...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453173/land-use-change-impacts-on-the-amount-and-quality-of-recharge-water-in-the-loess-tablelands-of-china
#7
Yanan Huang, Qingrui Chang, Zhi Li
Exploring how land use change (LUC) influences the amount and quality of recharge water is important for groundwater sustainability and land use planning. With loess of up to 200m in thickness and unsaturated zones up to 100m below the surface, the loess tablelands in China can store abundant groundwater resources. However, groundwater depletion and substantial LUC have been simultaneously observed. It is thus necessary to investigate the relationship between LUC and groundwater. We sampled 10-m soil profiles for three land use types (farmlands, apple orchards of 10 and 20years old)...
February 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#8
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
August 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452388/structural-and-functional-changes-in-coffee-trees-after-4-years-under-free-air-co2-enrichment
#9
Miroslava Rakocevic, Rafael Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro Marchiori, Heloisa Ferreira Filizola, Eunice Reis Batista
Background and Aims: Climate forecasts suggest that [CO2] in the atmosphere will continue to increase. Structural and ecophysiological responses to elevated air [CO2] (e[CO2]) in tree species are contradictory due to species-dependent responses and relatively short-term experiments. It was hypothesized that long-term exposure (4 year) to e[CO2] would change canopy structure and function of Coffea arabica trees. Methods: Coffee plants were grown in a FACE (free air CO2 enrichment) facility under two air [CO2]: actual and elevated (actual + approx...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450770/how-can-water-quality-be-improved-when-the-urban-waste-water-directive-has-been-fulfilled-a-case-study-of-the-lot-river-france
#10
Josette Garnier, Antsiva Ramarson, Vincent Thieu, Julien Némery, Sylvain Théry, Gilles Billen, Alexandra Coynel
The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called "Lot Rivière Claire" provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin's population...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449862/characterization-of-transcription-factor-gene-osdrap1-conferring-drought-tolerance-in-rice
#11
Liyu Huang, Yinxiao Wang, Wensheng Wang, Xiuqin Zhao, Qiao Qin, Fan Sun, Fengyi Hu, Yan Zhao, Zichao Li, Binying Fu, Zhikang Li
HIGHLIGHTS Overexpressing and RNA interfering OsDRAP1 transgenic rice plants exhibited significantly improved and reduced drought tolerance, but accompanied with negative effects on development and yield. The dehydration responsive element binding (DREBs) genes are important transcription factors which play a crucial role in plant abiotic stress tolerances. In this study, we functionally characterized a DREB2-like gene, OsDRAP1 conferring drought tolerance (DT) in rice. OsDRAP1 , containing many cis -elements in its promoter region, was expressed in all organs (mainly expressed in vascular tissues) of rice, and induced by a variety of environmental stresses and plant hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449590/lateral-force-microscopy-of-interfacial-nanobubbles-friction-reduction-and-novel-frictional-behavior
#12
Chih-Wen Yang, Kwan-Tai Leung, Ren-Feng Ding, Hsien-Chen Ko, Yi-Hsien Lu, Chung-Kai Fang, Ing-Shouh Hwang
Atomic force microscopy is used to conduct single-asperity friction measurements at a water-graphite interface. Local mapping of the frictional force, which is based on the degree of the cantilever twisting, shows nearly friction-free when a tip scans over a nanobubble. Surprisingly, apart from being gapless, the associated friction loop exhibits a tilt in the cantilever twisting versus the tip's lateral displacement with the slope depending on the loading force. The sign of the slope reverses at around zero loading force...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448022/photosynthesis-and-mineralogy-of-jania-rubens-at-low-ph-high-pco-2-a-future-perspective
#13
Lucia Porzio, Maria Cristina Buia, Viviana Ferretti, Maurizio Lorenti, Manuela Rossi, Marco Trifuoggi, Alessandro Vergara, Carmen Arena
Corallinales (Rhodophyta) are high Mg-calcite macroalgae and are considered among the most vulnerable organisms to ocean acidification (OA). These sensitive species play fundamental roles in coastal systems as food source and settlement promoters as well as being involved in reef stabilization, and water carbonate balance. At present only a few studies are focused on erect calcifying macroalgae under low pH/high pCO 2 and the contrasting results make difficult to predict the ecological consequences of the OA on the coralline algae...
February 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444132/a-linear-bi-level-multi-objective-program-for-optimal-allocation-of-water-resources
#14
Ijaz Ahmad, Fan Zhang, Junguo Liu, Muhammad Naveed Anjum, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Tayyab, Muhammad Waseem, Hafiz Umar Farid
This paper presents a simple bi-level multi-objective linear program (BLMOLP) with a hierarchical structure consisting of reservoir managers and several water use sectors under a multi-objective framework for the optimal allocation of limited water resources. Being the upper level decision makers (i.e., leader) in the hierarchy, the reservoir managers control the water allocation system and tend to create a balance among the competing water users thereby maximizing the total benefits to the society. On the other hand, the competing water use sectors, being the lower level decision makers (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443888/assessing-the-potential-for-rooftop-rainwater-harvesting-from-large-public-institutions
#15
Dagnachew Adugna, Marina Bergen Jensen, Brook Lemma, Geremew Sahilu Gebrie
As in many other cities, urbanization coupled with population growth worsens the water supply problem of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with a water supply deficit of 41% in 2016. To investigate the potential contribution of rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) from large public institutions, 320 such institutions were selected and grouped into 11 categories, from which 25-30% representative 588 rooftops were digitalized and the potential RWH volume computed based on a ten-year rainfall dataset. When comparing the resulting RWH potential with the water consumption, up to 2...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443022/detecting-behavioral-deficits-in-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Nicole Hausser, Kathia Johnson, Margaret A Parsley, Jutatip Guptarak, Heidi Spratt, Stacy L Sell
With the increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both civilian and military populations, TBI is now considered a chronic disease; however, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of injury in rodent models of TBI. Shown here are behavioral measures that are well-established in TBI research for times early after injury, such as two weeks, until two months. Some of these methods have previously been used at later times after injury, up to one year, but by very few laboratories. The methods demonstrated here are a short neurological assessment to test reflexes, a Beam-Balance to test balance, a Beam-Walk to test balance and motor coordination, and a working memory version of the Morris water maze that can be sensitive to deficits in reference memory...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441817/return-to-surfing-using-an-adapted-prosthesis-a-case-report
#17
Erica Schvirtz, Laurent Bensoussan, Bertrand Tourret Couderc, Jean-Michel Viton, Alain Delarque, Marjorie Kerzoncuf
BACKGROUND: Surfing with transfemoral knee prosthesis requires flexion of the hip, knee, and ankle and balance between flexibility and stiffness of the prosthetic limb. We report on Mr D, a transfemoral amputee, who wanted to surf again. Case Description and Methods: Technical specifications were based on Mr D's complaint. The prosthesis is salt water resistant and combines a shock absorber associated with elastic tendons to permit the knee to bend easily and to facilitate eccentric braking...
February 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439533/molecular-and-functional-properties-of-protein-fractions-and-isolate-from-cashew-nut-anacardium-occidentale-l
#18
Cheng-Mei Liu, Qian Peng, Jun-Zhen Zhong, Wei Liu, Ye-Jun Zhong, Fang Wang
Some molecular and functional properties of albumin (83.6% protein), globulin (95.5% protein), glutelin (81.3% protein) as well as protein isolate (80.7% protein) from cashew nut were investigated. These proteins were subjected to molecular (circular dichroism, gel electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy) and functional (solubility, emulsification, foaming, water/oil holding capacity) tests. Cashew nut proteins represent an abundant nutrient with well-balanced amino acid composition and could meet the requirements recommended by FAO/WHO...
February 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435633/multi-layer-solid-phase-extraction-and-evaporation-enrichment-methods-for-polar-organic-chemicals-from-aqueous-matrices
#19
Niklas Köke, Daniel Zahn, Thomas P Knepper, Tobias Frömel
Analysis of polar organic chemicals in the aquatic environment is exacerbated by the lack of suitable and widely applicable enrichment methods. In this work, we assessed the suitability of a novel combination of well-known solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials in one cartridge as well as an evaporation method and for the enrichment of 26 polar model substances (predominantly log D < 0) covering a broad range of physico-chemical properties in three different aqueous matrices. The multi-layer solid-phase extraction (mlSPE) and evaporation method were investigated for the recovery and matrix effects of the model substances and analyzed with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS)...
February 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434313/distributions-of-phytoplankton-carbohydrate-protein-and-lipid-in-the-world-oceans-from-satellite-ocean-colour
#20
Shovonlal Roy
Energy value of phytoplankton regulates the growth of higher trophic species, affecting the tropic balance and sustainability of marine food webs. Therefore, developing our capability to estimate and monitor, on a global scale, the concentrations of macromolecules that determine phytoplankton energy value, would be invaluable. Reported here are the first estimates of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and overall energy value of phytoplankton in the world oceans, using ocean-colour data from satellites. The estimates are based on a novel bio-optical method that utilises satellite-derived bio-optical fingerprints of living phytoplankton combined with allometric relationships between phytoplankton cells and cellular macromolecular contents...
February 12, 2018: ISME Journal
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