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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475214/micro-environment-and-intracellular-metabolism-modulation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarization-in-relation-to-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Xiao Zhu, Yixuan Tu, Hainan Chen, Ampadu O Jackson, Vaibhav Patel, Kai Yin
BACKGROUND: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475144/highly-efficient-nitrogen-removal-of-a-coldness-resistant-and-low-nutrient-needed-bacterium-janthinobacterium-sp-m-11
#2
Mo Yang, Dongwei Lu, Bida Qin, Qianliang Liu, Yumeng Zhao, Huiling Liu, Jun Ma
A novel heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacterium, identified as Janthinobacterium sp. M-11, was isolated from the Songhua River. When the initial ammonium concentration was 5 mg·L-1 , 98% of ammonium was removed under cold condition (2 °C) with the C/N ratio of 5 at initial pH 7 and aerobic condition, which demonstrated the significant ammonium removal capacity of M-11 with low nutrient consumption at cold temperature. Denitrification processes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were also investigated...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475124/the-defensive-role-of-silicon-in-wheat-against-stress-conditions-induced-by-drought-salinity-or-cadmium
#3
Yahya Alzahrani, Alpaslan Kuşvuran, Hesham F Alharby, Sebnem Kuşvuran, Mostafa M Rady
In the crust of earth, silicon (Si) is one of the two major elements. For plant growth and development, importance of Si remains controversial due to the widely differences in ability of plants to take up this element. In this paper, pot experiments were done to study Si roles in improving salt, drought or cadmium (Cd) stress tolerance in wheat. Up to full emergence, all pots were watered at 100% field capacity (FC) every other day with nutrient solution without any treatments. Fifteen days after sowing, pots were divided into four plots, each with 40 pots for no stress (control) and three stress treatments; drought (50% FC), salinity (200 mM NaCl) and cadmium (2 mM Cd)...
February 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475106/combining-biotechnology-with-circular-bioeconomy-from-poultry-swine-cattle-brewery-dairy-and-urban-wastewaters-to-biohydrogen
#4
Alice Ferreira, Paula Marques, Belina Ribeiro, Paula Assemany, Henrique Vieira de Mendonça, Ana Barata, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Alberto Reis, Helena M Pinheiro, Luisa Gouveia
The ability of microalgae to grow in nutrient-rich environments and to accumulate nutrients from wastewaters (WW) makes them attractive for the sustainable and low-cost treatment of WW. The valuable biomass produced can be further used for the generation of bioenergy, animal feed, fertilizers, and biopolymers, among others. In this study, Scenedesmus obliquus was able to remove nutrients from different wastewaters (poultry, swine and cattle breeding, brewery and dairy industries, and urban) with removal ranges of 95-100% for nitrogen, 63-99% for phosphorus and 48-70% for chemical oxygen demand...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475083/seasonal-dynamics-in-the-community-structure-and-trophic-structure-of-testate-amoebae-inhabiting-the-sanjiang-peatlands-northeast-china
#5
Lihong Song, Hongkai Li, Kehong Wang, Xiumin Yan, Donghui Wu
Peatlands cover 3% of the earth's land surface but contain 30% of the world's soil carbon pool. Microbial communities constitute a crucial detrital food web for nutrient and carbon cycling in peatlands. Heterotrophic protozoans are considered top predators in the microbial food web; however, they are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated seasonal dynamics in the community and the trophic structure of testate amoebae in four peatlands. Testate amoebae density and biomass in August were significantly higher than those in May and October...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474988/changes-of-total-and-freely-dissolved-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-and-toxicity-of-biochars-treated-with-various-aging-processes
#6
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474787/-1-h-nmr-based-identification-of-intestinally-absorbed-metabolites-by-ussing-chamber-analysis-of-the-rat-cecum
#7
Meredith Dinges, Christian Lytle, Cynthia K Larive
The large intestine (cecum and colon) is a complex biochemical factory of vital importance to human health. It plays a major role in digestion and absorption by salvaging nutrients from polysaccharides via fermentation initiated by the bacteria that comprise the gut microbiome. We hypothesize that the intestinal epithelium absorbs a limited number of luminal metabolites with bioactive potential while actively excluding those with toxic effects. To explore this concept, we combined1 H NMR detection with Ussing chamber measurements of absorptive transport by rat cecum...
February 23, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474728/longitudinal-changes-in-blood-metabolites-amino-acid-profile-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-american-foxhounds-fed-a-nutrient-fortified-diet
#8
Alison N Beloshapka, Maria R C de Godoy, Rebecca A Carter, Andrea J Fascetti, Zengshou Yu, Bridgett J McIntosh, Kelly S Swanson, Preston R Buff
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the changes in blood metabolites, amino acid profile, and oxidative stress markers in American Foxhound dogs fed a nutrient-fortified endurance diet while undergoing unstructured endurance exercise over several months. Thirty-six adult American Foxhound dogs (mean age: 4.5, range 2-10 years and mean body weight (BW): 34.7, range: 23.1-46.9 kg) were selected to participate in the study. Prior to the study, all dogs consumed a commercial diet for 16 weeks. After collecting baseline blood samples, dogs were assigned to a standard commercial performance diet (control) or a nutrient-fortified dog food (test)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474677/review-of-autophagy-related-approaches-for-improving-nutrient-use-efficiency-and-crop-yield-protection
#9
Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Frantisek Baluška, Peter V Bozhkov, Pernilla H Elander, Alisdair R Fernie, Gad Galili, Ammar Hassan, Daniel Hofius, Erika Isono, Romain Le Bars, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Elena A Minina, Hadas Peled-Zehavi, Núria S Coll, Luisa M Sandalio, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre, Agnieszka Sirko, Pilar S Testillano, Henri Batoko
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway essential for growth and development. In plants, it is activated in response to environmental cues or developmental stimuli. However, in contrast to other eukaryotic systems, we know relatively little regarding the molecular players involved in autophagy and the regulation of this complex pathway. In the framework of the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) action TRANSAUTOPHAGY (2016-2020), we decided to review our current knowledge of autophagy responses in higher plants, with emphasis on knowledge gaps...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474563/effects-of-heat-stress-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-on-metabolic-responses-in-growing-pigs
#10
K M Seelenbinder, L D Zhao, M D Hanigan, M W Hulver, R P McMillan, L H Baumgard, J T Selsby, J W Ross, N K Gabler, R P Rhoads
Heat stress and immune challenges negatively impact nutrient allocation and metabolism in swine, especially due to elevated heat load. In order to assess the effects of heat stress during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection on metabolism, 9-week old crossbred barrows were individually housed, fed ad libitum, divided into four treatments: thermo-neutral (TN), thermo-neutral PRRSV infected (TP), heat stress (HS), and heat stress PRRSV infected (HP), and subjected to two experimental phases...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474423/seasonal-variability-in-the-persistence-of-dissolved-environmental-dna-edna-in-a-marine-system-the-role-of-microbial-nutrient-limitation
#11
Ian Salter
Environmental DNA (eDNA) can be defined as the DNA pool recovered from an environmental sample that includes both extracellular and intracellular DNA. There has been a significant increase in the number of recent studies that have demonstrated the possibility to detect macroorganisms using eDNA. Despite the enormous potential of eDNA to serve as a biomonitoring and conservation tool in aquatic systems, there remain some important limitations concerning its application. One significant factor is the variable persistence of eDNA over natural environmental gradients, which imposes a critical constraint on the temporal and spatial scales of species detection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474408/molecular-adaptations-to-phosphorus-deprivation-and-comparison-with-nitrogen-deprivation-responses-in-the-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#12
Leila Alipanah, Per Winge, Jens Rohloff, Javad Najafi, Tore Brembu, Atle M Bones
Phosphorus, an essential element for all living organisms, is a limiting nutrient in many regions of the ocean due to its fast recycling. Changes in phosphate (Pi) availability in aquatic systems affect diatom growth and productivity. We investigated the early adaptive mechanisms in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to P deprivation using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics, physiological and biochemical experiments. Our analysis revealed strong induction of gene expression for proteins involved in phosphate acquisition and scavenging, and down-regulation of processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nucleic acid and ribosome biosynthesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473969/isolation-and-characterization-of-n-2-fixing-bacteria-from-giant-reed-and-switchgrass-for-plant-growth-promotion-and-nutrient-uptake
#13
Jia Xu, Joseph W Kloepper, Ping Huang, John A McInroy, Chia H Hu
The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize N2 -fixing bacteria from giant reed and switchgrass and evaluate their plant growth promotion and nutrient uptake potential for use as biofertilizers. A total of 190 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soil and inside stems and roots of giant reed and switchgrass. All the isolates were confirmed to have nitrogenase activity, 96.9% produced auxin, and 85% produced siderophores. Then the top six strains, including Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-14, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-19, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-17, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-20, Psychrobacillus psychrodurans NP-3, and Enterobacter oryzae NXU-38, based on nitrogenase activity, were inoculated on maize and wheat seeds in greenhouse tests to assess their potential benefits to plants...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473893/restoration-of-muscle-glycogen-and-functional-capacity-role-of-post-exercise-carbohydrate-and-protein-co-ingestion
#14
Abdullah F Alghannam, Javier T Gonzalez, James A Betts
The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years, leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and so the replenishment of glycogen stores may be important for recovery of functional capacity. Nevertheless, nutritional considerations for optimal short-term (3-6 h) recovery remain incompletely elucidated, particularly surrounding the precise amount of specific types of nutrients required...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473889/a-qualitative-investigation-to-underpin-the-development-of-an-electronic-tool-to-assess-nutrition-literacy-in-australians-adults
#15
Alyssa M Cassar, Gareth S Denyer, Helen T O'Connor, Janelle A Gifford
Nutrition literacy is linked to health via its influence on dietary intake. There is a need for a tool to assess nutrition literacy in research and dietetic practice. We sought guidance from nutrition professionals on topic areas and features of an electronic nutrition literacy assessment tool for Australian adults. 28 experienced nutrition professionals engaged in a range of nutrition and dietetic work areas participated in six focus groups using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using an inductive approach using NVivo 10 (QSR International, Pty Ltd...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473861/nutrient-limitation-inactivates-mrc1-to-cds1-checkpoint-signalling-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#16
Jessica Fletcher, Liam Griffiths, Thomas Caspari
The S. pombe checkpoint kinase, Cds1, protects the integrity of stalled DNA replication forks after its phosphorylation at threonine-11 by Rad3 (ATR). Modified Cds1 associates through its N-terminal forkhead-associated domain (FHA)-domain with Mrc1 (Claspin) at stalled forks. We report here that nutrient starvation results in post-translational changes to Cds1 and the loss of Mrc1. A drop in glucose after a down-shift from 3% to 0.1-0.3%, or when cells enter the stationary phase, triggers a sharp decline in Mrc1 and the accumulation of insoluble Cds1...
February 23, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473286/colony-formation-in-the-cyanobacterium-microcystis
#17
Man Xiao, Ming Li, Colin S Reynolds
Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones...
February 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473237/dietary-outcomes-of-overweight-fathers-and-their-children-in-the-healthy-dads-healthy-kids-community-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
A Williams, N de Vlieger, M Young, M E Jensen, T L Burrows, P J Morgan, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined dietary intake changes following a weight loss intervention in fathers and the association between father-child dietary intakes. The present study aimed to: (i) evaluate the change in dietary intake in overweight fathers randomised to a family-based lifestyle intervention [Healthy Dads Healthy Kids (HDHK)] versus controls and (ii) investigate whether an association exists between father-child dietary intakes. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of father-child baseline and 3-month post-intervention data (n = 93) collected in the HDHK community randomised controlled trial...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473006/benthic-grazing-in-a-eutrophic-river-cascading-effects-of-zoobenthivorous-fish-mask-direct-effects-of-herbivorous-fish
#19
Madlen Gerke, Daniel Cob Chaves, Marc Richter, Daniela Mewes, Jörg Schneider, Dirk Hübner, Carola Winkelmann
Benthic grazing strongly controls periphyton biomass. The question therefore arises whether benthic grazing could be used as a tool to reduce excessive growth of periphyton in nutrient-enriched rivers. Although benthic invertebrate grazers reduce the growth of periphyton, this is highly context dependent. Here we assessed whether the only obligate herbivorous fish in European rivers, the common nase ( Chondrostoma nasus L.), is able to reduce periphyton biomass in a eutrophic river. We conducted three consecutive in situ experiments at low, intermediate and high densities of nase in the river using standard tiles on the river bottom naturally covered with periphyton that were accessible to fish and tiles that excluded fish foraging with electric exclosures...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473004/catchment-land-use-predicts-benthic-vegetation-in-small-estuaries
#20
Perran L M Cook, Fiona Y Warry, Paul Reich, Ralph Mac Nally, Ryan J Woodland
Many estuaries are becoming increasingly eutrophic from human activities within their catchments. Nutrient loads often are used to assess risk of eutrophication to estuaries, but such data are expensive and time consuming to obtain. We compared the percent of fertilized land within a catchment, dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, catchment to estuary area ratio and flushing time as predictors of the proportion of macroalgae to total vegetation within 14 estuaries in south-eastern Australia. The percent of fertilized land within the catchment was the best predictor of the proportion of macroalgae within the estuaries studied...
2018: PeerJ
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