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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331324/update-on-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis-role-of-pimavanserin
#1
REVIEW
Brianna L Combs, Arthur G Cox
Parkinson's disease (PD) has a prevalence of nearly 1 million people in the USA, with increasing incidence in the elderly population. Generally, the age of presentation is between 55 and 65 years, with the likelihood of diagnosis increasing as patients reach the age of 80 years or above. Some of the common treatments for PD increase dopamine levels in the brain. Dopaminergic therapy helps to improve motor and non-motor symptoms, but it is not without risks. Dopaminergic therapy can cause confusion, delirium, and psychotic-like behavior...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329185/quality-indicators-to-measure-appropriate-antibiotic-use-some-thoughts-on-the-black-box
#2
Jeroen A Schouten, Marvin Ah Berrevoets, Marlies E Hulscher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327742/pair-natural-orbital-and-canonical-coupled-cluster-reaction-enthalpies-involving-light-to-heavy-alkali-and-alkaline-earth-metals-the-importance-of-sub-valence-correlation
#3
Yury Minenkov, Giovanni Bistoni, Christoph Riplinger, Alexander A Auer, Frank Neese, Luigi Cavallo
In this work, we tested canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) for a set of 32 ligand exchange and association/dissociation reaction enthalpies involving ionic complexes of Li, Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb(ii). Two strategies were investigated: in the former, only valence electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the computationally very efficient FC (frozen core) approach; in the latter, all non-ECP electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the AE (all electron) approach...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322433/a-9-pool-metabolic-structured-kinetic-model-describing-days-to-seconds-dynamics-of-growth-and-product-formation-by-penicillium-chrysogenum
#4
Wenjun Tang, Amit T Deshmukh, Cees Haringa, Guan Wang, Walter van Gulik, Wouter van Winden, Matthias Reuss, Joseph J Heijnen, Jianye Xia, Ju Chu, Henk J Noorman
A powerful approach for the optimization of industrial bioprocesses is to perform detailed simulations integrating large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and cellular reaction dynamics (CRD). However, complex metabolic kinetic models containing a large number of equations pose formidable challenges in CFD-CRD coupling and computation time afterward. This necessitates to formulate a relatively simple but yet representative model structure. Such a kinetic model should be able to reproduce metabolic responses for short-term (mixing time scale of tens of seconds) and long-term (fed-batch cultivation of hours/days) dynamics in industrial bioprocesses...
March 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316894/maxent-s-parameter-configuration-and-small-samples-are-we-paying-attention-to-recommendations-a-systematic-review
#5
Narkis S Morales, Ignacio C Fernández, Victoria Baca-González
Environmental niche modeling (ENM) is commonly used to develop probabilistic maps of species distribution. Among available ENM techniques, MaxEnt has become one of the most popular tools for modeling species distribution, with hundreds of peer-reviewed articles published each year. MaxEnt's popularity is mainly due to the use of a graphical interface and automatic parameter configuration capabilities. However, recent studies have shown that using the default automatic configuration may not be always appropriate because it can produce non-optimal models; particularly when dealing with a small number of species presence points...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301369/-should-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-be-prescribed-benzodiazepines-no
#6
Robert L DuPont
Patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) should not use benzodiazepines to treat anxiety, insomnia, or anything else, for the same reasons that they should not drink any alcohol or use other drugs, regardless of their primary drug used. Once the addiction "switch" is thrown on, it never again goes off. This question has additional relevance today because in 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration put black box warnings on all benzodiazepines and opioid analgesics about the serious risks associated with their concomitant use...
March 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300110/the-plant-perceptron-connects-environment-to-development
#7
Ben Scheres, Wim H van der Putten
Plants cope with the environment in a variety of ways, and ecological analyses attempt to capture this through life-history strategies or trait-based categorization. These approaches are limited because they treat the trade-off mechanisms that underlie plant responses as a black box. Approaches that involve the molecular or physiological analysis of plant responses to the environment have elucidated intricate connections between developmental and environmental signals, but in only a few well-studied model species...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298108/analytic-energy-gradient-of-projected-hartree-fock-within-projection-after-variation
#8
Motoyuki Uejima, Seiichiro Ten-No
We develop a geometrical optimization technique for the projection-after-variation (PAV) scheme of the recently refined projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) as a fast alternative to the variation-after-projection (VAP) approach for optimizing the structures of molecules/clusters in symmetry-adapted electronic states at the mean-field computational cost. PHF handles the nondynamic correlation effects by restoring the symmetry of a broken-symmetry single reference wavefunction and moreover enables a black-box treatment of orbital selections...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297862/ensemble-distribution-for-immiscible-two-phase-flow-in-porous-media
#9
Isha Savani, Dick Bedeaux, Signe Kjelstrup, Morten Vassvik, Santanu Sinha, Alex Hansen
We construct an ensemble distribution to describe steady immiscible two-phase flow of two incompressible fluids in a porous medium. The system is found to be ergodic. The distribution is used to compute macroscopic flow parameters. In particular, we find an expression for the overall mobility of the system from the ensemble distribution. The entropy production at the scale of the porous medium is shown to give the expected product of the average flow and its driving force, obtained from a black-box description...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292676/permeability-of-uncharged-organic-molecules-in-reverse-osmosis-desalination-membranes
#10
Emil Dražević, Krešimir Košutić, Marin Svalina, Jacopo Catalano
Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are primarily designed for removal of salts i.e. for desalination of brackish and seawater, but they have also found applications in removal of organic molecules. While it is clear that steric exclusion is the dominant removal mechanism, the fundamental explanation for how and why the separation occurs remains elusive. Until recently there was no strong microscopic evidences elucidating the structure of the active polyamide layers of RO membranes, and thus they have been conceived as "black boxes"; or as an array of straight capillaries with a distribution of radii; or as polymers with a small amount of polymer free domains...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292462/source-monitoring-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome-did-i-touch-the-toothbrush-or-did-i-imagine-doing-so
#11
Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino, Yann Coello, Ralph Miller, Pascal Antoine
There is a body of research suggesting compromised ability to distinguish between different external sources of information (i.e., external monitoring) in Korsakoff's syndrome. Here we replicate and extend this literature by assessing the ability of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome to distinguish between different external sources of information (i.e., external monitoring), between internal and external sources of information (i.e., reality monitoring), and between different internal sources of information (i...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289265/contact-structure-mobility-environmental-impact-and-behaviour-the-importance-of-social-forces-to-infectious-disease-dynamics-and-disease-ecology
#12
REVIEW
Ronan F Arthur, Emily S Gurley, Henrik Salje, Laura S P Bloomfield, James H Jones
Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289264/parasite-transmission-in-a-natural-multihost-multiparasite-community
#13
Stuart K J R Auld, Catherine L Searle, Meghan A Duffy
Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia), but this occurred at a much higher rate for the fungus than the bacterium...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289263/fast-killing-parasites-can-be-favoured-in-spatially-structured-populations
#14
Helen C Leggett, Geoff Wild, Stuart A West, Angus Buckling
It is becoming increasingly clear that the evolution of infectious disease is influenced by host population structure. Theory predicts that parasites should be more 'prudent'-less transmissible-in spatially structured host populations. However, here we (i) highlight how low transmission, the phenotype being selected for in this in context, may also be achieved by rapacious host exploitation, if fast host exploitation confers a local, within-host competitive advantage and (ii) test this novel concept in a bacteria-virus system...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289262/uncertain-links-in-host-parasite-networks-lessons-for-parasite-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system
#15
Josephine G Walker, Michaela Plein, Eric R Morgan, Peter A Vesk
For many parasites, the full set of hosts that are susceptible to infection is not known, and this could lead to a bias in estimates of transmission. We used counts of individual adult parasites from historical parasitology studies in southern Africa to map a bipartite network of the nematode parasites of herbivore hosts that occur in Botswana. Bipartite networks are used in community ecology to represent interactions across trophic levels. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to predict the full set of host-parasite interactions from existing data on parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes of wild and domestic ungulates given assumptions about the distribution of parasite counts within hosts, while accounting for the relative uncertainty of less sampled species...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289261/growth-rate-transmission-mode-and-virulence-in-human-pathogens
#16
Helen C Leggett, Charlie K Cornwallis, Angus Buckling, Stuart A West
The harm that pathogens cause to hosts during infection, termed virulence, varies across species from negligible to a high likelihood of rapid death. Classic theory for the evolution of virulence is based on a trade-off between pathogen growth, transmission and host survival, which predicts that higher within-host growth causes increased transmission and higher virulence. However, using data from 61 human pathogens, we found the opposite correlation to the expected positive correlation between pathogen growth rate and virulence...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289260/host-heterogeneity-affects-both-parasite-transmission-to-and-fitness-on-subsequent-hosts
#17
Jessica F Stephenson, Kyle A Young, Jordan Fox, Jukka Jokela, Joanne Cable, Sarah E Perkins
Infectious disease dynamics depend on the speed, number and fitness of parasites transmitting from infected hosts ('donors') to parasite-naive 'recipients'. Donor heterogeneity likely affects these three parameters, and may arise from variation between donors in traits including: (i) infection load, (ii) resistance, (iii) stage of infection, and (iv) previous experience of transmission. We used the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, and a directly transmitted monogenean ectoparasite, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, to experimentally explore how these sources of donor heterogeneity affect the three transmission parameters...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289259/who-acquires-infection-from-whom-and-how-disentangling-multi-host-and-multi-mode-transmission-dynamics-in-the-elimination-era
#18
REVIEW
Joanne P Webster, Anna Borlase, James W Rudge
Multi-host infectious agents challenge our abilities to understand, predict and manage disease dynamics. Within this, many infectious agents are also able to use, simultaneously or sequentially, multiple modes of transmission. Furthermore, the relative importance of different host species and modes can itself be dynamic, with potential for switches and shifts in host range and/or transmission mode in response to changing selective pressures, such as those imposed by disease control interventions. The epidemiology of such multi-host, multi-mode infectious agents thereby can involve a multi-faceted community of definitive and intermediate/secondary hosts or vectors, often together with infectious stages in the environment, all of which may represent potential targets, as well as specific challenges, particularly where disease elimination is proposed...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289258/host-species-exploitation-and-discrimination-by-animal-parasites
#19
Mark R Forbes, André Morrill, Jennifer Schellinck
Parasite species often show differential fitness on different host species. We developed an equation-based model to explore conditions favouring host species exploitation and discrimination. In our model, diploid infective stages randomly encountered hosts of two species; the parasite's relative fitness in exploiting each host species, and its ability to discriminate between them, was determined by the parasite's genotype at two independent diallelic loci. Relative host species frequency determined allele frequencies at the exploitation locus, whereas differential fitness and combined host density determined frequency of discrimination alleles...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289257/host-allometry-influences-the-evolution-of-parasite-host-generalism-theory-and-meta-analysis
#20
Josephine G Walker, Amy Hurford, Jo Cable, Amy R Ellison, Stephen J Price, Clayton E Cressler
Parasites vary widely in the diversity of hosts they infect: some parasite species are specialists-infecting just a single host species, while others are generalists, capable of infecting many. Understanding the factors that drive parasite host-generalism is of basic biological interest, but also directly relevant to predicting disease emergence in new host species, identifying parasites that are likely to have unidentified additional hosts, and assessing transmission risk. Here, we use mathematical models to investigate how variation in host body size and environmental temperature affect the evolution of parasite host-generalism...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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