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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436915/an-adaptive-multiobjective-particle-swarm-optimization-based-on-multiple-adaptive-methods
#1
Honggui Han, Wei Lu, Junfei Qiao
Multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithms have attracted much attention for their promising performance in solving multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs). In this paper, an adaptive MOPSO (AMOPSO) algorithm, based on a hybrid framework of the solution distribution entropy and population spacing (SP) information, is developed to improve the search performance in terms of convergent speed and precision. First, an adaptive global best (gBest) selection mechanism, based on the solution distribution entropy, is introduced to analyze the evolutionary tendency and balance the diversity and convergence of nondominated solutions in the archive...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436561/the-interplay-between-aridity-and-competition-determines-colonization-ability-exclusion-and-ecological-segregation-in-the-heteroploid-brachypodium-distachyon-species-complex
#2
Pedro J Rey, Antonio J Manzaneda, Julio M Alcántara
A higher competitive advantage of polyploid plants compared with their parental diploids is frequently invoked to explain their establishment success, colonization of novel environments and cytotypic ecological segregation, yet there is scarce experimental evidence supporting such hypotheses. Here, we investigated whether differential competitive ability of species of the Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae) species complex, a model system for genomic, ecological and evolutionary studies of temperate grasses, contributes to explaining their ecological segregation as well as their coexistence in diploid/allotetraploid contact zones...
April 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436529/modifying-surface-forces-through-control-of-surface-potentials
#3
Ran Tivony, Jacob Klein
Combining direct surface force measurements with in situ regulation of surface potential provides an exceptional opportunity for investigating and manipulating interfacial phenomena. Recently, we studied the interaction between gold and mica surfaces in water with no added salt, while controlling the metal potential, and found that the surface charge at the metal may vary, and possibly even change its sign, as it progressively approaches the (constant-charge) mica surface [Langmuir, 2015, 31(47), 12845-12849]...
April 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436522/integrated-hydrogen-evolution-and-water-cleaning-via-a-robust-graphene-supported-noble-metal-free-fe1-xcoxs2-system
#4
Yingying Fan, Dandan Wang, Dongxue Han, Yingming Ma, Shuang Ni, Zhonghui Sun, Xiandui Dong, Li Niu
In an electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) system, a cathodic H(+) resource, an anodic sacrificial agent and a robust catalyst are three essential factors. Industry wastewater emissions, containing high levels of acidity and organic dyes, actually can satisfy the material requirements for the HER. Herein, a new HER method is proposed, taking acidic ions from wastewater as a cathodic resource to produce H2, while organic dye waste acts as an anodic sacrifice to balance the reaction. In such a way, a sustainable H2 energy source can be generated and clean water is obtained as well...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433901/significantly-enhanced-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-rice-straw-via-a-high-performance-two-stage-deep-eutectic-solvents-synergistic-pretreatment
#5
Xue-Dan Hou, Guo-Jian Feng, Mei Ye, Chao-Mei Huang, Yi Zhang
A two-stage deep eutectic solvents (DESs) treatment was shown to be an effective method for improving the utilization of certain DESs, and the specific order of pretreatment, such as malic acid/proline (MP) or choline chloride/oxalic acid (CO) during the first stage and choline chloride/urea (CU) during the second stage, resulted in better performance for enhancing the sugar yield due to the synergistic effect of the two DESs on biomass fractionation. Moreover, the presence of water during these processes could balance the loss of components by tuning the pretreatment severity, thus ensuring higher sugar yields...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433768/response-of-evapotranspiration-to-changes-in-land-use-and-land-cover-and-climate-in-china-during-2001-2013
#6
Gen Li, Fangmin Zhang, Yuanshu Jing, Yibo Liu, Ge Sun
Land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is a central component of the Earth's global energy balance and water cycle. Understanding ET is important in quantifying the impacts of human influences on the hydrological cycle and thus helps improving water use efficiency and strengthening water use planning and watershed management. China has experienced tremendous land use and land cover changes (LUCC) as a result of urbanization and ecological restoration under a broad background of climate change. This study used MODIS data products to analyze how LUCC and climate change affected ET in China in the period 2001-2013...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433163/fabrication-of-schizophyllan-hydrogel-via-orthogonal-thiol-ene-photopolymerization
#7
Sora Lee, Hyunhyuk Tae, Chang Seok Ki
Schizophyllan (SPG) is a water soluble β-glucan, which is obtained from Schizophyllum commune. SPG has been widely explored with its unique properties such as triple helical structure, immune-modulation, and anti-tumoral activity. In this study, we tried to fabricate SPG hydrogel via thiol-ene photopolymerization. SPG-norbornene and SPG-thiol were synthesized from ultrasonicated SPG. Two types of SPG hydrogels (SPG and PEG/SPG hybrid) were formed via thiol-ene photo-click reaction. By controlling the SPG content and stoichiometric balance of norbornene and thiol groups, swelling ratio and shear elastic modulus of SPG hydrogel could be controlled in the range of 20-60 and 0...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432154/identification-of-the-septate-junction-protein-gliotactin-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-evidence-for-a-role-in-increased-paracellular-permeability-in-larvae
#8
Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Septate junctions (SJs) regulate paracellular permeability across invertebrate epithelia. However, little is known about the function of SJ proteins in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, a role for the transmembrane SJ protein gliotactin (Gli) in the osmoregulatory strategies of larval mosquito (Aedes aegypti) was examined. Differences in gli transcript abundance were observed between the midgut, Malpighian tubules (MT), hindgut and anal papillae (AP) of A. aegypti, which are epithelia that participate in larval mosquito osmoregulation...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431371/past-present-and-future-land-use-changes-and-their-impact-on-water-balance
#9
Sananda Kundu, Deepak Khare, Arun Mondal
Landuse change influences the water balance of a region affecting the available water along with the change in the evapotranspiration (ET). The major objectives of this study are to assess the landuse change and its impact on the water balance of the study area, which is a part of the Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh, India. Landuse changes of 1990, 2000 and 2011 have been analyzed and the Markov Chain model has been used to predict decadal change of 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 landuse. The influence of the past, present and future landuse change on water balance has been analyzed with the SWAT (Soil and Water Analysis Tool) model in the study area...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430427/performance-of-the-amoeba-water-model-in-the-vicinity-of-qm-solutes-a-diagnosis-using-energy-decomposition-analysis
#10
Yuezhi Mao, Yihan Shao, Jacek Dziedzic, Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Teresa Head-Gordon, Martin Head-Gordon
The importance of incorporating solvent polarization effects into the modeling of solvation processes has been well-recognized, and therefore a new generation of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approaches that accounts for this effect is desirable. We present a fully self-consistent, mutually polarizable QM/MM scheme using the AMOEBA force field, in which the total energy of the system is variationally minimized with respect to both the QM electronic density and the MM induced dipoles. This QM/AMOEBA model is implemented through the Q-Chem/LibEFP code interface and then applied to the evaluation of solute-solvent interaction energies for various systems ranging from the water dimer to neutral and ionic solutes (NH3, NH4(+) , CN(-)) surrounded by increasing numbers of water molecules (up to 100)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429011/drop-transport-and-positioning-on-lubricant-impregnated-surfaces
#11
Jian Hui Guan, Élfego Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Ben Bin Xu, David Wood, Glen McHale, Rodrigo Ledesma-Aguilar, Gary George Wells
We demonstrate the transport and positioning of water droplets on macro-patterned lubricant-impregnated surfaces. The macro-patterning produces menisci features in the impregnating liquid layer which interact with a droplet via a capillary mechanism similar to the Cheerios effect. These interactions control the droplet motion and positioning on an otherwise completely slippery surface. We present experimental results using a V-shape channel geometry as a model system. The interaction between deformations on the lubricant layer induced by the droplet and the underlying V-shape geometry leads to both local and global equilibrium positions for the droplet within the channel...
April 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428539/separating-decadal-global-water-cycle-variability-from-sea-level-rise
#12
B D Hamlington, J T Reager, M-H Lo, K B Karnauskas, R R Leben
Under a warming climate, amplification of the water cycle and changes in precipitation patterns over land are expected to occur, subsequently impacting the terrestrial water balance. On global scales, such changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) will be reflected in the water contained in the ocean and can manifest as global sea level variations. Naturally occurring climate-driven TWS variability can temporarily obscure the long-term trend in sea level rise, in addition to modulating the impacts of sea level rise through natural periodic undulation in regional and global sea level...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427995/conditioned-taste-avoidance-conditioned-place-preference-and-hyperthermia-induced-by-the-second-generation-bath-salt-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp
#13
Katharine H Nelson, Briana J Hempel, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
BACKGROUND: α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) has been reported to be rewarding in a variety of pre-clinical models. Given that a number of drugs of abuse have both rewarding and aversive effects, the balance of which influences addiction potential, the present study examined the aversive properties of α-PVP by assessing its ability to induce taste avoidance. This assessment was made in a combined taste avoidance/place conditioning design that also allowed an evaluation of the relationship between α-PVP's aversive and rewarding effects...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426222/structural-and-dynamical-properties-of-tetra-alkyl-ammonium-bromide-aqueous-solutions-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-using-a-polarizable-force-field
#14
Dengpan Dong, Justin B Hooper, Dmitry Bedrov
Understanding the behavior of aqueous solutions containing tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA) cations is of great significance in a number of applications, including polymer membranes for fuel cells. In this work, a polarizable force field has been used to preform atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of aqueous solutions containing tetra-methyl ammonium (TMA) or tetra-butyl ammonium (TBA) cations and Br counterions. Extensive MD simulations of TMA-Br/water and TBA-Br/water systems were conducted as a function of solution composition (ion pair : water molar ratios of 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:63, 1:500) at atmospheric pressure and 298K...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424312/archer-fish-jumping-prey-capture-kinematics-and-hydrodynamics
#15
Anna M Shih, Leah Mendelson, Alexandra H Techet
Smallscale archer fish, Toxotes microlepis, are best known for spitting jets of water to capture prey, but also hunt by jumping out of the water to heights of up to 2.5 body lengths. In this study, high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used to characterize the kinematics and hydrodynamics of this jumping behavior. Jumping used a set of kinematics distinct from those of in-water feeding strikes and was segmented into three phases: (1) hovering to sight prey at the surface, (2) rapid upward thrust production and (3) gliding to the prey once out of the water...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423895/supramolecularly-engineered-%C3%AF-amphiphile
#16
Priya Rajdev, Saptarshi Chakraborty, Marc Schmutz, Philippe J Mésini, Suhrit Ghosh
This article describes self-assembly of supramolecularly engineered naphthalene-diimide (NDI) derived amphiphiles NDI-1 and NDI-2. They have the same hydrophobic/ hydrophilic balance but merely differ by a single functional group, amide or ester, respectively. They exhibit distinct self-assembly in water; NDI-1 form hydrogel which upon aging forms crystals while NDI-2 forms micelle as revealed by in-depth structural analysis using cryo-TEM, DLS and SAXS studies. These results suggest H-bonding among the amide groups fully regulates the self-assembly by overruling the packing parameters...
April 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423379/excessive-weight-favours-skin-physiology-up-to-a-point-another-expression-of-the-obesity-paradox
#17
Luís Monteiro Monteiro Rodrigues, Lídia Palma, Osvaldo Santos, Maria Angélica Almeida, Julia Bujan, Liliana Tavares
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recently classified as an epidemic by the WHO, obesity (as well as the state of being overweight) clearly affects significant populations across all ages. The relationship between obesity and some diseases (e.g. cardiovascular ones) is known, although many paradoxes remain to be explained. Very little information is available, however, regarding its impact on skin physiology and skin disease. This study aims to examine the influence of excessive weight on epidermal hydration and transepidermal water loss, key variables of skin water balance and skin biomechanics...
April 20, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420608/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-plant-plasma-membrane-intrinsic-proteins-trafficking-and-stress-response
#18
Wang Xing, Zhang Jilong, Feng Xiuxiu, Li Hongjie, Zhang Genfa
Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are plant channel proteins located on the plasma membrane. PIPs transfer water, CO2 and small uncharged solutes through the plasma membrane. PIPs have high selectivity to substrates, suggestive of a central role in maintaining cellular water balance. The expression, activity and localization of PIPs are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and also affected by environmental factors. Numerous studies indicate that the expression patterns and localizations of PIPs can change in response to abiotic stresses...
April 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420233/novel-hydrogen-bonding-crosslinking-aggregation-induced-emission-water-as-a-fluorescent-ribbon-detected-in-a-wide-range
#19
Ani Wang, Ruiqing Fan, Yuwei Dong, Yang Song, Yuze Zhou, Jianzong Zheng, Xi Du, Kai Xing, Yulin Yang
The development of efficient sensors for detection of the water content in a wide detection range is highly desirable for balance many industrial processes and products. Presented herein are six novel different substituted of Schiff base Zn(II) complexes, which exhibit the remarkable capability to detect traces of water in wide linear range (the most can reach to 0-94%, v/v), low detection limit of 0.2% (v/v) and rapidly response time of 8s in various organic solvents by virtue of an unusual water-activated hydrogen-bonding crosslinking AIE (WHCAIE) mechanism...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418005/simulated-climate-effects-of-desert-irrigation-geoengineering
#20
Wei Cheng, John C Moore, Long Cao, Duoying Ji, Liyun Zhao
Geoengineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of earth's energy balance to counteract global warming, is an attractive proposition for sparsely populated deserts. We use the BNU and UVic Earth system models to simulate the effects of irrigating deserts under the RCP8.5 scenario. Previous studies focused on increasing desert albedo to reduce global warming; in contrast we examine how extending afforestation and ecological projects, that successfully improve regional environments, fair for geoengineering purposes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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