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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235590/unravelling-the-hydrophobicity-of-urea-in-water-using-thermodiffusion-implications-for-protein-denaturation
#1
Doreen Niether, Silvia Di Lecce, Fernando Bresme, Simone Wiegand
Urea is widely used as a protein denaturant in aqueous solutions. Experimental and computer simulation studies have shown that it dissolves in water almost ideally at high concentrations, introducing little disruption in the water hydrogen bonded structure. However, at concentrations of the order of 5 M or higher, urea induces denaturation in a wide range of proteins. The origin of this behaviour is not completely understood, but it is believed to stem from a balance between urea-protein and urea-water interactions, with urea becoming possibly hydrophobic at a specific concentration range...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233909/oral-contraceptives-and-renal-water-handling-a-diurnal-study-in-young-women
#2
Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie, Jens Christian Djurhuus
To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-term OC users were included in a 24-h standardized inpatient study for measurements of vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium, and osmolality in plasma as well as urinary excretion of electrolytes, aquaporin-2, and prostaglandin E2...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232980/effectiveness-of-aquatic-versus-land-physiotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-peripheral-neuropathies-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Ilaria Zivi, Sara Maffia, Vanessa Ferrari, Alessio Zarucchi, Katia Molatore, Roberto Maestri, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on gait and balance of aquatic physiotherapy versus on-land training, in the context of an inpatient rehabilitation treatment tailored for peripheral neuropathies. DESIGN: Parallel-group, single-center, single-blind randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Consecutive patients affected by peripheral neuropathy admitted in our Neuro-Rehabilitation Unit. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received a four-week rehabilitation program composed by daily sessions of conventional physiotherapy and three sessions/week of specific treatment (aquatic vs...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232928/beverage-consumption-patterns-among-overweight-and-obese-african-american-women
#4
Terryl J Hartman, Regine Haardörfer, Brenda M Greene, Shruti Parulekar, Michelle C Kegler
The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18...
December 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232732/high-salt-intake-promotes-different-responses-to-urodilatin-and-uroguanylin-in-the-isolated-rat-kidney
#5
Antonio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Pedro Henrique Sá Costa, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Manassés Claudino Fonteles
Urodilatin (UD) and uroguanylin (UGN) have been implicated in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis, particularly in the balance handling of salt intake. In this sense, the aim of the present work was to study the main effects of these peptides in kidneys from animals subjected to high NaCl (2%) intake, during 10 days in metabolic cages. The control group received only normal water, whereas the treated group drank 2% solution of NaCl (NaCl 2%). In addition, we studied effect of subthreshold UD (0.14 nM) and UGN (0...
December 12, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232609/influence-of-direct-and-sequential-extraction-methodology-on-metabolic-profiling
#6
K M Maria John, James Harnly, Devanand Luthria
A systematic comparison was made of the detected metabolite profiles for two plant materials (black beans and soybeans) and a dietary supplement (black cohosh) extracted using sequential (hexane, ethyl acetate, and 50% aqueous methanol) and direct extraction with three solvent systems (80% aqueous methanol, methanol/chloroform/water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v) and water). Extracts were analyzed by LC-MS (without derivatization) and GC-FID (with BSTFA/TMCS derivatizations). For sequential extraction, HPLC-UV and BSTFA/TMCS-derivatized GC-FID detection were more responsive to the polar molecules with a rough distribution of 10%, 10%, and 80% of the total signals in hexane, ethyl acetate, and 50% aqueous methanol, respectively...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231739/phospholipase-a2-induced-degradation-and-release-from-lipid-containing-polymersomes
#7
Mudassar Mumtaz Virk, Erik Reimhult
Hybrid vesicles, comprising blends of amphiphilic block copolymers and phospholipids, have attracted significant attention recently due to their unique combination of chemical and physical properties. We report a method to make unilanellar hybrid vesicles with diameters of 100 nm by mixing polybutadiene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and phosphocholine lipids using a combination of solvent inversion and sonication. We show that homogeneous hybrid vesicles are formed when one component is a minor fraction. At compositions with balanced mass fractions, separate populations of similarly sized pure liposomes and hybrid vesicles were observed...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231705/a-simple-and-convenient-aptasensor-for-protein-using-electronic-balance-as-readout
#8
Alian Wang, Xiaoming Ma, Yanzhu Ye, Fang Luo, Longhua Guo, Bin Qiu, Zhenyu Lin, Guonan Chen
Electronic balance, one of the most common equipments in the laboratory, is normally adopted to directly measure the weight of the target with high accuracy, however little attention has been paid on the extension of its application. In this study, electronic balance was used as readout to develop a novel aptasensor for protein quantification for the first time. Thrombin was selected as a model target and its two aptamers recognizing different sites of the protein were used (one aptamer was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microparticles and the other aptamer was functionalized with platinum nanoparticles)...
December 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229856/global-biogeochemical-cycle-of-vanadium
#9
William H Schlesinger, Emily M Klein, Avner Vengosh
Synthesizing published data, we provide a quantitative summary of the global biogeochemical cycle of vanadium (V), including both human-derived and natural fluxes. Through mining of V ores (130 × 109 g V/y) and extraction and combustion of fossil fuels (600 × 109 g V/y), humans are the predominant force in the geochemical cycle of V at Earth's surface. Human emissions of V to the atmosphere are now likely to exceed background emissions by as much as a factor of 1.7, and, presumably, we have altered the deposition of V from the atmosphere by a similar amount...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225608/transcriptomic-profiling-and-physiological-responses-of-halophyte-kochia-sieversiana-provide-insights-into-salt-tolerance
#10
Long Zhao, Zongze Yang, Qiaobing Guo, Shun Mao, Shaoqiang Li, Fasheng Sun, Huan Wang, Chunwu Yang
Halophytes are remarkable plants that can tolerate extremely high-salinity conditions, and have different salinity tolerance mechanisms from those of glycophytic plants. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of salinity tolerance of an extreme halophyte, Kochia sieversiana (Pall.) C. A. M, using RNA sequencing and physiological tests. The results showed that moderate salinity stimulated the growth and water uptake of K. sieversiana and, even under 480-mM salinity condition, K. sieversiana maintained an extremely high water content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223904/spatiotemporal-variations-of-hydrogeochemistry-and-its-controlling-factors-in-the-gandaki-river-basin-central-himalaya-nepal
#11
Ramesh Raj Pant, Fan Zhang, Faizan Ur Rehman, Guanxing Wang, Ming Ye, Chen Zeng, Handuo Tang
The characterization and assessment of water quality in the head water region of Himalaya is necessary, given the immense importance of this region in sustaining livelihoods of people and maintaining ecological balance. A total of 165 water samples were collected from 55 sites during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in 2016 from the Gandaki River Basin of the Central Himalaya, Nepal. The pH, EC values and TDS concentrations were measured in-situ and the concentrations of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-) and Si were analyzed in laboratory...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223816/cortex-and-hippocampus-dna-epigenetic-response-to-a-long-term-arsenic-exposure-via-drinking-water
#12
Xiaoyan Du, Meiping Tian, Xiaoxue Wang, Jie Zhang, Qingyu Huang, Liangpo Liu, Heqing Shen
The neurotoxicity of arsenic is a serious health problem, especially for children. DNA epigenetic change may be an important pathogenic mechanism, but the molecular pathway remains obscure. In this study, the weaned male Sprague-Dawly (SD) rats were treated with arsenic trioxide via drinking water for 6 months, simulating real developmental exposure situation of children. Arsenic exposure impaired the cognitive abilities, and altered the expression of neuronal activity-regulated genes. Total arsenic concentrations of cortex and hippocampus tissues were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223082/deep-rooted-apple-trees-decrease-groundwater-recharge-in-the-highland-region-of-the-loess-plateau-china
#13
Zhiqiang Zhang, Min Li, Bingcheng Si, Hao Feng
Unlike recharge in shallow rooted ecosystems, estimating the groundwater recharge beneath deep rooted plants that absorb water from deep soil remains difficult. The purpose of this research is to develop an approach to estimate the groundwater recharge beneath deep-rooted vegetation by combining water mass balance and chloride mass balance (CMB) and to quantify how the conversion of shallow-rooted cropland to deep-rooted apple orchards changes groundwater recharge. The proposed groundwater recharge rate under deep-rooted vegetation in this study is the difference between the groundwater recharge rate in a cropland (obtained using CMB) and the mean annual soil water storage deficit beneath an adjacent deep-rooted vegetation...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221408/exploring-a-multi-scale-method-for-molecular-simulation-in-continuum-solvent-model-explicit-simulation-of-continuum-solvent-as-an-incompressible-fluid
#14
Li Xiao, Ray Luo
We explored a multi-scale algorithm for the Poisson-Boltzmann continuum solvent model for more robust simulations of biomolecules. In this method, the continuum solvent/solute interface is explicitly simulated with a numerical fluid dynamics procedure, which is tightly coupled to the solute molecular dynamics simulation. There are multiple benefits to adopt such a strategy as presented below. At this stage of the development, only nonelectrostatic interactions, i.e., van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions, are included in the algorithm to assess the quality of the solvent-solute interface generated by the new method...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218079/vegf-c-mediated-enhancement-of-lymphatic-drainage-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-by-regulating-il-9-il-17-balance-and-improving-gut-microbiota-in-experimental-chronic-colitis
#15
Xiaolei Wang, Jin Zhao, Li Qin
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) pathway plays a crucial role in chronic intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage on the intestinal inflammation in experimental chronic colitis (CC) and the potential mechanism was explored. METHODS: Mouse CC model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days following water administration for 5 days...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216949/-effects-of-n-butylphthalide-on-the-expressions-of-calpain-1-and-camk-ii-in-hippocampus-in-rats-with-acute-severe-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#16
Qin Li, Xiaoyu Ding, Weikang Bi, Jinglin Wang, Yong Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on cognitive function in acute severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning rats and its mechanism. METHODS: 120 health Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40): normal control group (NC group), CO poisoning group (CO group) and NBP treatment group (NBP group). The acute severe CO poisoning model was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by intoxicated with 1 000 ×10-6 CO for 40 minutes, followed with 3 000 ×10-6 CO for another 20 minutes, and then received hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216911/dynamic-expression-of-cytokine-and-transcription-factor-genes-during-experimental-fasciola-gigantica-infection-in-buffaloes
#17
Wei Shi, Zhi-Yong Wei, Hany M Elsheikha, Fu-Kai Zhang, Zhao-An Sheng, Ke-Jing Lu, Dong-Ying Wang, Wei-Yi Huang, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Determining the mechanisms involved in the immune-pathogenesis of the tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, is crucial to the development of any effective therapeutic intervention. Here, we examined the differential gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors in the liver of F. gigantica-infected buffaloes, over the course of infection. METHODS: Water buffaloes (swamp type) were infected orally with 500 F. gigantica encysted metacercariae...
December 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212765/changes-in-the-fluid-volume-balance-between-intra-and-extracellular-water-in-a-sample-of-japanese-adults-aged-15-88-years-old-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Yasushi Ohashi, Nobuhiko Joki, Keisuke Yamazaki, Takeshi Kawamura, Reibin Tai, Hideyo Oguchi, Rena Yuasa, Ken Sakai
The fluid volume balance between intracellular water (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) gradually changes with age and various medical conditions. Comprehension of these physiological changes would aid in clinical decision-making related to body fluid assessments. A total of 1,992 individuals (753 men and 1,239 women) aged ≥15 years included in this study had their body composition measurements performed at training gyms in 2014. We developed a regression formula to assess the association of age with the ratio of ECW to ICW in these subjects...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212751/heterothermy-is-associated-with-reduced-fitness-in-wild-rabbits
#19
Shane K Maloney, Maija K Marsh, Steven R McLeod, Andrea Fuller
An increase in variation in the 24 h pattern of body temperature (heterothermy) in mammals can be induced by energy and water deficits. Since performance traits such as growth and reproduction also are impacted by energy and water balance, we investigated whether the characteristics of the body temperature rhythm provide an indication of the reproductive success of an individual. We show that the amplitude of the daily rhythm of body temperature in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) prior to breeding is inversely related to the number of pregnancies in the subsequent seven months, while the minimum daily body temperature is positively correlated to the number of pregnancies...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212394/management-of-dental-caries-among-children-a-look-at-the-cost-effectiveness
#20
Nathalia Miranda Ladewig, Lucila Basto Camargo, Tamara Kerber Tedesco, Isabela Floriano, Thais Gimenez, José Carlos P Imparato, Fausto Medeiros Mendes, Mariana Minatel Braga, Daniela Prócida Raggio
Dental caries is the most prevalent non-communicative disease worldwide. Although the etiological factors are well known for years, reducing the number of decayed and missing teeth in children still remains as a barrier. Preventive and curative options are numerous but little is known about their economical advantages. Selecting the intervention that offers the best balance of effectiveness and financial resources becomes crucial in the current situation of budget restrictions worldwide. Areas covered: This expert review summarizes available evidence on cost-effectiveness analyses of preventive and curative measures to manage dental caries in children...
December 7, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
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