keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Black box

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525769/turning-the-light-on-in-the-phenotypic-drug-discovery-black-box
#1
John G Moffat
In this issue, Drawnel et al. (2017) introduce the concept of a "molecular phenotype" and demonstrate how "big data" coming from gene expression profiling, combined with signaling pathway information, small-molecule chemical information, preclinical animal models, and clinical samples can empower phenotypic discovery at several critical levels.
May 18, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520961/building-a-middle-range-theory-of-free-public-healthcare-seeking-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-realist-review
#2
Emilie Robert, Oumar Mallé Samb, Bruno Marchal, Valéry Ridde
Realist reviews are a new form of knowledge synthesis aimed at providing middle-range theories (MRTs) that specify how interventions work, for which populations, and under what circumstances. This approach opens the 'black box' of an intervention by showing how it triggers mechanisms in specific contexts to produce outcomes. We conducted a realist review of health user fee exemption policies (UFEPs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This article presents how we developed both the intervention theory (IT) of UFEPs and a MRT of free public healthcare seeking in SSA, building on Sen's capability approach...
May 16, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513598/yap-taz-link-cell-mechanics-to-notch-signalling-to-control-epidermal-stem-cell-fate
#3
Antonio Totaro, Martina Castellan, Giusy Battilana, Francesca Zanconato, Luca Azzolin, Stefano Giulitti, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
How the behaviour of somatic stem cells (SCs) is influenced by mechanical signals remains a black-box in cell biology. Here we show that YAP/TAZ regulation by cell shape and rigidity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) dictates a pivotal SC decision: to remain undifferentiated and grow, or to activate a terminal differentiation programme. Notably, mechano-activation of YAP/TAZ promotes epidermal stemness by inhibition of Notch signalling, a key factor for epidermal differentiation. Conversely, YAP/TAZ inhibition by low mechanical forces induces Notch signalling and loss of SC traits...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513478/a-gaze-independent-hybrid-bci-based-on-visual-spatial-attention
#4
John M Egan, Gerard M Loughnane, Helen Fletcher, Emma Meade, Edmund C Lalor
OBJECTIVE: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) use measures of brain activity to convey a user's intent without the need for muscle movement. Hybrid designs, which use multiple measures of brain activity, have been shown to increase the accuracy of BCIs, including those based on EEG signals reflecting covert attention. Our study examined whether incorporating a measure of the P3 response improved the performance of a previously reported attention-based BCI design that incorporates measures of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) and alpha band modulations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511066/deep-image-mining-for-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#5
Gwenolé Quellec, Katia Charrière, Yassine Boudi, Béatrice Cochener, Mathieu Lamard
Deep learning is quickly becoming the leading methodology for medical image analysis. Given a large medical archive, where each image is associated with a diagnosis, efficient pathology detectors or classifiers can be trained with virtually no expert knowledge about the target pathologies. However, deep learning algorithms, including the popular ConvNets, are black boxes: little is known about the local patterns analyzed by ConvNets to make a decision at the image level. A solution is proposed in this paper to create heatmaps showing which pixels in images play a role in the image-level predictions...
April 28, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503093/alarms-about-structural-alerts
#6
Vinicius Alves, Eugene Muratov, Stephen Capuzzi, Regina Politi, Yen Low, Rodolpho Braga, Alexey V Zakharov, Alexander Sedykh, Elena Mokshyna, Sherif Farag, Carolina Andrade, Victor Kuz'min, Denis Fourches, Alexander Tropsha
Structural alerts are widely accepted in chemical toxicology and regulatory decision support as a simple and transparent means to flag potential chemical hazards or group compounds into categories for read-across. However, there has been a growing concern that alerts disproportionally flag too many chemicals as toxic, which questions their reliability as toxicity markers. Conversely, the rigorously developed and properly validated statistical QSAR models can accurately and reliably predict the toxicity of a chemical; however, their use in regulatory toxicology has been hampered by the lack of transparency and interpretability...
August 21, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493314/use-of-lc-hrms-in-full-scan-xic-mode-for-multi-analyte-urine-drug-testing-a-step-towards-a-black-box-solution
#7
Niclas Nikolai Stephanson, Patrick Signell, Anders Helander, Olof Beck
The influx of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has created a need for improved methods for drug testing in toxicology laboratories. The aim of this work was to design, validate and apply a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method for screening of 148 target analytes belonging to the NPS class, plant alkaloids and new psychoactive therapeutic drugs. The analytical method used a five-fold dilution of urine with 9 deuterated internal standards and injection of 2 μL...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489640/little-black-boxes-noncardiac-implantable-electronic-medical-devices-and-their-anesthetic-and-surgical-implications
#8
Una Srejic, Paul Larson, Philip E Bickler
Implanted electronic medical devices. or stimulators such as pacemakers and nerve stimulators have grown enormously in diversity and complexity over recent decades. The function and potential interaction of these devices with the perioperative environment is of increasing concern for anesthesiologists and surgeons. Because of the innate electromagnetic environment of the hospital (operating room, gastrointestinal procedure suite, and imaging suite), implanted device malfunction, reprogramming, or destruction may occur and cause physical harm (including nerve injury, blindness, deafness, burn, stroke, paralysis, or coma) to the patient...
May 4, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486952/lassie-simulating-large-scale-models-of-biochemical-systems-on-gpus
#9
Andrea Tangherloni, Marco S Nobile, Daniela Besozzi, Giancarlo Mauri, Paolo Cazzaniga
BACKGROUND: Mathematical modeling and in silico analysis are widely acknowledged as complementary tools to biological laboratory methods, to achieve a thorough understanding of emergent behaviors of cellular processes in both physiological and perturbed conditions. Though, the simulation of large-scale models-consisting in hundreds or thousands of reactions and molecular species-can rapidly overtake the capabilities of Central Processing Units (CPUs). The purpose of this work is to exploit alternative high-performance computing solutions, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), to allow the investigation of these models at reduced computational costs...
May 10, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479315/quantum-field-theory-and-coalgebraic-logic-in-theoretical-computer-science
#10
REVIEW
Gianfranco Basti, Antonio Capolupo, Giuseppe Vitiello
We suggest that in the framework of the Category Theory it is possible to demonstrate the mathematical and logical dual equivalence between the category of the q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the category of the q-deformed Hopf Algebras in quantum field theory (QFT), interpreted as a thermal field theory. Each pair algebra-coalgebra characterizes a QFT system and its mirroring thermal bath, respectively, so to model dissipative quantum systems in far-from-equilibrium conditions, with an evident significance also for biological sciences...
May 4, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468432/20-db-net-gain-polarization-insensitive-fiber-optical-parametric-amplifier-with-2-thz-bandwidth
#11
M F C Stephens, V Gordienko, N J Doran
A black-box polarization insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier (PI-FOPA) is characterized for the first time using a commercial 127 Gb/s polarization-division multiplexed PDM-QPSK transponder within a multiplex of twenty-two equivalent DWDM signals across a 2.3 THz bandwidth portion of the C-band. The PI-FOPA employs a recently demonstrated diversity loop arrangement comprising two lengths of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) with the parametric pump being removed after the first HNLF in both directions about the loop...
May 1, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467913/uv-induced-effects-on-toxicity-of-model-disinfection-byproducts
#12
ShihChi Weng, Jer-Yen Yang, Yen-Hsing Li, Ernest R Blatchley
UV (Ultraviolet)-based treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for removal of some disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and to be beneficial for reduction of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chlorinated water. However, to a large extent, UV-induced effects on chemistry and toxicology have been treated as a black box, in the sense that little or no UV dose-dependent behavior has been reported. To address this issue, the effects of UV254 irradiation on 1,4-dibenzoquinone (BQ), 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and chlorocreatinine (Cl-Cre) as model DBPs were examined, both in terms of photodegradation and cytotoxicity...
April 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456208/a-new-near-linear-scaling-efficient-and-accurate-open-shell-domain-based-local-pair-natural-orbital-coupled-cluster-singles-and-doubles-theory
#13
Masaaki Saitow, Ute Becker, Christoph Riplinger, Edward F Valeev, Frank Neese
The Coupled-Cluster expansion, truncated after single and double excitations (CCSD), provides accurate and reliable molecular electronic wave functions and energies for many molecular systems around their equilibrium geometries. However, the high computational cost, which is well-known to scale as O(N(6)) with system size N, has limited its practical application to small systems consisting of not more than approximately 20-30 atoms. To overcome these limitations, low-order scaling approximations to CCSD have been intensively investigated over the past few years...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456151/cheap-but-accurate-calculation-of-chemical-reaction-rate-constants-from-ab-initio-data-via-system-specific-black-box-force-fields
#14
Julien Steffen, Bernd Hartke
Building on the recently published quantum-mechanically derived force field (QMDFF) and its empirical valence bond extension, EVB-QMDFF, it is now possible to generate a reliable potential energy surface for any given elementary reaction step in an essentially black box manner. This requires a limited and pre-defined set of reference data near the reaction path and generates an accurate approximation of the reference potential energy surface, on and off the reaction path. This intermediate representation can be used to generate reaction rate data, with far better accuracy and reliability than with traditional approaches based on transition state theory (TST) or variational extensions thereof (VTST), even if those include sophisticated tunneling corrections...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448029/gain-compensation-methodology-for-a-sinusoidal-scan-of-a-galvanometer-mirror-in-proportional-integral-differential-control-using-pre-emphasis-techniques
#15
Tomohiko Hayakawa, Takanoshin Watanabe, Taku Senoo, Masatoshi Ishikawa
Galvanometer mirrors are used for optical applications such as target tracking, drawing, and scanning control because of their high speed and accuracy. However, the responsiveness of a galvanometer mirror is limited by its inertia; hence, the gain of a galvanometer mirror is reduced when the control path is steep. In this research, we propose a method to extend the corresponding frequency using a pre-emphasis technique to compensate for the gain reduction of galvanometer mirrors in sine-wave path tracking using proportional-integral-differential (PID) control...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442935/new-developments-in-the-treatment-of-hypoactive-sexual-desire-disorder-a-focus-on-flibanserin
#16
REVIEW
Christopher J Jayne, Michael J Heard, Sarah Zubair, Dustie L Johnson
The objective of the authors is to highlight the historical complexities for the diagnosis and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) with a focus on Flibanserin. A systematic review of the medical literature published in PubMed using the search terms HSDD and Flibanserin was conducted. Each author reviewed the results of the systematic review for articles to include in this study. HSDD is defined as a persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulty that is not better accounted for by another diagnosis...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437115/development-and-implementation-of-advanced-fitting-methods-for-the-calculation-of-accurate-molecular-structures
#17
Marco Mendolicchio, Emanuele Penocchio, Daniele Licari, Nicola Tasinato, Vincenzo Barone
The determination of accurate equilibrium molecular structures plays a fundamental role for understanding many physical-chemical properties of molecules, ranging from the precise evaluation of the electronic structure to the analysis of dynamical and environmental effects in tuning their overall behavior. For this purpose the so-called semiexperimental approach, based on a nonlinear least-squares fit of the moments of inertia associated with a set of available isotopologues, allows one to obtain very accurate results, without the unfavorable computational cost characterizing high-level quantum chemical methods...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435283/unlocking-the-black-box-of-practice-improvement-strategies-to-implement-surgical-safety-checklists-a-process-evaluation
#18
Brigid M Gillespie, Kyra Hamilton, Dianne Ball, Joanne Lavin, Therese Gardiner, Teresa K Withers, Andrea P Marshall
BACKGROUND: Compliance with surgical safety checklists (SSCs) has been associated with improvements in clinical processes such as antibiotic use, correct site marking, and overall safety processes. Yet, proper execution has been difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to undertake a process evaluation of four knowledge translation (KT) strategies used to implement the Pass the Baton (PTB) intervention which was designed to improve utilization of the SSC...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431162/risk-of-serious-bacterial-infection-associated-with-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-inhibitors-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#19
Wan-Ju Lee, Todd A Lee, Katie J Suda, Gregory S Calip, Leslie Briars, Glen T Schumock
Objectives.: TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) have a black box warning for increased risk of serious infection that was based on evidence from studies of adults. Evidence of the association is lacking for children. We aimed to examine the risk of infection posed by TNFIs compared with DMARDs in children with JIA. Methods.: We conducted a cohort study using the 2009-13 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Children <16 years old with JIA who initiated monotherapy with TNFIs or DMARDs were identified and followed for occurrence of serious bacterial infection requiring hospitalization...
April 18, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413889/shedding-light-into-the-black-box-a-prospective-longitudinal-study-identifying-the-canmeds-roles-of-final-year-medical-students-on-ward-activities
#20
Till Johannes Bugaj, Carolin Schmid, Ansgar Koechel, Jan Stiepak, Jan B Groener, Wolfgang Herzog, Christoph Nikendei
INTRODUCTION: To our best knowledge, a rigorous prospective analysis of final year medical students' (FY medical students) activity profiles during workplace learning is lacking. The present study investigated the CanMEDS characteristics of all on-ward activities performed by internal medicine FY medical students. We tested the hypotheses that during FY medical student workplace training (I) routine activities are predominantly performed, while supervised, more complex activities are underrepresented with (II) FY medical students performing an insufficient number of autonomous activities and that (III) the CanMEDS roles of the Communicator and the Professional prevail...
April 15, 2017: Medical Teacher
keyword
keyword
79860
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"