Read by QxMD icon Read

Water balance

Anna Popelíková, Štěpán Bahník, Veronika Lobellová, Jan Svoboda, Aleš Stuchlík
RATIONALE: There is a persistent pressing need for valid animal models of cognitive and mnemonic disruptions (such as seen in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias) usable for preclinical research. OBJECTIVES: We have set out to test the validity of administration of biperiden, an M1-acetylcholine receptor antagonist with central selectivity, as a potential tool for generating a fast screening model of cognitive impairment, in outbred Wistar rats. METHODS: We used several variants of the Morris water maze task: (1) reversal learning, to assess cognitive flexibility, with probe trials testing memory retention; (2) delayed matching to position (DMP), to evaluate working memory; and (3) "counter-balanced acquisition," to test for possible anomalies in acquisition learning...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Yan Zhang, Hailong Li, Xuejing Wang, Chaoyue Wang, Kai Xiao, Wenjing Qu
Naturally occurring radon (222 Rn) and radium isotopes are widely used to trace water mixing and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the coastal zones. However, their activities in groundwater are variable both spatially and temporally. Here, time series sampling of 222 Rn and radium was conducted to investigate their behavior in intertidal groundwater of Laizhou Bay, China. The result shows that groundwater redox conditions have an important impact on the behavior of tracers. The activities of tracers will decrease under oxidizing conditions and increase under reducing conditions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jianping Gao, Junkui Pan, Ning Hu, Chengzuo Xie
Bioretention can be an effective measure for stormwater treatment. However, there is a lack of systematic analysis of the impact of bioretention design parameters on hydrologic performance. Herein, SWMM and RECARGA models were applied to generate the typical annual rainfall runoff and simulate the water balance of the bioretention system in an expressway service area. The purpose of the investigation was to identify key design parameters for the bioretention system and delineate the priorities in developing the design...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jinfeng Liu, Xiao He, John Z H Zhang, Lian-Wen Qi
An accurate and efficient ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation of liquid water was made possible using the fragment-based approach (J. F. Liu, X. He and J. Z. H. Zhang, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. , 2017, 19 , 11931-11936). In this study, we advance the AIMD simulations using the fragment-based coupled cluster (CC) theory, more accurately revealing the structural and dynamical properties of liquid water under ambient conditions. The results show that the double-donor hydrogen-bond configurations in liquid water are nearly in balance with the single-donor configurations, with a slight bias towards the former...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Daniela Boanares, Rosy Mary Dos Santos Isaias, Hildeberto Caldas de Sousa, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits
- The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. - This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
N Perujo, A M Romaní, X Sanchez-Vila
Infiltration systems are treatment technologies based on water percolation through porous media where biogeochemical processes take place. Grain size distribution (GSD) acts as a driver of these processes and their rates, as well as it influences nutrient accumulation in sediments. Coarse sands inhibit anaerobic reactions such as denitrification and could constrain nutrient accumulation in sediments due to smaller specific surface area. On the other hand, fine sands provide higher nutrient accumulation but need a larger area available to treat the same volume of water; furthermore they are more susceptible to bio-clogging...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Dzenan Jahic, Edin Begic
Introduction: Exercise-associated muscle cramp (EAMC) is one of the most common conditions that occur during or immediately after the exercise, with questionable etiology. Aim: Aim of article was to present doubts about the cause of EAMC, whether it is primarily a neurological condition or it is water and salt imbalance. Results: Strongest evidence supports the neuromuscular aetiology with the focus on the muscle fatigue. Muscle overload and fatigue affects the balance between the excitatory drive from muscle spindles and the inhibitory drive from the Golgi tendon organs (GTO)...
March 2018: Materia Socio-medica
Quan Quan, Shunji Xie, Bo Weng, Ye Wang, Yi-Jun Xu
Charge separation/transfer is generally believed to be the most key factor affecting the efficiency of photocatalysis, which however will be counteracted if not taking the active site engineering into account for a specific photoredox reaction. Here, a 3D heterostructure composite is designed consisting of MoS2 nanoplatelets decorated on reduced graphene oxide-wrapped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs@RGO/MoS2 ). Such a cascade configuration renders a directional migration of charge carriers and controlled immobilization of active sites, thereby showing much higher photoactivity for water splitting to H2 than binary TNTAs@RGO and TNTAs/MoS2 ...
April 18, 2018: Small
Tiantian Liu, Chongwei Cui, Junguo He, Jian Tang
Biodrying was first used for the post-treatment of long-term storage sludge with vinasse as bulking agents. The effect of different bulking agents on water and heat variation and their respective contributions to bio-generated heat during storage sludge biodrying were investigated. Three different bulking agents (beer lees and distillers grains, with conventional straw used for comparison) were mixed with storage sludge for biodrying for an 18-day period. The results revealed the treatment with beer lees as bulking agent achieved the best performance with the highest water removal capacity (658 g kg-1 initial water)...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rui Xiong, Ho Shin Kim, Volodymyr F Korolovych, Shuaidi Zhang, Yaroslava Yingling, Vladimir V Tsukruk
Constructing advanced functional nanomaterials with pre-designed organized morphologies from low-dimension synthetic and biological components is extremely challenging because of complex inter-component interactions, high-aspect ratios, flexible shapes, crumpling instabilities and limited common wet-chemistry processing conditions. Herein, we report an efficient and universal amphiphilicity-driven assembly strategy to construct "hairy" flexible hybrid nanosheets with the net of 1D cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) conformally wrapped around 2D graphene oxide (GO) monolayers...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Omolola C Betiku, Carl J Yeoman, T Gibson Gaylord, Benjamin Americus, Sarah Olivo, Glenn C Duff, Wendy M Sealey
A two-phase feeding study evaluating performance of rainbow trout and comparing luminal and mucosal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bacterial community compositions when fed two alternative protein diets in two rearing systems was conducted. Alternative protein diets (animal protein and plant protein diets) balanced with crystalline amino acids: lysine, methionine and threonine or unbalanced, were fed to rainbow trout in two separate water systems (recirculating (RR) and flow-through (FF)) for a period of 16 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Yu Song, Hang Zhang, Hongguang You, Yuanming Liu, Chao Chen, Xu Feng, Xingyu Yu, Shengyang Wu, Libo Wang, Shihua Zhong, Qiang Li, Yanming Zhu, Xiaodong Ding
The plant SnRK1 kinases play the central roles in the processes of energy balance, hormone perception, stress resistance, metabolism, growth and development. However, the functions of these kinases are still elusive. In this study, we used GsSnRK1 of wild soybean as bait to perform library-scale screens by the means of yeast two-hybrid to identify its interacting proteins. The putative interactions were verified by yeast re-transformation and β-galactodase assays, and the selected interactions were further confirmed in planta by BiFC and biochemical Co-IP assays...
April 17, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Yi-Yan Zhan, Tatsuo Kojima, Takuya Koide, Masanori Tachikawa, Shuichi Hiraoka
A thermally most stable molecular self-assembly in water (nanocube), whose decomposition temperature is 142 °C, has been developed by the design of a gear-shaped amphiphile (GSA) with an indented hydrophobic surface, even though the nanocube is stabilized only by van der Waals (vdW) and cation-pinteractions and the hydrophobic effect. The introduction of an electron-donating substituent in one of the benzene rings in GSA increased the decomposition temperature by 12 K, which is due to the stronger cation-p interactions between the benzene ring and positively charged pyridinium rings and the tighter molecular meshing between the GSAs in the nanocube...
April 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shekoufeh Atashpour, Hossein Kargar Jahromi, Zahra Kargar Jahromi, Mozhgan Maleknasab
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women which affect fertility. Clomiphene citrate is used as first-line treatment for this disorder, which is associated with some complications and therapeutic resistance. Objective: In this research, we compare the effectiveness of ginger with clomiphene on sexual hormones such as Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen and progesterone in order to treat PCOS effectively with fewer side effects...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
J Sreekanth, Tao Cui, Trevor Pickett, David Rassam, Mat Gilfedder, Damian Barrett
Large scale development of coal seam gas (CSG) is occurring in many sedimentary basins around the world including Australia, where commercial production of CSG has started in the Surat and Bowen basins. CSG development often involves extraction of large volumes of water that results in depressurising aquifers that overlie and/or underlie the coal seams thus perturbing their flow regimes. This can potentially impact regional aquifer systems that are used for many purposes such as irrigation, and stock and domestic water...
April 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Moges B Wagena, Zachary M Easton
Agricultural conservation practices (CPs) are commonly implemented to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution. Climate change can complicate the development, implementation, and efficiency of agricultural CPs by altering hydrology, nutrient cycling, and erosion. This research quantifies the impact of climate change on hydrology, nutrient cycling, erosion, and the effectiveness of agricultural CP in the Susquehanna River Basin in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, USA. We develop, calibrate, and test the Soil and Water Assessment Tool-Variable Source Area (SWAT-VSA) model and select four CPs; buffer strips, strip-cropping, no-till, and tile drainage, to test their effectiveness in reducing climate change impacts on water quality...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stephan N Steinmann, Rodrigo Ferreira de Morais, Andreas W Götz, Paul Fleurat-Lessard, Marcella Iannuzzi, Philippe Sautet, Carine Michel
Metal/water interfaces are key in many natural and industrial processes, such as corrosion, atmospheric or environmental chemistry. Even today, the only practical approach to simulate large interfaces between a metal and water is to perform force field simulations. In this work, we propose a novel force field, GAL17, to describe the interaction of water and a Pt(111) surface. GAL17 builds on three terms: (i) a standard Lennard-Jones potential for the bonding interaction between the surface and water; (ii) a Gaussian term to improve the surface corrugation and (iii) two terms describing the angular dependence of the interaction energy...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Shigenari Matsuyama, Ryusuke Miki, Hirotada Kittaka, Haruki Nakayama, Shota Kikuta, Satoshi Ishihara, Shinichi Nakayama
Aim: In recent years, with the concept of damage control resuscitation, hemostasis and preoperative fluid restriction have been carried out, but there is controversy regarding the effectiveness of fluid restriction. Methods: From April 2007 to March 2013, 101 trauma patients presented with hemorrhagic shock (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg) at the prehospital or emergency department and were admitted to Hyogo Emergency Medical Center (Hyogo, Japan). They underwent emergency hemostasis by surgery and transcatheter arterial embolization...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Parkyong Song, Christoph Zechner, Genaro Hernandez, José Cánovas, Yang Xie, Varun Sondhi, Martin Wagner, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Angela Horvath, Bettina Leber, Ming Chang Hu, Orson W Moe, David J Mangelsdorf, Steven A Kliewer
Alcohol and ketogenic diets increase water consumption. Here, we show that the hormone FGF21 is required for this drinking response in mice. Circulating levels of FGF21 are increased by alcohol consumption in humans and by both alcohol and ketogenic diets in mice. Pharmacologic administration of FGF21 stimulates water drinking behavior in mice within 2 hr. Concordantly, mice lacking FGF21 fail to increase water intake in response to either alcohol or a ketogenic diet. The effect of FGF21 on drinking is mediated in part by SIM1-positive neurons of the hypothalamus and is inhibited by β-adrenergic receptor antagonists...
April 12, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"