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Black box

Kao-Ping Chua, Mark G Shrime, Rena M Conti
BACKGROUND: In August 2012, the Food and Drug Administration investigated the safety of codeine use by children after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, culminating in a black box warning in February 2013. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the investigation and opioid prescribing to children undergoing these surgeries. METHODS: We identified 362 992 privately insured children in the 2010-2015 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database who underwent tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy...
November 16, 2017: Pediatrics
Jacqueline A R Shea, Eric Neuscamman
We demonstrate that a broad class of excited state variational principles is not size consistent. In light of this difficulty, we develop and test an approach to excited state optimization that transforms between variational principles in order to achieve state selectivity, size consistency, and compatibility with quantum Monte Carlo. To complement our formal analysis, we provide numerical examples that confirm these properties and demonstrate how they contribute to a more black box approach to excited states in quantum Monte Carlo...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Fatemeh Mansourypoor, Shahrokh Asadi
The early diagnosis of disease is critical to preventing the occurrence of severe complications. Diabetes is a serious health problem. A variety of methods have been developed for diagnosing diabetes. The majority of these methods have been developed in a black-box manner, which cannot be used to explain the inference and diagnosis procedure. Therefore, it is essential to develop methods with high accuracy and interpretability. In this study, a Reinforcement Learning-based Evolutionary Fuzzy Rule-Based System (RLEFRBS) is developed for diabetes diagnosis...
October 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Lee M J Huntington, Martin Krupička, Frank Neese, Róbert Izsák
The similarity transformed equation of motion coupled-cluster approach is extended for applications to high-spin open-shell systems, within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) formalism. An automatic active space selection scheme has also been implemented such that calculations can be performed in a black-box fashion. It is observed that both the canonical and automatic active space selecting similarity transformed equation of motion (STEOM) approaches perform about as well as the more expensive equation of motion coupled-cluster singles doubles (EOM-CCSD) method for the calculation of the excitation energies of doublet radicals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christine M Gross, Manuela Kellner, Ting Wang, Qing Lu, Xutong Sun, Evgeny A Zemskov, Satish Noonepalle, Archana Kangath, Sanjiv Kumar, Manuel Gonzalez-Garay, Ankit A Desai, Saurabh Aggarwal, Boris Gorshkov, Christina Klinger, Alexander D Verin, John D Catravas, Jeffrey R Jacobson, Jason X-J Yuan, Ruslan Rafikov, Joe G N Garcia, Stephen M Black
One of the early events in the progression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute lung injury (ALI) in mice is the disruption of the pulmonary endothelial barrier resulting in lung edema. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the endothelial barrier becomes compromised remain unresolved. The SRY-related High Mobility Group box (Sox) group-F family member, Sox18, is a barrier- protective protein through its ability to increase the expression of the tight junction protein, Claudin-5. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if down-regulation of the Sox18-Claudin-5 axis plays a role in the pulmonary endothelial barrier disruption associated with LPS exposure...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Jenny McCann, Terry McCann
The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding monetary prizes totalling £250,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000) is awarded...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Chrystal Jaye, Jessica Young, Tony Egan, Martyn Williamson
This New Zealand study used focused ethnography to explore the activities of communities of clinical practice (CoCP) in a community-based long-term conditions management program within a large primary health care clinic. CoCP are the informal vehicles by which patient care was delivered within the program. Here, we describe the CoCP as a micro-level moral economy within which values such as trust, respect, authenticity, reciprocity, and obligation circulate as a kind of moral capital. As taxpayers, citizens who become patients are credited with moral capital because the public health system is funded by taxes...
November 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Lee K Brown, Shahrokh Javaheri
Since the introduction of continuous positive airway pressure (PAP) for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 1981, PAP technology has diversified exponentially. Compact and quiet fixed continuous PAP flow generators, autotitrating PAP devices, and bilevel PAP devices that can treat multiple sleep-disordered breathing phenotypes including OSA, central sleep apnea (CSA), combinations of OSA and CSA, and hypoventilation are available. Adaptive servo-ventilators can suppress Hunter-Cheyne-Stokes breathing and CSA and treat coexisting obstructive events...
December 2017: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Thomas Goedecke, Daniel Morales, Alexandra Pacurariu, Xavier Kurz
AIM: Evaluating the public health impact of regulatory interventions is important but there is currently no common methodological approach to guide this evaluation. This systematic review provides a descriptive overview of the analytical methods for impact research. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with an empirical analysis evaluating the impact of European Union or non-European Union regulatory actions to safeguard public health published until March 2017...
November 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Stefan Grimme, Christoph Bannwarth, Eike Caldeweyher, Jana Pisarek, Andreas Hansen
A black-box type procedure is presented for the generation of a molecule-specific, intermolecular potential energy function. The method uses quantum chemical (QC) information from our recently published extended tight-binding semi-empirical scheme (GFN-xTB) and can treat non-covalently bound complexes and aggregates with almost arbitrary chemical structure. The necessary QC information consists of the equilibrium structure, Mulliken atomic charges, charge centers of localized molecular orbitals, and also of frontier orbitals and orbital energies...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Michael A Liss, Ian M Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the concepts surrounding prostate cancer prevention strategies with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and the controversies associated with their use. RECENT FINDINGS: Updated data have shown no increased risk of death from the diagnosis of higher risk cancer; however, 5-ARIs remain controversial and not approved for prostate cancer prevention. SUMMARY: The main theme of the review identifies the success of reducing insignificant prostate cancer and the controversy with the increased association of higher risk prostate cancer by approximately 20%...
October 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
Gerard P Slobogean, Lukasz Soswa, Giuliana Rotunno, Peter J O'Brien, Kelly A Lefaivre
AIM: To demonstrate the effectiveness of a digital radiographic altering technique in concealing treatment allocation to blind outcome assessment of distal femur fracture fixation. METHODS: Digital postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radiographs from a sample of 33 randomly-selected patients with extra-articular distal femur fractures treated by surgical fixation at a Level 1 trauma center were included. Using commercially available digital altering software, we devised a technique to blind the radiographs by overlaying black boxes over the implant hardware while preserving an exposed fracture site for assessment of fracture healing...
October 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
Xiaoyan Cao, Margaret R Mulholland, John R Helms, Peter W Bernhardt, Pu Duan, Jingdong Mao, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) comprises the largest pool of fixed N in the surface ocean, yet its composition has remained poorly constrained. Knowledge of the chemical composition of this nitrogen pool is crucial for understanding its biogeochemical function and reactivity in the environment. Previous work has suggested that high-molecular-weight (high-MW) DON exists only in two closely related forms, the secondary amides of peptides and of N-acetylated hexose sugars. Here, we demonstrate that the chemical structures of high-MW DON may be much more diverse than previously thought...
October 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Matthew M Graziose, Shauna M Downs, Quentin O'Brien, Jessica Fanzo
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the design, implementation and effectiveness of mass media and nutrition education interventions for improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and related psychosocial factors. DESIGN: A search of PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases, a Google search, and a consultation with experts in the field of IYCF performed in July 2016. SETTING: Low- and middle-income countries, as defined by the World Bank Group...
October 30, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
Jae Kwon Kim, Sanggil Kang
Background: Of the machine learning techniques used in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD), neural network (NN) is popularly used to improve performance accuracy. Objective: Even though NN-based systems provide meaningful results based on clinical experiments, medical experts are not satisfied with their predictive performances because NN is trained in a “black-box” style. Method: We sought to devise an NN-based prediction of CHD risk using feature correlation analysis (NN-FCA) using two stages...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Paul Stapor, Daniel Weindl, Benjamin Ballnus, Sabine Hug, Carolin Loos, Anna Fiedler, Sabrina Krause, Sabrina Hroß, Fabian Fröhlich, Jan Hasenauer
Summary: PESTO is a widely applicable and highly customizable toolbox for parameter estimation in MathWorks MATLAB. It offers scalable algorithms for optimization, uncertainty and identifiability analysis, which work in a very generic manner, treating the objective function as a black box. Hence, PESTO can be used for any parameter estimation problem, for which the user can provide a deterministic objective function in MATLAB. Availability and Implementation: PESTO is a MATLAB toolbox, freely available under the BSD license...
October 23, 2017: Bioinformatics
Jae Kwon Kim, Sanggil Kang
BACKGROUND: Of the machine learning techniques used in predicting coronary heart disease (CHD), neural network (NN) is popularly used to improve performance accuracy. OBJECTIVE: Even though NN-based systems provide meaningful results based on clinical experiments, medical experts are not satisfied with their predictive performances because NN is trained in a "black-box" style. METHOD: We sought to devise an NN-based prediction of CHD risk using feature correlation analysis (NN-FCA) using two stages...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Nathaniel S Sickerman, Markus W Ribbe, Yilin Hu
Nitrogenase is known for its remarkable ability to catalyze the reduction of N2 to NH3, and C1 substrates to short-chain hydrocarbon products, under ambient conditions. The best-studied Mo-nitrogenase utilizes a complex metallocofactor as the site of substrate binding and reduction. Designated the M-cluster, this [MoFe7S9C(R-homocitrate)] cluster can be viewed as [MoFe3S3] and [Fe4S3] subclusters bridged by three μ2-sulfides and one μ6-interstitial carbide, with its Mo end further coordinated by an R-homocitrate moiety...
October 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Elnaz Shokrollahi, Andrew A Goldenberg, James M Drake, Kyle W Eastwood, Matthew Kang
A prototype magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based actuator has been designed for tele-robotic surgical applications. This device is capable of generating forces up to 47 N, with input currents ranging from 0 to 1.5 A. We begin by outlining the physical design of the device, and then discuss a novel nonlinear model of the device's behavior. The model was developed using the Hammerstein-Wiener (H-W) nonlinear black-box technique and is intended to accurately capture the hysteresis behavior of the MR-fluid. Several experiments were conducted on the device to collect estimation and validation datasets to construct the model and assess its performance...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Joyce C Ho, Yubin Park
Predicting and preventing cardiac arrest is one of the biggest challenges of contemporary cardiology, as a patients survival depends on the effectiveness of the emergency response teams. While black-box models have shown to have better predictive accuracies for cardiac risk stratification, early warning scoring systems are more prominent in the hospital setting due to their ease of implementation and interpretability. We propose a temporal transfer learning approach to utilize information from adjacent time points to yield an early cardiac arrest prediction model that is robust in predictive accuracies as well as maintains the interpretability of the model coefficients...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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