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Nutrients

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031056/physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-seedlings-to-three-imidazolium-based-ionic-liquids-in-soil
#1
Yaqi Xu, Jun Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Zhongkun Du, Jinhua Wang, Kai Wei
Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered environmentally friendly solvents and are widely applied in various fields; however, some researchers have noted the toxicity of ILs to plants cultivated in nutrient solution. To evaluate the toxicities of ILs to wheat seedlings in soil, the natural growth environment of plants, a study was performed using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different anions: 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C8mim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C8mim]BF4)...
September 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029291/nutrition-influences-caffeine-mediated-sleep-loss-in-drosophila
#2
Erin S Keebaugh, Jin Hong Park, Chenchen Su, Ryuichi Yamada, William W Ja
Study objectives: Plant-derived caffeine is regarded as a defensive compound produced to prevent herbivory. Caffeine is generally repellent to insects and often used to study the neurological basis for aversive responses in the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Caffeine is also studied for its stimulatory properties where sleep or drowsiness is suppressed across a range of species. Since limiting access to food also inhibits fly sleep-an effect known as starvation-induced sleep suppression-we tested whether aversion to caffeinated food results in reduced nutrient intake and assessed how this might influence fly studies on the stimulatory effects of caffeine...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028909/the-systematic-analysis-of-ultraconserved-genomic-regions-in-the-budding-yeast
#3
Zhi-Kai Yang, Feng Gao
Motivation: In the evolution of species, a kind of special sequences, termed ultraconserved sequences (UCSs), have been inherited without any change, which strongly suggests those sequences should be crucial for the species to survive or adapt to the environment. However, the UCSs are still regarded as mysterious genetic sequences so far. Here, we present a systematic study of ultraconserved genomic regions in the budding yeast based on the publicly available genome sequences, in order to reveal their relationship with the adaptability or fitness advantages of the budding yeast...
September 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028870/an-assessment-on-the-uncertainty-of-the-nitrogen-to-phosphorus-ratio-as-a-threshold-for-nutrient-limitation-in-plants
#4
Zhengbing Yan, Di Tian, Wenxuan Han, Zhiyao Tang, Jingyun Fang
Background and Aims: The nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio (N:P) has been widely used as a threshold for identifying nutrient limitations in terrestrial plants; however, the associated reliability has not been well assessed. Methods: The uncertainty of nutrient limitations caused by the N:P threshold was evaluated using two approaches: fertilization experiments synthesized across multiple ecosystems; and random sampling simulation of the impacts of different nutrient sufficiencies and deficiencies...
September 19, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028868/symplasmic-and-apoplasmic-transport-inside-feather-moss-stems-of-pleurozium-schreberi-and-hylocomium-splendens
#5
K Sokolowska, M Turzanska, M-C Nilsson
Background and Aims: The ubiquitous feather mosses Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens form a thick, continuous boundary layer between the soil and the atmosphere, and play important roles in hydrology and nutrient cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems. The water fluxes among these mosses and environmental factors controlling them are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether feather mosses are capable of internal transport and to provide a better understanding of species-specific morphological traits underlying this function...
September 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#6
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028613/divergent-biology-of-facultative-heavy-metal-plants
#7
REVIEW
Hermann Bothe, Aneta Słomka
Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028497/aquatic-macroinvertebrate-assemblages-are-affected-by-insecticide-applications-on-the-argentine-pampas
#8
Marina Solis, Carlos Bonetto, Natalia Marrochi, Ariel Paracampo, Hernán Mugni
Agriculture intensification in Argentina has increased agrochemicals consumption in the last decades and might represent an environmental risk for adjacent water bodies. The objective of the present work was to assess the effect of land use on water quality and invertebrate assemblages in the Argentine Pampas streams. Eight streams were sampled on 4 occasions during the 2013/14 growing season. Three streams are located within a biosphere reserve, two drain basins with extensive livestock fields, and three run through intensively cultivated plots; one of them contained a 30m wide uncultivated grass-covered strip between the crop and the stream...
October 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028492/modelling-an-industrial-anaerobic-granular-reactor-using-a-multi-scale-approach
#9
H Feldman, X Flores-Alsina, P Ramin, K Kjellberg, U Jeppsson, D J Batstone, K V Gernaey
The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator...
September 20, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028447/complications-of-home-enteral-nutrition-mechanical-complications-and-access-issues-in-the-home-setting
#10
Brian P Strollo, Stephen A McClave, Keith R Miller
Home enteral nutrition (HEN) is an essential component in the care of patients with an array of underlying etiologies resulting in the inability to meet caloric needs through volitional intake alone. Although some would include oral nutrition supplementation as HEN, for the purposes of this review, the term is limited to a patient's requiring an enteral access device for the delivery of exogenous nutrients. Complications related to such devices remain a difficult problem in the hospital setting, and these issues are often amplified when encountered in the home setting...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028269/acceptance-and-adoption-of-biofortified-crops-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#11
Elise F Talsma, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Inge D Brouwer
Biofortification of staple crops is a promising strategy for increasing the nutrient density of diets in order to improve human health. The willingness of consumers and producers to accept new crop varieties will determine whether biofortification can be successfully implemented. This review assessed sensory acceptance and adoption of biofortified crops and the determining factors for acceptance and adoption among consumers and producers in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for published reports...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028268/relationship-between-the-mediterranean-dietary-pattern-and-musculoskeletal-health-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-systematic-review-and-evidence-map
#12
Jean V Craig, Diane K Bunn, Richard P Hayhoe, Will O Appleyard, Elizabeth A Lenaghan, Ailsa A Welch
An understanding of the modifiable effects of diet on bone and skeletal muscle mass and strength over the life course will help inform strategies to reduce age-related fracture risk. The Mediterranean diet is rich in nutrients that may be important for optimal musculoskeletal health. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the relationship between a Mediterranean diet and musculoskeletal outcomes (fracture, bone density, osteoporosis, sarcopenia) in any age group. Ten electronic databases were searched...
October 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027975/dietary-supplement-use-during-preconception-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#13
Elle McKenna, Alexis Hure, Anthony Perkins, Ellie Gresham
Worldwide, dietary supplement use among reproductive aged women is becoming increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary supplement use among Australian women during preconception. Self-reported data were collected prospectively for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). The sample included 485 women aged 31-36 years, with supplement data, classified as preconception when completing Survey 5 of the ALSWH in 2009. Frequency and contingency tables were calculated and Pearson's chi-square test for associations between demographic variables and supplementation status was performed...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027963/optimizing-the-nutritional-support-of-adult-patients-in-the-setting-of-cirrhosis
#14
REVIEW
Brandon J Perumpail, Andrew A Li, George Cholankeril, Radhika Kumari, Aijaz Ahmed
AIM: The aim of this work is to develop a pragmatic approach in the assessment and management strategies of patients with cirrhosis in order to optimize the outcomes in this patient population. METHOD: A systematic review of literature was conducted through 8 July 2017 on the PubMed Database looking for key terms, such as malnutrition, nutrition, assessment, treatment, and cirrhosis. Articles and studies looking at associations between nutrition and cirrhosis were reviewed...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#15
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027915/a-combination-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-with-metronomic-chemotherapy-as-a-way-of-targeting-therapy-resistant-cancer-cells
#16
REVIEW
Irina Kareva
Therapeutic resistance remains a major obstacle in treating many cancers, particularly in advanced stages. It is likely that cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) have the potential to eliminate therapy-resistant cancer cells. However, their effectiveness may be limited either by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, or by immune cell death induced by cytotoxic treatments. High-frequency low-dose (also known as metronomic) chemotherapy can help improve the activity of CTLs by providing sufficient stimulation for cytotoxic immune cells without excessive depletion...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027830/occurrence-types-properties-and-interactions-of-phenolic-compounds-with-other-food-constituents-in-oil-bearing-plants
#17
Muhammad H Alu'datt, Taha Rababah, Mohammad N Alhamad, Ghaid J Al-Rabadi, Carole C Tranchant, Ali Almajwal, Stan Kubow, Inteaz Alli
Phenolic phytochemicals have become of interest due to their therapeutic potential, particularly with regards to their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic properties. An evolving area of research involving phenolics in foods and their products pertains to the functional, biological, and nutritional consequences resulting from the binding between certain phenolic compounds and the macronutrient and micronutrient constituents of foods. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of studies investigating endogenous phenolic interactions with major components in food systems, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins, with a focus on the phenolic compounds and nutrients in oil-bearing plants...
October 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027698/buffalo-heifers-selected-for-lower-residual-feed-intake-have-lower-feed-intake-better-dietary-nitrogen-utilisation-and-reduced-enteric-methane-production
#18
V K Sharma, S S Kundu, C Datt, S Prusty, M Kumar, U B Sontakke
This study was conducted to evaluate the utilisation of the residual feed intake (RFI) as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with methane emissions. Eighteen Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers were fed ad libitum with total mixed ration (TMR) for 120 days. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size (MBW(0.75) ), heifers were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.09 to +0.12 kg DM/day with average RFI of -0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027458/stringent-response-induced-by-phosphate-limitation-promotes-purine-salvage-in-agrobacterium-fabrum
#19
Smitha Sivapragasam, Dinesh K Deochand, Jacob K Meariman, Anne Grove
Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ~15-fold...
October 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027330/poor-nutrition-from-first-foods-a-cross-sectional-study-of-complementary-feeding-of-infants-and-young-children-in-six-remote-aboriginal-communities-across-northern-australia
#20
Dympna Leonard, Danielle Aquino, Nyssa Hadgraft, Fintan Thompson, Julia V Marley
AIM: To describe the first foods of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and young children who were recruited to a nutrition promotion and anaemia prevention program conducted from 2010 to 2012, in six remote communities across northern Australia. METHODS: Food records (24-hour diet history, food variety checklist) were completed on recruitment by interview with a parent or carer. Cross-sectional analysis assessed the proportion of participants consuming recommended and not-recommended foods and drinks and meeting recommendations for meal frequency and dietary diversity...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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