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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#1
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#2
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431178/influence-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-and-the-calcium-to-non-phytate-phosphorus-ratio-on-growth-performance-bone-characteristics-and-digestibility-in-broilers
#3
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
Two experiments were conducted to determine the influence of dietary Ca concentrations (Experiment 1) and a combination of dietary Ca and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) to create distinct Ca-to-NPP ratios (Experiment 2) in corn-soybean meal diets fed to broiler chickens from 2 to 23 d of age. In Experiment 1, dietary treatments consisted of 7 concentrations of Ca (0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, or 1.6% of the diet; 7 treatments total), and NPP concentrations were maintained at 0.3%. Increasing the dietary Ca concentration while maintaining 0...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431176/effect-of-melatonin-on-renewal-of-chicken-small-intestinal-mucosa
#4
J Li, R X Li, G Liu, C F Lv, Y L Mi, C Q Zhang
A higher concentration of melatonin (MEL) in the intestine - even more than that in the plasma and pineal gland - implies its putative important role in the gastrointestinal structural or functional regulation. However, little evidence has shown that MEL can regulate the physiological functions of the intestinal mucosa. In this study, fertilized chicken eggs were treated with MEL (0.1 to 10 μg/d) from embryonic d 12 (E12) to post-hatching d 6 (D6), and the small intestine samples were collected at D6 to determine the changes in mucosal construction and function...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#5
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#6
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#7
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#8
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430654/alpha-ketoglutarate-suppresses-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-pathway-and-enhances-the-pxr-regulated-detoxification-pathway
#9
Liuqin He, Huan Li, Niu Huang, Xihong Zhou, Junquan Tian, Tiejun Li, Jing Wu, Yanan Tian, Yulong Yin, Kang Yao
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a critical nutritional factor in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, the relative mechanism of AKG has not been well understood. It was recently shown that the interaction between nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory pathway and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-regulated detoxification pathway is a check and balance mechanism for keeping the homeostatic state of the intestine, preventing the onset of intestinal inflammation which may lead to cancer. In the current study we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglet and intestinal porcine epithelial cells-J2 models to investigate the effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the intestinal immune system and PXR regulated target expression...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430298/an-experimental-numerical-investigation-on-the-effects-of-macroporous-scaffold-geometry-on-cell-culture-parameters
#10
Hadis Eghbali, Michele M Nava, Gabriella Leonardi, Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori, Roberto Sebastiano, Abdolreza Samimi, Manuela T Raimondi
INTRODUCTION: Perfused bioreactors have been demonstrated to be effective in the delivery of nutrients and in the removal of waste products to and from the interior of cell-populated three-dimensional scaffolds. In this paper, a perfused bioreactor hosting a macroporous scaffold provided with a channel is used to investigate transport phenomena and culture parameters on cell growth. METHODS: MG63 human osteosarcoma cells were seeded on macroporous poly​(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds provided with a channel...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430188/interactions-between-soil-and-dead-wood-inhabiting-fungal-communities-during-the-decay-of-norway-spruce-logs
#11
Raisa Mäkipää, Tiina Rajala, Dmitry Schigel, Katja T Rinne, Taina Pennanen, Nerea Abrego, Otso Ovaskainen
We investigated the interaction between fungal communities of soil and dead wood substrates. For this, we applied molecular species identification and stable isotope tracking to both soil and decaying wood in an unmanaged boreal Norway spruce-dominated stand. Altogether, we recorded 1990 operational taxonomic units, out of which more than 600 were shared by both substrates and 589 were found to exclusively inhabit wood. On average the soil was more species-rich than the decaying wood, but the species richness in dead wood increased monotonically along the decay gradient, reaching the same species richness and community composition as soil in the late stages...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430187/poorly-known-microbial-taxa-dominate-the-microbiome-of-permafrost-thaw-ponds
#12
Christian Wurzbacher, R Henrik Nilsson, Milla Rautio, Sari Peura
In the transition zone of the shifting permafrost border, thaw ponds emerge as hotspots of microbial activity, processing the ancient carbon freed from the permafrost. We analyzed the microbial succession across a gradient of recently emerged to older ponds using three molecular markers: one universal, one bacterial and one fungal. Age was a major modulator of the microbial community of the thaw ponds. Surprisingly, typical freshwater taxa comprised only a small fraction of the community. Instead, thaw ponds of all age classes were dominated by enigmatic bacterial and fungal phyla...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430186/independence-of-nutrient-limitation-and-carbon-dioxide-impacts-on-the-southern-ocean-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#13
Marius N Müller, Thomas W Trull, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50(o)S, 149(o)E) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430118/testing-the-capacity-of-a-multi-nutrient-profiling-system-to-guide-food-and-beverage-reformulation-results-from-five-national-food-composition-databases
#14
Emilie Combet, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Famke Mölenberg, Mathilde Gressier, Lisa Privet, Craig Wratten, Sahar Sharif, Florent Vieux, Undine Lehmann, Gabriel Masset
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS 'Pass' if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium)...
April 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429995/new-insights-into-the-role-of-dietary-spermine-on-inflammation-immune-function-and-related-signalling-molecules-in-the-thymus-and-spleen-of-piglets
#15
Wei Cao, Xianjian Wu, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Caimei Wu, Jiayong Tang, Jing Wang, Jingyi Cai, Guangmang Liu
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary spermine supplementation on the inflammatory response and immune function of the thymus and spleen in piglets. Eighty suckling piglets were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrients supplemented with spermine (0.4 mmol/kg body weight) or restricted nutrient intake supplemented with normal saline for 7 h or 3, 6 and 9 days in pairs. Regardless of treatment time, spermine supplementation decreased (p < 0.05, compared with the controls) the following: (1) tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, 2 and 6, and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in serum; (2) gene expression of cluster of differentiation 8 and integrin beta-2 in the thymus and spleen and the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in the thymus; (3) mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL 1β, 2, 6, and 12, IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the thymus and spleen, as well as IL-8 in the spleen; and (4) eukaryotic IF4E-binding protein 1, Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and nuclear factor-kappa B P65 gene transcriptions in the thymus and spleen...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429919/home-availability-of-fruit-and-vegetables-and-obesogenic-foods-as-an-indicator-of-nutrient-intake-in-50-year-olds-from-canterbury-new-zealand
#16
Emily Grant, Richard Blair Gearry, Renée Wilson, John Pearson, Paula Marie Louise Skidmore
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429914/the-presence-and-accuracy-of-nutritional-labelling-of-pre-packaged-foods-in-shanghai
#17
Kaimeng Kong, Fu Liu, Yexuan Tao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Chinese government officially enacted the Regulation on the Management of Food Nutrition Labelling in 2007 and the General Rules for Nutrition Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods in 2011. Our investigation examined the presence and accuracy of nutrition labelling of pre-packaged foods in Shanghai and provides baseline data for future studies. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods were recorded by photograph, transcription, or purchase in four supermarkets in Shanghai...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429910/dietary-patterns-and-their-associations-with-energy-nutrient-intake-and-socioeconomic-factors-in-rural-lactating-mothers-in-tibet
#18
Zhenjie Wang, Shaonong Dang, Yuan Xing, Qiang Li, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is very limited published data on Tibetan dietary patterns and its association with nutrient intakes and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the dietary patterns and the associations with nutrient intakes in rural Tibetan pregnant, lactating mothers. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes were identified via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We identified dietary patterns using principle component analysis (PCA) of intakes of 17 food groups and specific Tibetan foods...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429902/validity-and-practicability-of-smartphone-based-photographic-food-records-for-estimating-energy-and-nutrient-intake
#19
Kaimeng Kong, Lulu Zhang, Lisu Huang, Yexuan Tao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429833/the-microbially-mediated-soil-organic-carbon-loss-under-degenerative-succession-in-an-alpine-meadow
#20
Yuguang Zhang, Xiao Liu, Jing Cong, Hui Lu, Yuyu Sheng, Xiulei Wang, Diqiang Li, Xueduan Liu, Huaqun Yin, Jizhong Zhou, Ye Deng
Land-cover change has long been recognized as having marked effect on the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the microbially-mediated processes and mechanisms on SOC are still unclear. In this study, the soil samples in a degenerative succession from alpine meadow to alpine steppe meadow in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were analyzed using high-throughput technologies, including Illumina sequencing and GeoChip functional gene arrays. The soil microbial community structure and diversity were significantly (P < 0...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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