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Black box

C Kaewpila, K Sommart, M Mitsumori
The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Kelsey H Elliott, Samantha A Brugmann
Molecular signals are the guiding force of development, imparting direction upon cells to divide, migrate, differentiate, etc. The mechanisms by which a cell can receive and transduce these signals into measurable actions remains a 'black box' in developmental biology. Primary cilia are ubiquitous, microtubule-based organelles that dynamically extend from a cell to receive and process molecular and mechanical signaling cues. In the last decade, this organelle has become increasingly intriguing to the research community due to its ability to act as a cellular antenna, receive and transduce molecular stimuli, and initiate a cellular response...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
Naiding Yang, Jintao Lu, Jinfu Ye
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that individual job characteristics have a significant impact on job burnout, and the process is subject to the regulation of demographic variables. However, the influence path of job characteristics on job burnout is still a "black box". SUBJECTS AND METHODS: On the basis of a systematic literature review by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords "Job burnout", "Emotion regulation", "Personality traits", and "Psychological stress", in this study, an improved mine rescue workers-oriented job demands-resources (JD-R) model was put forward...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Myra Sabir, Margaret A Johnson
We articulate the lifespan theory of change by which an attachment-focused integrative reminiscence intervention, "Life Writing", is expected to interrupt the continuing problem of insecure attachment in adults and reverse associated reduced health and well-being outcomes. Based on preliminary studies and previous research, Life Writing is expected to foster earned-secure attachment in adults who work through subjective memories of unresolved attachment trauma. Roughly two decades of research on integrative reminiscence interventions like Life Writing show their consistent and wide-ranging positive impact...
February 13, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
David Haro Alonso, Miles N Wernick, Yongyi Yang, Guido Germano, Daniel S Berman, Piotr Slomka
BACKGROUND: We developed machine-learning (ML) models to estimate a patient's risk of cardiac death based on adenosine myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and associated clinical data, and compared their performance to baseline logistic regression (LR). We demonstrated an approach to visually convey the reasoning behind a patient's risk to provide insight to clinicians beyond that of a "black box." METHODS: We trained multiple models using 122 potential clinical predictors (features) for 8321 patients, including 551 cases of subsequent cardiac death...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Jonathan C Ryan, Alun Hubbard, Marek Stibal, Tristram D Irvine-Fynn, Joseph Cook, Laurence C Smith, Karen Cameron, Jason Box
Albedo-a primary control on surface melt-varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25 km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities-an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae-explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Kevin Thurley, Lani F Wu, Steven J Altschuler
Cell-to-cell communication networks have critical roles in coordinating diverse organismal processes, such as tissue development or immune cell response. However, compared with intracellular signal transduction networks, the function and engineering principles of cell-to-cell communication networks are far less understood. Major complications include: cells are themselves regulated by complex intracellular signaling networks; individual cells are heterogeneous; and output of any one cell can recursively become an additional input signal to other cells...
February 23, 2018: Cell Systems
Anne Leferink, Diogo Santos, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Lorenzo Moroni
When tissue engineering strategies rely on the combination of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric or ceramic scaffolds with cells to culture implantable tissue construct in vitro, it is desirable to monitor tissue growth and cell fate to be able to more rationally predict the quality and success of the construct upon implantation. Such a 3D construct is often referred to as a 'black-box' since the properties of the scaffolds material limit the applicability of most imaging modalities to assess important construct parameters...
March 8, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Kat Kolaski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Erik Dybboe Bjerre, Anders Blædel-Gottlieb Hansen
Complex interventions consist of multiple components, which interact to create intervention effects. Thus, special attention is required concerning the development, the pilot testing, the evaluation and the scientific reporting. Inadequate recognition of the complexity of these interventions by clinicians and researchers may unintentionally prevent implementation of the results of complex interventions. We present a framework, which highlights aspects of the development, the modelling and the analysis of complex interventions, so that clinicians and researchers can untangle "the black box" of these clinical trials...
February 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Sarah M Anderson, Bradley Beck, Susan Sterud, Robin Lockhorst, Surachat Ngorsuraches
Background Lenalidomide and pomalidomide are two immunomodulatory medications with the potential to improve outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma; however, a black box warning for venous thromboembolism exists. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess overall adherence to guideline recommendations for anticoagulation therapy with lenalidomide and pomalidomide in multiple myeloma patients. Methods This retrospective study at an ambulatory oncology clinic utilized chart reviews from the calendar years 2013-2016...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Thomas Reid, Subba Rao Chaganti, Ian G Droppo, Christopher G Weisener
Baseline biogeochemical surveys of natural environments is an often overlooked field of environmental studies. Too often research begins once contamination has occurred, with a knowledge gap as to how the affected area behaved prior to outside (often anthropogenic) influences. These baseline characterizations can provide insight into proposed bioremediation strategies crucial in cleaning up chemical spill sites or heavily mined regions. Hence, this study was conducted to survey the in-situ microbial activity within freshwater hydrocarbon-rich environments cutting through the McMurray formation - the geologic strata constituting the oil sands...
February 19, 2018: Water Research
Jie J Bao, Sijia S Dong, Laura Gagliardi, Donald G Truhlar
Multireference methods such as multi-state complete active space second-order perturbation theory (MS-CASPT2) and multi-configuration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT) can be very accurate, but they have the disadvantage that they are not black-box methods, and finding a good active space for the reference wave function often requires nonsystematic procedures based on intimate knowledge of the system under study. In this letter, we propose a scheme called the ABC scheme, which is a three-step calculation using three parameters, for automatic selection (without looking at the orbitals and without using any knowledge of the specific system at hand) of the active space for MS-CASPT2 or MC-PDFT calculations, and we report tests of the scheme on the first five excitation energies for a set of ten doublet radicals...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Iztok Hozo, William Dale
BACKGROUND: Contemporary delivery of health care is inappropriate in many ways, largely due to suboptimal Q5 decision-making. A typical approach to improve practitioners' decision-making is to develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPG) by guidelines panels, who are instructed to use their judgments to derive practice recommendations. However, mechanisms for the formulation of guideline judgments remains a "black-box" operation-a process with defined inputs and outputs but without sufficient knowledge of its internal workings...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Emily Adlam, Adrian Kent
Bob has a black box that emits a single pure state qudit which is, from his perspective, uniformly distributed. Alice wishes to give Bob evidence that she has knowledge about the emitted state while giving him little or no information about it. We show that zero-knowledge evidencing of such knowledge is impossible in quantum relativistic protocols, extending a previous result of Horodecki, Horodecki, and Horodecki. We also show that no such protocol can be both sound and complete. We present a new quantum relativistic protocol which we conjecture to be close to optimal in security against Alice and which reveals little knowledge to Bob, for large dimension d...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Lorena Carro, Valeria Razmilic, Imen Nouioui, Lee Richardson, Che Pan, Patrycja Golinska, Juan A Asenjo, Alan T Bull, Hans-Peter Klenk, Michael Goodfellow
Innovative procedures were used to selectively isolate small numbers of Micromonospora strains from extreme hyper-arid and high altitude Atacama Desert soils. Micromonosporae were recognised on isolation plates by their ability to produce filamentous microcolonies that were strongly attached to the agar. Most of the isolates formed characteristic orange colonies that lacked aerial hyphae and turned black on spore formation, whereas those from the high altitude soil were dry, blue-green and covered by white aerial hyphae...
February 26, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Jorge L Del-Aguila, Maria Victoria Fernández, Suzanne Schindler, Laura Ibanez, Yuetiva Deming, Shengmei Ma, Ben Saef, Kathleen Black, John Budde, Joanne Norton, Rachel Chasse, Oscar Harari, Alison Goate, Chengjie Xiong, John C Morris, Carlos Cruchaga
Many genetic studies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been focused on the identification of common genetic variants associated with AD risk and not on other aspects of the disease, such as age at onset or rate of dementia progression. There are multiple approaches to untangling the genetic architecture of these phenotypes. We hypothesized that the genetic architecture of rate of progression is different than the risk for developing AD dementia. To test this hypothesis, we used longitudinal clinical data from ADNI and the Knight-ADRC at Washington University, and we calculated PRS (polygenic risk score) based on the IGAP study to compare the genetic architecture of AD risk and dementia progression...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Liesje Mommer, T E Anne Cotton, Jos M Raaijmakers, Aad J Termorshuizen, Jasper van Ruijven, Marloes Hendriks, Sophia Q van Rijssel, Judith E van de Mortel, Jan Willem van der Paauw, Elio G W M Schijlen, Annemiek E Smit-Tiekstra, Frank Berendse, Hans de Kroon, Alex J Dumbrell
There is consensus that plant species richness enhances plant productivity within natural grasslands, but the underlying drivers remain debated. Recently, differential accumulation of soil-borne fungal pathogens across the plant diversity gradient has been proposed as a cause of this pattern. However, the below-ground environment has generally been treated as a 'black box' in biodiversity experiments, leaving these fungi unidentified. Using next generation sequencing and pathogenicity assays, we analysed the community composition of root-associated fungi from a biodiversity experiment to examine if evidence exists for host specificity and negative density dependence in the interplay between soil-borne fungi, plant diversity and productivity...
February 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Joseph E Knelman, Emily B Graham, Janet S Prevéy, Michael S Robeson, Patrick Kelly, Eran Hood, Steve K Schmidt
Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder) to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gustavo M Tavares, Filipe Sobral, Rafael Goldszmidt, Felipe Araújo
Although research on implicit leadership theories (ILTs) has concentrated on determining which attributes define a leadership prototype, little attention has been paid to testing the relative importance of each of these attributes for individuals' leadership perceptions. Building on socio-cognitive theories of impression processes, we experimentally explore the formation of leadership perceptions based on the recognition of six key attributes in a series of three experimental studies comprising 566 US-based participants recruited online via Amazon Mechanical Turk...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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