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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544484/neglected-issues-concerning-teaching-human-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-popular-biochemistry-textbooks
#1
Zhiyong Han, Mark S Elliott
In the human body, the adrenal steroids collectively regulate a plethora of fundamental functions, including electrolyte and water balance, blood pressure, stress response, intermediary metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. Therefore, adrenal steroidogenesis is an important biochemistry topic for students to learn in order for them to understand health consequences caused by deficiencies of enzymes in the adrenal steroidogenic pathways. However, popular biochemistry textbooks contain insufficient information and may sometimes give students a misimpression about certain aspects of human adrenal steroidogenesis...
May 19, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542568/nesfatin-1-like-peptide-is-a-novel-metabolic-factor-that-suppresses-feeding-and-regulates-whole-body-energy-homeostasis-in-male-wistar-rats
#2
Kavishankar Gawli, Naresh Ramesh, Suraj Unniappan
Nucleobindin-1 has high sequence similarity to nucleobindin-2, which encodes the anorectic and metabolic peptide, nesfatin-1. We previously reported a nesfatin-1-like peptide (NLP), anorectic in fish and insulinotropic in mice islet beta-like cells. The main objective of this research was to determine whether NLP is a metabolic regulator in male Wistar rats. A single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of NLP (100 μg/kg BW) decreased food intake and increased ambulatory movement, without causing any change in total activity or energy expenditure when compared to saline-treated rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541559/hydraulic-redistribution-under-moderate-drought-among-english-oak-european-beech-and-norway-spruce-determined-by-deuterium-isotope-labeling-in-a-split-root-experiment
#3
Benjamin D Hafner, Martina Tomasella, Karl-Heinz Häberle, Marc Goebel, Rainer Matyssek, Thorsten E E Grams
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water through plant roots is a crucial phenomenon improving the water balance of plants and ecosystems. It is mostly described under severe drought, and not yet studied under moderate drought. We tested the potential of HR under moderate drought, hypothesizing that (H1) tree species redistribute soil water in their roots even under moderate drought and that (H2) neighboring plants are supported with water provided by redistributing plants. Trees were planted in split-root systems with one individual (i...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540379/fundamental-aspects-of-electrochemically-controlled-wetting-of-nanoscale-composite-materials
#4
A Robert Hillman, Karl S Ryder, Hani K Ismail, Asuman Unal, Annelies Voorhaar
Electroactive films based on conducting polymers have numerous potential applications, but practical devices frequently require a combination of properties not met by a single component. This has prompted an extension to composite materials, notably those in which particulates are immobilised within a polymer film. Irrespective of the polymer and the intended application, film wetting is important: by various means, it facilitates transport processes - of electronic charge, charge-balancing counter ions ("dopant") and analyte/reactant molecules - and motion of polymer segments...
May 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537749/water-microsolvation-can-switch-the-binding-mode-of-ni-ii-with-small-peptides
#5
Robert C Dunbar, Jonathan Martens, Giel Berden, Jos Oomens
Ni(II) ions can be caged by surrounding peptide ligands in two basic binding patterns: the "iminol" (IM) binding pattern, where chelation occurs by deprotonated amide nitrogens, or the charge-solvated (CS) binding pattern, where chelation occurs by amide carbonyl oxygens. Gas-phase observation may clarify the factors affecting this choice in solution and in peptide and protein matrices. Infrared-spectroscopic determination of gas-phase structures shows here how microsolvation by just one water molecule switches the balance of this choice from IM to CS for the Ni2+Gly3 complex, in contrast to the always-CS structure of the Ni2+Gly4 complex...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#6
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533572/%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-mitigates-arsenic-induced-hematological-abnormalities-in-adult-male-rats
#7
Sonali Ghosh, Raghwendra Mishra, Sagnik Biswas, Rupak K Bhadra, Prabir K Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Arsenic toxicity is a major global health problem and exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with hematological and other systemic disorders. The present investigation has been conducted in adult male rats to evaluate the protective ability of α-lipoic acid (ALA) against such hematological disorders. METHODS: Twenty-four adult male Wister rats (b.wt.130±10g) were grouped and accordingly group I (control) received the normal diet, group II (treated) was given arsenic orally for 28 consecutive days as arsenic trioxide (3 mg/kgbw/rat/day) whereas group III (supplemented) received the same dose of arsenic along with ALA (25 mg/kgbw/rat/day) as oral supplement...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531262/biogeography-of-cryoconite-bacterial-communities-on-glaciers-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#8
Yongqin Liu, Trista J Vick-Majors, John C Priscu, Tandong Yao, Shichang Kang, Keshao Liu, Ziyuang Cong, Jingbo Xiong, Yang Li
Cryoconite holes, water-filled pockets containing biological and mineralogical deposits that form on glacier surfaces, play important roles in glacier mass balance, glacial geochemistry, and carbon cycling. The presence of cryoconite material decreases surface albedo and accelerates glacier mass loss, a problem of particular importance in the rapidly melting Tibetan Plateau. No studies have addressed the microbial community composition of cryoconite holes and their associated ecosystem processes on Tibetan glaciers...
May 20, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531202/the-role-of-density-dependent-and-independent-processes-in-spawning-habitat-selection-by-salmon-in-an-arctic-riverscape
#9
Brock M Huntsman, Jeffrey A Falke, James W Savereide, Katrina E Bennett
Density-dependent (DD) and density-independent (DI) habitat selection is strongly linked to a species' evolutionary history. Determining the relative importance of each is necessary because declining populations are not always the result of altered DI mechanisms but can often be the result of DD via a reduced carrying capacity. We developed spatially and temporally explicit models throughout the Chena River, Alaska to predict important DI mechanisms that influence Chinook salmon spawning success. We used resource-selection functions to predict suitable spawning habitat based on geomorphic characteristics, a semi-distributed water-and-energy balance hydrologic model to generate stream flow metrics, and modeled stream temperature as a function of climatic variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530505/ingestion-of-sodium-bicarbonate-nahco3-following-a-fatiguing-bout-of-exercise-accelerates-post-exercise-acid-base-balance-recovery-and-improves-subsequent-high-intensity-cycling-time-to-exhaustion
#10
Lewis A Gough, Steven Rimmer, Callum J Osler, Matthew F Higgins
This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on post-exercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23±2 years, height: 179±5 cm, body mass: 74±9 kg, peak mean minute power (WPEAK) 256±45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2PEAK) 46±8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (TLIM1) at 100% WPEAK on two occasions (TLIM1 and TLIM2) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530400/probing-the-conformation-dependent-preferential-binding-of-ethanol-to-cationic-glycylalanylglycine-in-water-ethanol-by-vibrational-and-nmr-spectroscopy
#11
David DiGuiseppi, Bridget J Milorey, Gabrielle Lewis, Nina Kubatova, Stefanie Farrell, Harald Schwalbe, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner
The conformational propensity of amino acid residues is determined by an intricate balance of peptide-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. In order to explore how the systematic replacement of water by a cosolvent affects the solvation of both amino acid backbone and side chains we, performed a combined vibrational spectroscopy and NMR study of cationic glycylalanylglycine (GAG) in different ethanol/water mixtures between 0 and 42 mole percent of ethanol. The classical model peptide N'-methylacetamide was used as a reference system to probe solvent-induced spectroscopic changes...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529304/sebastian-kneipp-and-the-natural-cure-movement-of-germany-between-naturalism-and-modern-medicine
#12
Youkyung Ko
This study discusses the historical significance of the Natural Cure Movement of Germany, centering on the Kneipp Cure, a form of hydrotherapy practiced by Father Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897). The Kneipp Cure rested on five main tenets: hydrotherapy, exercise, nutrition, herbalism, and the balance of mind and body. This study illuminates the reception of the Kneipp Cure in the context of the trilateral relationship among the Kneipp Cure, the Natural Cure Movement in general, and modern medicine. The Natural Cure Movement was ideologically based on naturalism, criticizing industrialization and urbanization...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528907/widespread-biological-response-to-rapid-warming-on-the-antarctic-peninsula
#13
Matthew J Amesbury, Thomas P Roland, Jessica Royles, Dominic A Hodgson, Peter Convey, Howard Griffiths, Dan J Charman
Recent climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula is well documented [1-5], with warming, alongside increases in precipitation, wind strength, and melt season length [1, 6, 7], driving environmental change [8, 9]. However, meteorological records mostly began in the 1950s, and paleoenvironmental datasets that provide a longer-term context to recent climate change are limited in number and often from single sites [7] and/or discontinuous in time [10, 11]. Here we use moss bank cores from a 600-km transect from Green Island (65...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527951/digital-food-photography-technology-improves-efficiency-and-feasibility-of-dietary-intake-assessments-in-large-populations-eating-ad-libitum-in-collective-dining-facilities
#14
Holly L McClung, Catherine M Champagne, H Raymond Allen, Susan M McGraw, Andrew J Young, Scott J Montain, Aaron P Crombie
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of dietary intake continues to challenge researchers, especially in field, or non-laboratory settings. OBJECTIVE: In this study, digital food photography (DFP) methodology was used to assess nutritional intake (NI) of Soldiers participating in the US Army's Ranger Selection and Assessment Program (RASP). METHODS: During this high-intensity six-week course, Soldiers complete simulated operational missions, perform various military tasks, and importantly, eating time is severely limited...
May 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527389/dynamics-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-riverine-sediments-affected-by-weir-impoundments-production-benthic-flux-and-environmental-implications
#15
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526086/comparison-of-fluid-balance-and-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-effects-of-sodium-lactate-versus-sodium-bicarbonate-versus-0-9-nacl-in-porcine-endotoxic-shock-a-randomized-open-label-controlled-study
#16
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Anne-Frédérique Dessein, Joseph Vamecq, Jean-Claude Vienne, Dries Dobbelaere, Karine Mention, Claire Douillard, Patrice Maboudou, Valery Gmyr, François Pattou, Mercé Jourdain, Fabienne Tamion, Julien Poissy, Daniel Mathieu, Raphaël Favory
BACKGROUND: Sodium lactate has been shown to improve hemodynamics and avoid fluid overload. The objective of this study was to confirm a beneficial effect on fluid balance with sodium lactate infusion and to specify whether the advantage of lactate is related to a negative chloride balance, its particular metabolism, or simply its energy load. METHODS: This was an interventional, randomized, open-label, controlled experimental study. Fifteen female "large white" pigs (2 months old) were challenged with intravenous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin...
May 19, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524701/helical-water-wires
#17
A R Liboff, C Poggi, P Pratesi
A helitetrahedral model has been proposed to help explain reports of low-frequency oscillations in pure water following electromagnetic excitation at the hydronium ion cyclotron resonance frequency. The Lorentz force and the intrinsic structure constrain the motion of the H3O(+) ion so that it enjoys a unique form of proton-hopping, one whose path is helical. This model may also explain the numerous previously observed cyclotron resonance (ICR) biological couplings for cations other than hydronium by merely substituting hydrogen-bonded versions of these for hydronium in the tetrahedral structure...
May 19, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#18
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514452/isotopic-evidence-of-multiple-controls-on-atmospheric-oxidants-over-climate-transitions
#19
Lei Geng, Lee T Murray, Loretta J Mickley, Pu Lin, Qiang Fu, Andrew J Schauer, Becky Alexander
The abundance of tropospheric oxidants, such as ozone (O3) and hydroxyl (OH) and peroxy radicals (HO2 + RO2), determines the lifetimes of reduced trace gases such as methane and the production of particulate matter important for climate and human health. The response of tropospheric oxidants to climate change is poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in the degree to which processes that influence oxidants may change with climate and owing to a lack of palaeo-records with which to constrain levels of atmospheric oxidants during past climate transitions...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514233/energy-balance-over-one-athletic-season
#20
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Diana Thomas, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Manfred J Müller, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and the change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. METHODS: Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage...
March 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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