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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768999/essentials-and-perspectives-of-computational-modelling-assistance-for-cns-oriented-nanoparticle-based-drug-delivery-systems
#1
Joanna Kisała, Kinga I Heclik, Krzysztof Pogocki, Dariusz Pogocki
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex system controlling two-way substances traffic between circulatory (cardiovascular) system and central nervous system (CNS). It is almost perfectly crafted to regulate brain homeostasis and to permit selective transport of molecules that are essential for brain function. For potential drug candidates, the CNS-oriented neuropharmaceuticals as well as for those of primary targets in the periphery, the extent to which a substance in the circulation gains access to the CNS seems crucial...
May 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767500/enhanced-performance-of-field-effect-transistors-based-on-black-phosphorus-channels-reduced-by-galvanic-corrosion-of-al-over-layers
#2
Sangik Lee, Chansoo Yoon, Ji Hye Lee, Yeon Soo Kim, Mi Jung Lee, Wondong Kim, Jaeyoon Baik, Quanxi Jia, Bae Ho Park
Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconducting materials with considerable bandgaps are emerging as a new class of materials applicable to next-generation devices. Particularly, black phosphorus (BP) is considered to be very promising for next-generation 2D electrical and optical devices due to its high carrier mobility of 200-1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio of 104 -105 in field effect transistors. However, its environmental instability in air requires fabrication processes in a glove box filled with nitrogen or argon gas followed by encapsulation, passivation, and chemical functionalization of BP...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766658/ampli-a-construction-set-for-paperfluidic-systems
#3
Elizabeth A Phillips, Anna K Young, Nikolas Albarran, Jonah Butler, Kaira Lujan, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, Jose Gomez-Marquez
The design and fabrication of reconfigurable, modular paperfluidics driven by a prefabricated reusable block library, asynchronous modular paperfluidic linear instrument-free (Ampli) block, are reported. The blocks are inspired by the plug-and-play modularity of electronic breadboards that lower prototyping barriers in circuit design. The resulting biochemical breadboard is a paperfluidic construction set that can be functionalized with chemical, biological, and electrical elements. Ampli blocks can form standard paperfluidic devices without any external instrumentation...
May 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760645/systems-analysis-of-human-visuo-myoelectric-control-facilitated-by-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-healthy-humans
#4
Vinh Kha, Aguida S Foerster, Susan Bennett, Michael A Nitsche, Filip Stefanovic, Anirban Dutta
Induction of neuroplasticity by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the primary motor cortex facilitates motor learning of the upper extremities in healthy humans. The impact of tDCS on lower limb functions has not been studied extensively so far. In this study, we applied a system identification approach to investigate the impact of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the leg area of the motor cortex via the human visuo-myoelectric controller. The visuo-myoelectric reaching task (VMT) involves ballistic muscle contraction after a visual cue...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757930/comprehension-of-top-200-prescribed-drugs-in-the-us-as-a-resource-for-pharmacy-teaching-training-and-practice
#5
Andrea V Fuentes, Moises D Pineda, Kalyan C Nagulapalli Venkata
Pharmacists have access to a plethora of information related to drugs. Online compendia concerning top 200 prescribed drugs are readily-accessible, comparatively-easy to search. While these resources provide some information about the commonly prescribed drugs, they lack in furnishing in-depth knowledge to pharmacy students, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present the relevant details of top 200 most prescribed drugs in the United States. The names and therapeutic classes of top 200 prescribed drugs were compiled from online resources...
May 14, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750097/relationship-between-resolution-and-accuracy-of-four-intraoral-scanners-in-complete-arch-impressions
#6
Priscilla Medina-Sotomayor, Agustín Pascual-Moscardó, Isabel Camps
Background: The scanner does not measure the dental surface continually. Instead, it generates a point cloud, and these points are then joined to form the scanned object. This approximation will depend on the number of points generated (resolution), which can lead to low accuracy (trueness and precision) when fewer points are obtained. The purpose of this study is to determine the resolution of four intraoral digital imaging systems and to demonstrate the relationship between accuracy and resolution of the intraoral scanner in impressions of a complete dental arch...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718106/quantification-of-biases-in-predictions-of-protein-stability-changes-upon-mutations
#7
Fabrizio Pucci, Katrien Bernaerts, Jean Marc Kwasigroch, Marianne Rooman
Motivation: Bioinformatics tools that predict protein stability changes upon point mutations have made a lot of progress in the last decades and have become accurate and fast enough to make computational mutagenesis experiments feasible, even on a proteome scale. Despite these achievements, they still suffer from important issues that must be solved to allow further improving their performances and utilizing them to deepen our insights into protein folding and stability mechanisms. One of these problems is their bias towards the learning datasets which, being dominated by destabilizing mutations, causes predictions to be better for destabilizing than for stabilizing mutations...
April 26, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714616/evaluation-of-risk-versus-benefit-information-in-direct-to-consumer-dtc-prescription-drug-television-advertisements
#8
Germin Fahim, Michael Toscani, Joseph A Barone, Chris Wang, Shivani Gandhi
BACKGROUND: The FDA's Presenting Risk Information draft guidance from May 2009 states that the time of risk versus benefit is a factor taken into consideration when evaluating audio and video direct-to-consumer (DTC) broadcasts. The objective of the study is to evaluate the proportion of risk narration on television (TV) advertisements in comparison to the actual proportion of serious adverse effects findings across select therapeutic areas. METHODS: The study reviews prescription drug TV advertisements between the years 2010 and 2015 separated by therapeutic class...
January 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701241/-essentially-it-s-just-a-lot-of-bedrooms-architectural-design-prescribed-personalisation-and-the-construction-of-care-homes-for-later-life
#9
Sarah Nettleton, Christina Buse, Daryl Martin
This article draws on ethnographic data from a UK Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded study called 'Buildings in the Making'. The project aims to open up the black box of architectural work to explore what happens between the commissioning of architectural projects through to the construction of buildings, and seeks to understand how ideas about care for later life are operationalised into designs. Drawing on recent scholarship on 'materialities of care' and 'practising architectures', which emphasise the salience of material objects for understanding the politics and practices of care, we focus here on 'beds'...
April 27, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694169/noncontextual-wirings
#10
Barbara Amaral, Adán Cabello, Marcelo Terra Cunha, Leandro Aolita
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory-a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality-was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694116/quantum-steering-beyond-instrumental-causal-networks
#11
R V Nery, M M Taddei, R Chaves, L Aolita
We theoretically predict, and experimentally verify with entangled photons, that outcome communication is not enough for hidden-state models to reproduce quantum steering. Hidden-state models with outcome communication correspond, in turn, to the well-known instrumental processes of causal inference but in the one-sided device-independent scenario of one black-box measurement device and one well-characterized quantum apparatus. We introduce one-sided device-independent instrumental inequalities to test against these models, with the appealing feature of detecting entanglement even when communication of the black box's measurement outcome is allowed...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692045/-the-latest-progress-in-ecosystem-service-flow-research-methods
#12
Jing Yao, Xing Yuan He, Wei Chen
Ecosystem service flow is the key point and difficulty of ecosystem services research, which is now at the initial stage and show a developing trend of quantity and spatialization. However, the term "ecosystem service flow" is ambiguous. In this paper, we presented two descriptions about the term, and two corresponding theories and methods: the transmission of a service from ecosystems to people and distributed ecosystem model, and the flow of benefits accruing to people as generated by stocks of ecosystem structure and grey/black box theory...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684020/black-boxing-and-cause-effect-power
#13
William Marshall, Larissa Albantakis, Giulio Tononi
Reductionism assumes that causation in the physical world occurs at the micro level, excluding the emergence of macro-level causation. We challenge this reductionist assumption by employing a principled, well-defined measure of intrinsic cause-effect power-integrated information (Φ), and showing that, according to this measure, it is possible for a macro level to "beat" the micro level. Simple systems were evaluated for Φ across different spatial and temporal scales by systematically considering all possible black boxes...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677326/the-visual-perception-of-metal
#14
James T Todd, J Farley Norman
The present research was designed to examine how the presence or absence of ambient light influences the appearance of metal. The stimuli depicted three possible objects that were illuminated by three possible patterns of illumination. These were generated by a single point light source, two rectangular area lights, or projecting light onto a translucent white box that contained the object (and the camera) so that the object would be illuminated by ambient light in all directions. The materials were simulated using measured parameters of chrome with four different levels of roughness...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675175/machine-learning-for-the-structure-energy-property-landscapes-of-molecular-crystals
#15
Félix Musil, Sandip De, Jack Yang, Joshua E Campbell, Graeme M Day, Michele Ceriotti
Molecular crystals play an important role in several fields of science and technology. They frequently crystallize in different polymorphs with substantially different physical properties. To help guide the synthesis of candidate materials, atomic-scale modelling can be used to enumerate the stable polymorphs and to predict their properties, as well as to propose heuristic rules to rationalize the correlations between crystal structure and materials properties. Here we show how a recently-developed machine-learning (ML) framework can be used to achieve inexpensive and accurate predictions of the stability and properties of polymorphs, and a data-driven classification that is less biased and more flexible than typical heuristic rules...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671939/synthetic-cpg-oligonucleotides-induce-a-genetic-profile-ameliorating-murine-myocardial-i-r-injury
#16
Tobias Hilbert, Paul Markowski, Stilla Frede, Olaf Boehm, Pascal Knuefermann, Georg Baumgarten, Andreas Hoeft, Sven Klaschik
We previously demonstrated that pre-conditioning with CpG oligonucleotide (ODN) 1668 induces quick up-regulation of gene expression 3 hours post-murine myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, terminating inflammatory processes that sustain I/R injury. Now, performing comprehensive microarray and biocomputational analyses, we sought to further enlighten the "black box" beyond these first 3 hours. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with either CpG 1668 or with control ODN 1612, respectively. Sixteen hours later, myocardial ischaemia was induced for 1 hour in a closed-chest model, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669068/adverse-reactions-after-intravenous-iron-infusion-among-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-in-the-united-states-2010-2014
#17
Eboselume Akhuemonkhan, Alyssa Parian, Kathryn A Carson, Susan Hutfless
Background: Anemia is a frequent complication of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), collectively known as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Intravenous (IV) iron is recommended as the initial therapy for patients with clinically active IBD, severe anemia, and intolerance to oral iron. IV iron is associated with serious adverse effects including a black box warning for anaphylaxis with iron dextran and ferumoxytol. We aimed to examine the occurrence of adverse reactions including anaphylaxis after IV iron infusions in a large database of US IBD patients...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659624/a-smart-tube-holder-enables-real-time-sample-monitoring-in-a-standard-lab-centrifuge
#18
Tony Hoang, Nicholas Moskwa, Ken Halvorsen
The centrifuge is among the oldest and most widely used pieces of laboratory equipment, with significant applications that include clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. A major limitation of laboratory centrifuges is their "black box" nature, limiting sample observation to before and after centrifugation. Thus, optimized protocols require significant trial and error, while unoptimized protocols waste time by centrifuging longer than necessary or material due to incomplete sedimentation. Here, we developed an instrumented centrifuge tube receptacle compatible with several commercial benchtop centrifuges that can provide real-time sample analysis during centrifugation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655593/investigating-the-potential-of-an-autodissemination-system-for-managing-populations-of-vine-weevil-otiorhynchus-sulcatus-coleoptera-curculionidae-with-entomopathogenic-fungi
#19
Tom W Pope, Gemma Hough, Charlotte Arbona, Harriet Roberts, Jude Bennison, John Buxton, Gill Prince, Dave Chandler
Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643708/evidence-based-review-and-appraisal-of-the-use-of-droperidol-in-the-emergency-department
#20
REVIEW
Pei-Chun Lai, Yen-Ta Huang
Droperidol is a short-acting, potent dopamine D2 antagonist that can pass through the blood-brain barrier. A black box warning was issued for droperidol by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2001 because of a risk of development of torsades de pointes induced by QT prolongation. Many experts feel that the incidence of arrhythmia is overestimated, and low-dose droperidol is almost always used by anesthesiologists for postoperative nausea and vomiting. In this review, we used evidence-based analysis to appraise high-quality studies with a low risk of bias published after 2001 on the use of droperidol in the emergency department (ED)...
January 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
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