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Children in foster care

Sacha Klein, Brittany Mihalec-Adkins, Stephanie Benson, Sei-Young Lee
Increasing access to early care and education (ECE) for children in the child welfare system (CWS) remains a critical issue in the United States, as the numbers of young children entering this system steadily increases. Mounting evidence suggests that participation in at least some types of ECE can mitigate the need for child welfare supervision. Moreover, ECE participation has been linked to positive developmental and school readiness outcomes, lower rates of foster placement, and greater placement stability for children in the CWS...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sarah R Horn, Leslie E Roos, Kathryn G Beauchamp, Jessica E Flannery, Philip A Fisher
Prior research has identified the role of childhood maltreatment in externalizing problems and executive function (EF) deficits, but minimal work has been done to characterize the effects of co-occurring maltreatment types, defined as polyvictimization. Here, we sought to characterize the association between polyvictimization and externalizing problems in a sample of foster care children aged 3-4 years (N = 84) and examine how EF may mediate or moderate that relationship. A moderation model was supported in that only polyvictimized children with EF scores 1...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Sonya Troller-Renfree, Charles H Zeanah, Charles A Nelson, Nathan A Fox
The adverse effects of institutionalized care and psychosocial deprivation have been documented for more than 100 years. Children who have been raised in institutions are at heightened risk of developing internalizing and externalizing disorders. Given the profound biological and psychological effects of institutional rearing, identifying neural and cognitive factors that influence the emergence of psychopathology in institutionalized children is of great interest. Using data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized control study on the effects of institutional care and a foster care intervention, this article examines two factors that appear to influence the emergence of psychopathology in children who have been institutionalized-neural indices of cognitive control and visual attention biases...
March 2018: Child Development Perspectives
Rebecca J Mitchell, Rebecca Seah, Hsuen P Ting, Kate Curtis, Kim Foster
OBJECTIVE: To examine the magnitude, 10-year temporal trends and treatment cost of intentional injury hospitalisations of children aged ≤16 years in Australia. METHOD: A retrospective examination of linked hospitalisation and mortality data for children aged ≤16 years during 1 July 2001 to 30 June 2012 with self-harm or assault injuries. Negative binomial regression examined temporal trends. RESULTS: There were 18,223 self-harm and 13,877 assault hospitalisations, with a treatment cost of $64 million and $60...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Sandra Gabler, Melanie Kungl, Ina Bovenschen, Katrin Lang, Janin Zimmermann, Katja Nowacki, Josephine Kliewer-Neumann, Gottfried Spangler
In Germany, almost 70 000 children are living in foster families (Statistisches Bundesamt, 2016). Many foster children show mental health problems as they were exposed to an accumulation of risk factors. Hence, foster parents are often faced with challenging parenting situations. The current study focuses on the predictors of foster parents' stress and examines longitudinally whether parenting stress is associated with foster parents' sensitivity. The sample consisted of 55 children (aged from 1 to 6 years) and their foster caregivers...
March 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Arno Parolini, Aron Shlonsky, Joseph Magruder, Andrea Lane Eastman, Fred Wulczyn, Daniel Webster
Although kinship guardianship is an increasingly important foster care exit pathway for children in the United States, research on the factors leading to kinship guardianship breakdown is lacking. This study examines the factors associated with guardianship breakdown for children who exited foster care to kinship guardianship in California between 2003 and 2010 (N = 18,831). Specifying time-dependent Cox relative risk models, children's age trajectories are directly accounted for in the analysis. This allows differentiation between duration dependence (i...
March 3, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Glaucia Margonari Bechara, Fernanda Castelo Branco, Avelino Luiz Rodrigues, Daniela Chinnici, David Chaney, Luis Eduardo P Calliari, Denise Reis Franco
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that school care is a major challenge in diabetes treatment, there is still no published international initiative. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to introduce an international educational intervention tool, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) KiDS and Diabetes in Schools project (KiDS project), and to describe its impact on diabetes knowledge and behavior of caregivers and school professionals. METHODS: The KiDS project was developed with the support of IDF and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes and provides online free material in 10 languages, directed to caregivers and school personnel...
March 4, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Holly Thurston, Sheridan Miyamoto
Child welfare agencies are tasked with investigating allegations of child maltreatment and intervening when necessary. Researchers are turning to the field of predictive analytics to optimize data analysis and data-driven decision making. To demonstrate the utility of statistical algorithms that preceded the current predictive analytics, we used Model Based (MOB) recursive partitioning, a variant of regression analysis known as decision trees, on a dataset of cases and controls with a binary outcome of serious maltreatment (defined as hospitalization or death)...
February 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jasmin Passet-Wittig, Norbert F Schneider
We study whether the imaginability of adoption, foster care, and life without a(nother) child protects from stress during fertility treatment. Data from a self-administered prospective cohort study of couples who had just started treatment were used (T1 = 441 respondents; T2 = 142 respondents). Most respondents cannot imagine alternatives to treatment. Adoption/foster care is preferred over life without children. Imaginability of alternatives is associated with lower fertility-related (T1) and treatment-related stress (T2)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Emily Leckman-Westin, Molly Finnerty, Sarah Hudson Scholle, Riti Pritam, Deborah Layman, Edith Kealey, Sepheen Byron, Emily Morden, Scott Bilder, Sheree Neese-Todd, Sarah Horwitz, Kimberly Hoagwood, Stephen Crystal
BACKGROUND: Concerns about antipsychotic prescribing for children, particularly those enrolled in Medicaid and with Supplemental Security Income (SSI), continue despite recent calls for selective use within established guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To (a) examine the application of 6 quality measures for antipsychotic medication prescribing in children and adolescents receiving Medicaid and (b) understand distinctive patterns across eligibility categories in order to inform ongoing quality management efforts to support judicious antipsychotic use...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Anna Banerji, Chandrakant Shah
Background: Although fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) can have a disproportionate impact in some Indigenous communities, there is a paucity of literature on its epidemiology. Objective: To characterize the epidemiology of Indigenous individuals under the age of 18 years who were diagnosed with FASD at Anishnawbe Health Toronto over a 10-year period. Methods: Children who were assessed at Anishnawbe Health Toronto from 2002 to 2012 and met the 2005 criteria for FASD were included...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci, Kristine M Nacion, Karen Leonhart, Jennifer N Cooper, Sarah Hudson Scholle, Kelly J Kelleher
BACKGROUND: Preventive quality measures for the foster care population are largely untested. The objective of the study is to identify healthcare quality measures for young children and adolescents in foster care and to test whether the data required to calculate these measures can be feasibly extracted and interpreted within an electronic health records or within the Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System. METHODS: The AAP Recommendations for Preventive Pediatric Health Care served as the guideline for determining quality measures...
February 22, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Bénédicte Rouland, Rhema Vaithianathan
OBJECTIVES: To document, via linked administrative data, the cumulative prevalence among New Zealand children of notifications to child protective services (CPS), substantiated maltreatment cases, and out-of-home placements. METHODS: We followed all children born in New Zealand in 1998 until the end of 2015 (an overall sample of 55 443 children). We determined the cumulative frequencies of notifications, substantiated maltreatment cases (by subtype), and first entries into foster care from birth through the age of 17 years...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Magen Mhaka-Mutepfa
Very few studies have examined quality of life (QOL) in elderly carers of orphaned children in African settings. This study explored sociodemographic factors and health-related characteristics that influence QOL of grandparent carers in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional study stratified by district was done to collect information on socioeconomic factors, health-related characteristics, and QOL of grandparent carers ( N = 327; age: M = 62.4, SD = 11.2). Data were collected on socioeconomic factors, self-perceived health, health care access, chronic disease condition, health insurance status, types of health care services, and medications taken using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF)...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
E C C Carla van Os, A E Elianne Zijlstra, E J Erik Knorth, W J Wendy Post, M E Margrite Kalverboer
The systematic review presented in this article aims to reveal what supports and hampers refugee children in telling their, often traumatic, life stories. This is important to ensure that migration decisions are based on reliable information about the children's needs for protection. A systematic review was conducted in academic journals, collecting all available scientific knowledge about the disclosure of life stories by refugee minors in the context of social work, guardianship, foster care, asylum procedures, mental health assessment, and therapeutic settings...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Jim Reeder, Jane Morris
The purpose of this study was to understand the views and experiences of paediatric therapists working in the United Kingdom regarding the importance of the therapeutic relationship when providing information for parents of children with long-term disabilities. The aim was to develop new perspectives, to encourage dialogue and reflection for change and to identify practical suggestions for health professionals when developing therapeutic relationships. This study employed an interpretive phenomenological methodology...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Jeffrey Waid, Brianne H Kothari, Bowen M McBeath, Lew Bank
This study sought to identify factors that contribute to the relational well-being of youth in substitute care. Using data from the [BLIND] study, youth responded to a 9-item measure of positive home integration, a scale designed to assess the relational experiences of youth to their caregivers and their integration into the foster home. Data were collected from youth in six month intervals, for an 18-month period of time. Latent growth curve modeling procedures were employed to determine if child, family, and case characteristics influenced youth's home integration trajectories...
December 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
Sylvia Guendelman, Juliet Nussbaum, Ann Soliday, Maureen Lahiff
Objectives Fathering is known to foster child development and health, yet evidence on Hispanic immigrant fathers' involvement with their young children is sparse. This study assessed disparities in pregnancy intendedness and father involvement with children ages 0-4 among Hispanic immigrant co-resident fathers versus two reference groups: US-born Hispanic and US-born White fathers. We hypothesized that differentials in involvement were associated with socioeconomic and cultural factors. Methods Using 2011-2013 data from the National Survey of Family Growth (N = 598), we performed bivariate, logistic and linear regression analyses to assess disparities in pregnancy intendedness and five father involvement outcomes (physical care, warmth, outings, reading and discipline)...
February 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Simone van der Burg, Anke Oerlemans
Newborn screening (NBS) involves the collection of blood from the heel of a newborn baby and testing it for a list of rare and inheritable disorders. New biochemical screening technologies led to expansions of NBS programs in the first decade of the 21st century. It is expected that they will in time be replaced by genetic sequencing technologies. These developments have raised a lot of ethical debate. We reviewed the ethical literature on NBS, analyzed the issues and values that emerged, and paid particular interest to the type of impacts authors think NBS should have on the lives of children and their families...
March 2018: Bioethics
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