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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328067/diminishing-returns-limit-energetic-costs-of-climate-change
#1
Ofir Levy, Jason D Borchert, Travis W Rusch, Lauren B Buckley, Michael J Angilletta
Changes in the time available for organisms to maintain physiologically preferred temperatures (thermal opportunity) is a primary mechanism by which climate change impacts the fitness and population dynamics of organisms. Yet, it is unclear whether losses or gains in thermal opportunity result in proportional changes in rates of energy procurement and use. We experimentally quantified lizard food consumption and energy assimilation at different durations of thermal opportunity. We incorporated these data in an individual-based model of foraging and digestion in lizards to explore the implications of nonlinear responses to shifts in thermal opportunity across a wide geographic range...
March 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327465/anomalous-rashba-spin-orbit-interaction-in-electrically-controlled-topological-insulator-based-on-inn-gan-quantum-wells
#2
S P Lepkowski, Witold Bardyszewski
We study theoretically the topological phase transition and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in electrically biased InN/GaN quantum wells. We show that that for properly chosen widths of quantum wells and barriers, one can effectively tune the system through the topological phase transition applying an external electric field perpendicular to the QW plane. We find that in InN/GaN quantum wells with the inverted band structure, when the conduction band s-type level is below the heavy hole and light hole p-type levels, the spin splitting of the subbands decreases with increasing the amplitude of the electric field in the quantum wells, which reveals the anomalous Rashba effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326538/integrating-lipid-storage-into-general-representations-of-fish-energetics
#3
Benjamin T Martin, Ron Heintz, Eric M Danner, Roger M Nisbet
1.Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density (energy per unit wet weight). Most of this variation is due to differences in the amount of storage lipids. In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavorable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth, reproduction) is critical for any general theory of organismal energetics...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326448/anaerobic-metabolism-in-t4-acanthamoeba-genotype
#4
Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira Alves, Luciano Moreira Alves, Tatiane Luiza da Costa, Ana Maria de Castro, Marina Clare Vinaud
Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown...
March 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326236/the-longstanding-challenge-of-the-nanocrystallization-of-1-3-5-trinitroperhydro-1-3-5-triazine-rdx
#5
REVIEW
Florent Pessina, Denis Spitzer
Research efforts for realizing safer and higher performance energetic materials are continuing unabated all over the globe. While the thermites - pyrotechnic compositions of an oxide and a metal - have been finely tailored thanks to progress in other sectors, organic high explosives are still stagnating. The most symptomatic example is the longstanding challenge of the nanocrystallization of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Recent advances in crystallization processes and milling technology mark the beginning of a new area which will hopefully lead the pyroelectric industry to finally embrace nanotechnology...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325673/lower-limb-dynamics-and-clinical-outcomes-for-habitually-shod-runners-who-transition-to-barefoot-running
#6
Rami Hashish, Sachithra D Samarawickrame, Susan Sigward, Stanley P Azen, George J Salem
OBJECTIVES: Recent investigations have revealed lower vertical loading rates and knee energy absorption amongst experienced barefoot runners relative to those who rear-foot strike (RFS). Although this has led to an adoption of barefoot running amongst many recreational shoe runners, recent investigations indicate that the experienced barefoot pattern is not immediately realized. Therefore, the purpose this investigation was to quantify changes in lower-extremity dynamics and clinical outcomes measures for habitually shod runners who perform a transition to barefoot running...
December 10, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325213/mitochondrion-a-common-organelle-for-distinct-cell-deaths
#7
Z Wang, C Figueiredo-Pereira, C Oudot, H L A Vieira, C Brenner
Mitochondria are deeply involved in cell fate decisions via their multiple roles in metabolism, cell growth, and cell death. In healthy cells, these functions are highly regulated to provide sufficient energy for cell function, maintain cell homeostasis, and avoid undesirable cell death. This is achieved by an orchestrated cooperation of cellular and molecular mechanisms such as mitochondrial mass control (mitophagy vs biogenesis), oxidative phosphorylation, redox and calcium homeostasis, and the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324756/na-ion-batteries-based-on-the-inorganic-bn-nanocluster-anodes-dft-studies
#8
K Nejati, A Hosseinian, A Bekhradnia, E Vessally, L Edjlali
It has been recently indicated that the Li-ion batteries may be replaced by Na-ion batteries because of their low safety, high cost, and low-temperature performance, and lack of the Li mineral reserves. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we studied the potential application of B12N12 nanoclusters as anode in Na-ion batteries. Our calculations indicate that the adsorption energy of Na(+) and Na are about -23.4 and -1.4kcal/mol, respectively, and the pristine BN cage to improve suffers from a low cell voltage (∼0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323533/success-in-weight-management-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-do-perceived-autonomy-support-autonomous-motivation-and-self-care-competence-play-a-role
#9
Anne M Koponen, Nina Simonsen, Sakari B Suominen
Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this study investigated whether the three central SDT variables-perceived autonomy support (from a physician), autonomous motivation and self-care competence-were associated with success in weight management (SWM) among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes when the effect of other important life-context factors was controlled for. Patients participated in a mail survey in 2011. Those who had tried to change their health behavior during the past two years in order to lose weight, either with or without success (n = 1433, mean age 63 years, 50% men), were included in this study...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323211/metabolic-pathway-of-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide-1%C3%AE-d-ribonucleoside-and-its-effects-on-cellular-energetics
#10
Iwona Pelikant-Malecka, Ewa Kaniewska-Bednarczuk, Sylwia Szrok, Alicja Sielicka, Maciej Śledziński, Czesława Orlewska, Ryszard T Smolenski, Ewa M Słomińska
4-Pirydone-3-carboxamide-1β-D-ribonucleoside (4PYR) is an endogenous nucleoside that could be converted to triphosphates, diphosphates, monophosphates and an analogue of NAD - 4PYRAD. Elevated level of these compounds were observed in chronic renal failure, cancer and active HIV infection. However, little is known about the effect on cell functionality and the metabolic pathways. This study tested effects of 4PYR in different cell types on nucleotide and energy metabolism and clarified enzymes that are involved in conversions of 4PYR...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323164/mapping-the-pharmacological-modulation-of-brain-oxygen-metabolism-the-effects-of-caffeine-on-absolute-cmro2-measured-using-dual-calibrated-fmri
#11
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Esther Ah Warnert, Lewys Richmond, Daniel Helme, Sharmila Khot, Kevin Murphy, Peter J Rogers, Judith E Hall, Richard G Wise
This study aims to map the acute effects of caffeine ingestion on grey matter oxygen metabolism and haemodynamics with a novel MRI method. Sixteen healthy caffeine consumers (8 males, age = 24.7±5.1) were recruited to this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Each participant was scanned on two days before and after the delivery of an oral caffeine (250mg) or placebo capsule. Our measurements were obtained with a newly proposed estimation approach applied to data from a dual calibration fMRI experiment that uses hypercapnia and hyperoxia to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
March 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322383/unique-agreement-of-experimental-and-computational-infrared-spectroscopy-a-case-study-of-lithium-bromide-solvation-in-an-important-electrochemical-solvent
#12
Maciej Smiechowski, Joanna Krakowiak, Piotr Bruździak, Janusz Stangret
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a widely used and invaluable tool in the studies of solvation phenomena in electrolyte solutions. Using state-of-the-art chemometric analysis of a spectral series measured in a concentration-dependent manner, the spectrum of the solute-affected solvent can be extracted, providing a detailed view of the structural and energetic states of the solvent molecules influenced by the solute. Concurrently, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations provide the solvation shell picture at an atomistic detail level and allow for a consistent decomposition of the theoretical IR spectrum in terms of distance-dependent contributions of the solvent molecules...
March 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322368/alkaline-earth-metal-mg-polynitrides-at-high-pressure-as-possible-high-energy-materials
#13
Shuli Wei, Da Li, Zhao Liu, Xin Li, Fubo Tian, Defang Duan, Bingbing Liu, Tian Cui
The high-pressure structural evolutionary behaviors of magnesium polynitrides were studied up to 100 GPa using first-principles calculations. Using the unbiased structure searching method, five stable chemical stoichiometries of magnesium polynitrides (MgN, Mg2N3, MgN2, MgN3, and MgN4) were theoretically predicted at high pressures. The predicted MgNx compounds contain a rich variety of polynitrogen forms ranging from charged molecules (one-dimensional bent molecules N3, planar triangle N4 to benzene-like rings N6) to extended polymeric chains (N∞)...
March 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321493/the-costs-of-locomotor-activity-maximum-body-temperatures-and-the-use-of-torpor-during-the-active-season-in-edible-dormice
#14
Claudia Bieber, Jessica S Cornils, Franz Hoelzl, Sylvain Giroud, Thomas Ruf
Measuring T b during the active season can provide information about the timing of reproduction and the use of short bouts of torpor and may be used as a proxy for the locomotor activity of animals (i.e., maximum T b). This kind of information is especially important to understand life-history strategies and energetic costs and demands in hibernating mammals. We investigated T b throughout the active season in edible dormice (Glis glis), since they (i) have an expensive arboreal life-style, (ii) are known to show short bouts of torpor, and (iii) are adapted to pulsed resources (mast of beech trees)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320932/data-based-modeling-of-drug-penetration-relates-human-skin-barrier-function-to-the-interplay-of-diffusivity-and-free-energy-profiles
#15
Robert Schulz, Kenji Yamamoto, André Klossek, Roman Flesch, Stefan Hönzke, Fiorenza Rancan, Annika Vogt, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Sarah Hedtrich, Monika Schäfer-Korting, Eckart Rühl, Roland R Netz
Based on experimental concentration depth profiles of the antiinflammatory drug dexamethasone in human skin, we model the time-dependent drug penetration by the 1D general diffusion equation that accounts for spatial variations in the diffusivity and free energy. For this, we numerically invert the diffusion equation and thereby obtain the diffusivity and the free-energy profiles of the drug as a function of skin depth without further model assumptions. As the only input, drug concentration profiles derived from X-ray microscopy at three consecutive times are used...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320904/kinetics-of-low-temperature-transitions-and-a-reaction-rate-theory-from-non-equilibrium-distributions
#16
Vincenzo Aquilanti, Nayara Dantas Coutinho, Valter Henrique Carvalho-Silva
This article surveys the empirical information which originated both by laboratory experiments and by computational simulations, and expands previous understanding of the rates of chemical processes in the low-temperature range, where deviations from linearity of Arrhenius plots were revealed. The phenomenological two-parameter Arrhenius equation requires improvement for applications where interpolation or extrapolations are demanded in various areas of modern science. Based on Tolman's theorem, the dependence of the reciprocal of the apparent activation energy as a function of reciprocal absolute temperature permits the introduction of a deviation parameter d covering uniformly a variety of rate processes, from those where quantum mechanical tunnelling is significant and d < 0, to those where d > 0, corresponding to the Pareto-Tsallis statistical weights: these generalize the Boltzmann-Gibbs weight, which is recovered for d = 0...
April 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320772/mechanism-for-microbial-population-collapse-in-a-fluctuating-resource-environment
#17
Serdar Turkarslan, Arjun V Raman, Anne W Thompson, Christina E Arens, Mark A Gillespie, Frederick von Netzer, Kristina L Hillesland, Sergey Stolyar, Adrian López García de Lomana, David J Reiss, Drew Gorman-Lewis, Grant M Zane, Jeffrey A Ranish, Judy D Wall, David A Stahl, Nitin S Baliga
Managing trade-offs through gene regulation is believed to confer resilience to a microbial community in a fluctuating resource environment. To investigate this hypothesis, we imposed a fluctuating environment that required the sulfate-reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris to undergo repeated ecologically relevant shifts between retaining metabolic independence (active capacity for sulfate respiration) and becoming metabolically specialized to a mutualistic association with the hydrogen-consuming Methanococcus maripaludis Strikingly, the microbial community became progressively less proficient at restoring the environmentally relevant physiological state after each perturbation and most cultures collapsed within 3-7 shifts...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319661/atomistic-insights-into-nucleation-and-formation-of-hexagonal-boron-nitride-on-ni-from-first-principles-based-reactive-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#18
Song Liu, Adri C T van Duin, Diana M van Duin, Bin Liu, James H Edgar
Atomistic-scale insights into the growth of a continuous, atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) lattice from elemental boron and nitrogen on Ni substrates were obtained from multi-scale modeling combining density functional theory (DFT) and reactive molecular dynamics (rMD). The quantum mechanical calculations focused on the adsorption and reaction energetics for the hBN building-block species, i.e., atomic B, N, BxNy (x, y = 1-2), on Ni(111) and Ni(211), and the diffusion pathways of elemental B and N on these slab model surfaces and in the sublayer...
March 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319378/computational-study-of-13c-nmr-csa-patterns-in-c20h10-and-c20h10-4-insights-into-their-variation-upon-planarization-and-formation-of-concentric-aromatic-species-in-the-smaller-isolated-pentagon-structural-motif
#19
Alvaro Muñoz-Castro, Wilson Caimanque-Aguilar, Cesar Morales-Verdejo
Corannulene, C20H10, exhibits a concave surface in the ground state which is able to experience a bowl-to-bowl inversion through a planar conformation. Such structure is the smaller example resembling an isolated-pentagon motif, as a relevant fragment in Fullerene chemistry. Here, we explored the differences between bowl and planar conformations involving both energetic and 13C-NMR properties, for the neutral and tetraanionic species by using DFT methods. This allows to understand the variation of the chemical environment at the carbon atoms upon planarization of this representive motif...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318963/an-investigation-of-ultrasound-effect-on-digestate-solubilization-and-methane-yield
#20
Temesgen Garoma, David Pappaterra
In this study, different ultrasound power intensities of 0.05-0.21kW/L (4.13-16.52kWh/kg TS) were applied at a frequency of 20kHz and for durations of 5-20min to digestate obtained from a domestic wastewater treatment plant. The ultrasonic effect on digestate solubilization was revealed by increased levels of soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (sCOD), soluble Total Organic Carbon (sTOC), and soluble Total Nitrogen (sTN) released into the solution. The highest material release was achieved at an ultrasonic energy intensity of 0...
March 16, 2017: Waste Management
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