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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913187/molecular-recognition-of-a-lipophilic-guanosine-derivative-in-langmuir-films-at-the-air-water-interface
#1
Lucija Čoga, Lea Spindler, Stefano Masiero, Irena Drevenšek-Olenik
Molecular recognition of a lipophilic deoxyguanosine derivative at the air-water interface was investigated by film balance experiments and Brewster Angle Microscopy. Results showed that guanosine, despite strong tendency towards self-assembly, interacts with both complementary and noncomplementary liponucleosides (lipophilic derivatives of deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine). At surface pressures below 17 mN/m, attractive and repulsive interactions were present in case of both mixed monolayers and were strongest at guanosine molar fractions of 0...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912163/reproduction-impairment-and-endocrine-disruption-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-after-waterborne-exposure-to-tboep
#2
Qinglong Xu, Ding Wu, Yao Dang, Liqin Yu, Chunsheng Liu, Jianghua Wang
Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). It has been frequently measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg/L) in surface waters and waste water. However, limited information is available about the reproduction toxicology of TBOEP. In this study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500μg/L for 21days. The effects on reproduction, hormone concentration, transcription of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and gonadal development were investigated...
November 24, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912029/how-to-establish-a-bioregenerative-life-support-system-for-long-term-crewed-missions-to-the-moon-or-mars
#3
Yuming Fu, Leyuan Li, Beizhen Xie, Chen Dong, Mingjuan Wang, Boyang Jia, Lingzhi Shao, Yingying Dong, Shengda Deng, Hui Liu, Guanghui Liu, Bojie Liu, Dawei Hu, Hong Liu
To conduct crewed simulation experiments of bioregenerative life support systems on the ground is a critical step for human life support in deep-space exploration. An artificial closed ecosystem named Lunar Palace 1 was built through integrating efficient higher plant cultivation, animal protein production, urine nitrogen recycling, and bioconversion of solid waste. Subsequently, a 105-day, multicrew, closed integrative bioregenerative life support systems experiment in Lunar Palace 1 was carried out from February through May 2014...
December 2, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910847/efficiency-limits-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#4
Katherine T Fountaine, Hans Joachim Lewerenz, Harry A Atwater
Theoretical limiting efficiencies have a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes, as evidenced by the photovoltaics community's focus on detailed balance. However, due to their multicomponent nature, photoelectrochemical devices do not have an equivalent analogue to detailed balance, and reported theoretical efficiency limits vary depending on the assumptions made. Here we introduce a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which all previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908077/tropical-littoral-ambient-noise-probability-density-function-model-based-on-sea-surface-temperature
#5
Piyush Asolkar, Arnab Das, Suhas Gajre, Yashwant Joshi
Ambient noise variability in tropical shallow water presents a critical challenge for sonar designers and operators due to site-specific sea surface fluctuations. Sea surface temperature (SST) is a direct measure of energy balance defining the local climate of the region and hence ambient noise characteristics. In this work, an ambient noise probability density function (pdf) model for a spectral band of 3-10 kHz has been designed based on the statistical distribution of SST and validated using real field data...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907253/decadal-shifts-in-grass-and-woody-plant-cover-are-driven-by-prolonged-drying-and-modified-by-topo-edaphic-properties
#6
Seth M Munson, Temuulen T Sankey, George Xian, Miguel L Villarreal, Collin G Homer
Woody plant encroachment and overall declines in perennial vegetation in dryland regions can alter ecosystem properties and indicate land degradation, but the causes of these shifts remain controversial. Determining how changes in the abundance and distribution of grass and woody plants are influenced by conditions that regulate water availability at a regional scale provides a baseline to compare how management actions alter the composition of these vegetation types at a more local scale and can be used to predict future shifts under climate change...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905393/nitrous-oxide-as-a-function-of-oxygen-and-archaeal-gene-abundance-in-the-north-pacific
#7
Mark Trimmer, Panagiota-Myrsini Chronopoulou, Susanna T Maanoja, Robert C Upstill-Goddard, Vassilis Kitidis, Kevin J Purdy
Oceanic oxygen minimum zones are strong sources of the potent greenhouse gas N2O but its microbial source is unclear. We characterized an exponential response in N2O production to decreasing oxygen between 1 and 30 μmol O2 l(-1) within and below the oxycline using (15)NO2(-), a relationship that held along a 550 km offshore transect in the North Pacific. Differences in the overall magnitude of N2O production were accounted for by archaeal functional gene abundance. A one-dimensional (1D) model, parameterized with our experimentally derived exponential terms, accurately reproduces N2O profiles in the top 350 m of water column and, together with a strong (45)N2O signature indicated neither canonical nor nitrifier-denitrification production while statistical modelling supported production by archaea, possibly via hybrid N2O formation...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904674/bmi1-plays-an-important-role-in-dentin-and-mandible-homeostasis-by-maintaining-redox-balance
#8
Ying Yin, Xian Xue, Qian Wang, Ning Chen, Dengshun Miao
To explore whether polycomb repressor Bmi1 plays an important role in dentin and mandible development homeostasis by maintaining redox balance, 3-week-old Bmi1 gene knockout (Bmi1(-/-)) mice were treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 2 weeks in their drinking water and phenotypes of the tooth and mandibles were compared with vehicle-treated Bmi1(-/-) mice and wild-type mice by radiograph, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Alterations of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell proliferation and cell cycle-related parameters were also examined in mandibles...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900767/cumulative-changes-in-weight-but-not-fluid-volume-balances-reflect-fluid-accumulation-in-icu-patients
#9
M Köster, S Dennhardt, F Jüttner, H-B Hopf
BACKGROUND: The cumulative fluid balance of critically ill patients seems to be an outcome-relevant variable. However, there are no validated data for their reliability calculated for longer (> 5 days) periods of time. METHODS: All ICU patients ≥ 18 years, with an ICU stay ≥ 5 days and a body weight ≤ 195 kg were evaluated from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. Daily standardized weighing was performed using bed-integrated scales simultaneously with the daily 24-h fluid balance...
November 30, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#10
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898943/effects-of-feeding-fermented-wheat-with-on-gut-morphology-intestinal-fermentation-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-in-weaned-pigs
#11
M H A Le, S Galle, Y Yang, J L Landero, E Beltranena, M G Gänzle, R T Zijlstra
Feeding fermented feed to weaned pigs may improve nutrient digestibility and gut health and thereby reduce diarrhea incidence. Effects of feeding wheat grain fermented for 24 h with were evaluated with 36 weaned pigs (7.3 kg BW). Fermented wheat grain contained (DM basis) 14.2% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 7.8% NDF, whereas unfermented wheat grain contained 16.4% CP, 0.45% chemically available Lys, and 9.9% NDF. Pigs were fed 6 mash wheat-based diets balanced for water content during 2 phases: Phase 1 diets for 1 wk (d 0-7) with 20% unfermented or fermented wheat and, subsequently, Phase 2 diets for 2 wk (d 8-21) with 50% unfermented or fermented wheat...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898523/role-of-corin-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#12
Hui Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895707/fungal-fermentation-on-anaerobic-digestate-for-lipid-based-biofuel-production
#13
Yuan Zhong, Zhiguo Liu, Christine Isaguirre, Yan Liu, Wei Liao
BACKGROUND: Anaerobic digestate is the effluent from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes. It contains a significant amount of nutrients and lignocellulosic materials, even though anaerobic digestion consumed a large portion of organic matters in the wastes. Utilizing the nutrients and lignocellulosic materials in the digestate is critical to significantly improve efficiency of anaerobic digestion technology and generate value-added chemical and fuel products from the organic wastes...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894067/quenching-the-thirst-for-hunger
#14
Paul Lee
Maintenance of energy and water balance is fundamental to survival across organisms. A recent study reveals a unique neuroendocrine node in Drosophila that simultaneously surveys systemic caloric and osmotic fluctuations to fine-tune food and water consumption, shedding new neuronal mechanistic insight on anti-diabetes therapeutics with dual glucose/osmolality modulatory actions.
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893932/density-driven-free-convection-model-for-isotopically-fractionated-geogenic-nitrate-in-sabkha-brine
#15
Warren W Wood, J K Böhlke
Subsurface brines with high nitrate (NO3(-) ) concentration are common in desert environments as atmospheric nitrogen is concentrated by the evaporation of precipitation and little nitrogen uptake. However, in addition to having an elevated mean concentration of ∼525 mg/L (as N), NO3- in the coastal sabkhas of Abu Dhabi is enriched in (15) N (mean δ(15) N ∼17‰), which is an enigma. A NO3(-) solute mass balance analysis of the sabkha aquifer system suggests that more than 90% of the nitrogen is from local atmospheric deposition and the remainder from ascending brine...
November 28, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892703/the-measurement-and-estimation-of-total-energy-expenditure-in-japanese-patients-with-als-a-doubly-labelled-water-method-study
#16
Toshio Shimizu, Kazuko Ishikawa-Takata, Akiko Sakata, Utako Nagaoka, Noriko Ichihara, Chiho Ishida, Yuki Nakayama, Tetsuo Komori, Masatoyo Nishizawa
Appropriate nutritional therapy has not been established for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our objective was to measure the total energy expenditure (TEE) and determine an equation to estimate the energy requirements for Japanese patients with ALS. Twenty-six Japanese patients with ALS participated in the study. The TEE was measured using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method for a 14-day period. Using a range of clinical parameters and multiple regression analyses, we determined an adequate equation to calculate TEE...
November 28, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891619/the-role-of-nutrients-in-drought-induced-tree-mortality-and-recovery
#17
REVIEW
Arthur Gessler, Marcus Schaub, Nate G McDowell
I. II. III. References SUMMARY: Global forests are experiencing rising temperatures and more severe droughts, with consistently dire forecasts for negative future impacts. Current research on the physiological mechanisms underlying drought impacts is focused on the water- and carbon-associated mechanisms. The role of nutrients is notably missing from this research agenda. Here, we investigate what role, if any, forest nutrition plays for survival and recovery of forests during and after drought. High nutrient availability may play a detrimental role in drought survival due to preferential biomass allocation aboveground that (1) predispose plants to hydraulic constraints limiting photosynthesis and promoting hydraulic failure, (2) increases carbon costs during periods of carbon starvation, and (3) promote biotic attack due to low tissue carbon: nitrogen (C : N)...
November 28, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887823/transport-and-transformation-of-soil-derived-co2-ch4-and-doc-sustain-co2-supersaturation-in-small-boreal-streams
#18
Terhi Rasilo, Ryan H S Hutchins, Clara Ruiz-González, Paul A Del Giorgio
Streams are typically supersaturated in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), and are recognized as important components of regional carbon (C) emissions in northern landscapes. Whereas there is consensus that in most of the systems the CO2 emitted by streams represents C fixed in the terrestrial ecosystem, the pathways delivering this C to streams are still not well understood. We assessed the contribution of direct soil CO2 injection versus the oxidation of soil-derived dissolved organic C (DOC) and CH4 in supporting CO2 supersaturation in boreal streams in Québec...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885171/sapfluxnet-towards-a-global-database-of-sap-flow-measurements
#19
EDITORIAL
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Roberto Molowny-Horas, Maurizio Mencuccini, Kathy Steppe, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world...
November 23, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884527/source-apportionment-of-size-fractionated-particles-during-the-2013-asian-youth-games-and-the-2014-youth-olympic-games-in-nanjing-china
#20
Pulong Chen, Tijian Wang, Xiaobo Lu, Yiyong Yu, Matthew Kasoar, Min Xie, Bingliang Zhuang
In this study, samples of size-fractionated particulate matter were collected continuously using a 9-size interval cascade impactor at an urban site in Nanjing, before, during and after the Asian Youth Games (AYG), from July to September of 2013, and the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), from July to September of 2014. First, elemental concentrations, water-soluble ions including Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analysed. Then, the source apportionment of the fine and coarse particulate matter was carried out using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model...
November 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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