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ketogenic diet and loss of fat-free mass

Luigi Schiavo, Vincenzo Pilone, Gianluca Rossetti, Alfonso Barbarisi, Manuela Cesaretti, Antonio Iannelli
BACKGROUND: Before bariatric surgery (BS), moderate weight loss, left hepatic lobe volume reduction, and micronutrient deficiency (MD) identification and correction are desirable. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the safety and the effectiveness of a 4-week preoperative ketogenic micronutrient-enriched diet (KMED) in reducing body weight (BW), left hepatic lobe volume, and correcting MD in patients scheduled for BS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, a cohort of morbidly obese patients (n = 27, 17 females, 10 males) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 45...
March 3, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Miguel A Martinez-Olmos, Ana Canton, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Ignacio Sajoux, Cristobal Galban, Diego Bellido, Felipe F Casanueva
Background: The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method: From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA and MF-Bioimpedance, and RMR by indirect calorimetry, were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1, basal, initial fat mass (FM) and free fat mass (FFM); visit C-2, - 7...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego Bellido, Ana I Castro, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Jose Carreira, Cristobal Galban, Miguel A Martinez-Olmos, Ana B Crujeiras, Ignacio Sajoux, Felipe F Casanueva
Context: Common concerns when using low-calorie diets as a treatment for obesity are the reduction in fat-free mass, mostly muscular mass, that occurs together with the fat mass (FM) loss, and determining the best methodologies to evaluate body composition changes. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the very-low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet-induced changes in body composition of obese patients and to compare 3 different methodologies used to evaluate those changes...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kevin D Hall, Kong Y Chen, Juen Guo, Yan Y Lam, Rudolph L Leibel, Laurel Es Mayer, Marc L Reitman, Michael Rosenbaum, Steven R Smith, B Timothy Walsh, Eric Ravussin
BACKGROUND: The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity posits that habitual consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet sequesters fat within adipose tissue because of hyperinsulinemia and results in adaptive suppression of energy expenditure (EE). Therefore, isocaloric exchange of dietary carbohydrate for fat is predicted to result in increased EE, increased fat oxidation, and loss of body fat. In contrast, a more conventional view that "a calorie is a calorie" predicts that isocaloric variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat will have no physiologically important effects on EE or body fat...
August 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Grant M Tinsley, Darryn S Willoughby
Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle)...
February 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Hyun-Seung Rhyu, Su-Youn Cho
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the weight loss through 3 weeks of ketogenic diet on performance-related physical fitness and inflammatory cytokines in Taekwondo athletes. The subjects selected for this research were 20 Taekwondo athletes of the high schools who participated in a summer camp training program. The subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups, 10 subjects to each group: the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the non-ketogenic diet (NKD) group. Body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors (2,000 m sprint, Wingate test, grip force, back muscle strength, sit-up, 100 m sprint, standing broad jump, single leg standing) and cytokines (Iinterleukin-6, Interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) were analyzed before and after 3weeks of ketogenic diet...
October 2014: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
William S Yancy, Maren K Olsen, John R Guyton, Ronna P Bakst, Eric C Westman
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets remain popular despite a paucity of scientific evidence on their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program with those of a low-fat, low-cholesterol, reduced-calorie diet. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Outpatient research clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 120 overweight, hyperlipidemic volunteers from the community...
May 18, 2004: Annals of Internal Medicine
M Krotkiewski
BACKGROUND: Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are energetically less dense, highly ketogenic, and more easily oxidised than long chain triglycerides (LCT). MCT also differ from LCT in their digestive and metabolic pathways. OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of MCT supplementation during a very low calorie diet (VLCD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Three groups of tightly matched obese women with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m(2) received an isoenergetic (578...
September 2001: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
S M Willi, M J Oexmann, N M Wright, N A Collop, L L Key
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and metabolic impact of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate, low-fat ketogenic diet (K diet) in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents with initial weights of >200% of ideal body weight. METHODS: Six adolescents, aged 12 to 15 years, weighing an average of 147.8 kg (range, 120.6-198.6 kg) and having an average body mass index of 50.9 kg/m (39.8-63.0 kg/m), consumed the K diet for 8 weeks. Daily intake consisted of 650 to 725 calories, which was substantively in the form of protein (80-100 g)...
January 1998: Pediatrics
N H Saunders, S al-Zeibak, S J Ryde, J L Birks
The fat and fat-free components of the weight loss of a group of obese females undergoing a clinically monitored dieting regime have been estimated by two noninvasive electrical techniques, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and tissue resonance impedance monitoring (TRIM). These two procedures are described and results presented for a group of volunteers representing a wide range of body mass index. During the 11 weeks of the study the members of the group were on a 405 kcal liquid ketogenic diet. Within experimental error, the estimates of changes in body composition by the two methods agree with each other and also with estimates determined by tritiated water dilution and neutron activation measurements on the same group of subjects...
June 1993: International Journal of Obesity and related Metabolic Disorders
W D Morgan, S J Ryde, J L Birks, D W Thomas, S N Kreitzman
Body composition measurements, including total body nitrogen (TBN) by in vivo neutron activation analysis, were made on 11 female volunteers before and after an 11-wk very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) [1695 kJ (405 kcal) 6.7 g N]. Mean body mass index (BMI) changed from 32.1 to 26.2 kg/m2, corresponding to a mean weight loss of 16.2 +/- 2.4 (SD) kg. The mean loss of TBN was 125 +/- 57 g, equivalent to 781 +/- 356 g protein. The fat-free mass (FFM) component of the weight loss was calculated by two different methods as 23...
July 1992: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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