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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903120/opening-the-black-box-of-cognitive-behavioural-case-management-in-clients-with-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#1
Jessica A Hartmann, Patrick D McGorry, Stefanie J Schmidt, G Paul Amminger, Hok Pan Yuen, Connie Markulev, Gregor E Berger, Eric Y H Chen, Lieuwe de Haan, Ian B Hickie, Suzie Lavoie, Meredith J McHugh, Nilufar Mossaheb, Dorien H Nieman, Merete Nordentoft, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Miriam R Schäfer, Monika Schlögelhofer, Stefan Smesny, Andrew Thompson, Swapna Kamal Verma, Alison R Yung, Barnaby Nelson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the first-choice treatment in clients with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. However, CBT is an umbrella term for a plethora of different strategies, and little is known about the association between the intensity and content of CBT and the severity of symptomatic outcome. METHODS: A sample of 268 UHR participants received 6 months of CBT with case management (CBCM) in the context of the multi-centre NEURAPRO trial with monthly assessments of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS)...
September 14, 2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901043/survey-design-for-precise-fire-management-conservation-targets
#2
Holly Sitters, Julian Di Stefano, Timothy Wills, Matthew Swan, Alan York
Common goals of ecological fire management are to sustain biodiversity and minimize extinction risk. A novel approach to achieving these goals determines the relative proportions of vegetation growth stages (equivalent to successional stages, which are categorical representations of time since fire) that maximize a biodiversity index. The method combines data describing species abundances in each growth stage with numerical optimization to define an optimal growth-stage structure which provides a conservation-based operational target for managers...
September 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900770/how-regularities-of-mortality-statistics-explain-why-we-age-despite-having-potentially-ageless-somatic-stem-cells
#3
Alexander V Khalyavkin, Vyacheslav N Krut'ko
Researchers working in the area of ageing have found numerous manifestations of this process at the molecular biological level, including DNA and protein damage, accumulation of metabolic by-products, lipids peroxidation, macromolecular cross-linking, non-enzymatic glycosylation, anti-oxidant/pro-oxidant misbalance, rising of pro-inflammatory cytokines, etc. This results in an increase in the proportion of cells in growth arrest, reduction of the rate of information processing, metabolic rate decrease, and decrease in rates of other processes characterizing dynamic aspects of the organism's interaction with its environment...
September 12, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883182/it-decision-making-in-german-hospitals-do-ceos-open-the-black-box
#4
Johannes Thye, Ursula Hübner, Jens Hüsers, Birgit Babitsch
Health IT and communication systems are indispensable in German hospitals for clinical as well as administrative process support. However, IT is often regarded as a "black box" for hospital CEOs. Thus, the question arises how can CEOs decide if they do not know what is in the box? In order to answer this question, half-structured interviews with 14 German hospital CEOs were conducted. They revealed three principle decision processes: the supported decision, the joint decision and the corporate level decision...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880184/seizure-classification-from-eeg-signals-using-transfer-learning-semi-supervised-learning-and-tsk-fuzzy-system
#5
Yizhang Jiang, Dongrui Wu, Zhaohong Deng, Pengjiang Qian, Jun Wang, Guanjin Wang, Fu-Lai Chung, Kup-Sze Choi, Shitong Wang
Recognition of epileptic seizures from offline EEG signals is very important in clinical diagnosis of epilepsy. Compared with manual labeling of EEG signals by doctors, machine learning approaches can be faster and more consistent. However, the classification accuracy is usually not satisfactory for two main reasons: the distributions of the data used for training and testing may be different, and the amount of training data may not be enough. Additionally, most machine learning approaches generate black-box models that are difficult to interpret...
September 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880173/reflection-removal-under-fast-forward-camera-motion
#6
Jun Young Cheong, Christian Simon, Chang-Su Kim, In Kyu Park
The image quality of an in-vehicle black box camera is often degraded by reflections of internal objects, dirt, and dust on the windshield. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that simultaneously removes the reflections and small dirt artifacts from in-vehicle black box videos under fast forward camera motion. The algorithm exploits the spatiotemporal coherence of the reflection and dirt, which remain stationary relative to the fast-moving background. Unlike previous algorithms, the algorithm first separates stationary reflection and then restores the background scene...
September 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878642/binary-associative-memories-as-a-benchmark-for-spiking-neuromorphic-hardware
#7
Andreas Stöckel, Christoph Jenzen, Michael Thies, Ulrich Rückert
Large-scale neuromorphic hardware platforms, specialized computer systems for energy efficient simulation of spiking neural networks, are being developed around the world, for example as part of the European Human Brain Project (HBP). Due to conceptual differences, a universal performance analysis of these systems in terms of runtime, accuracy and energy efficiency is non-trivial, yet indispensable for further hard- and software development. In this paper we describe a scalable benchmark based on a spiking neural network implementation of the binary neural associative memory...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874011/abundance-and-bloodfeeding-patterns-of-mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-in-an-oak-woodland-on-the-eastern-slope-of-the-northern-coast-range-of-california
#8
Tara C Thiemann, David L Woodward, Ying Fang, Bonnie M Ryan, Brittany M Nelms, Jamesina J Scott, William K Reisen
The abundance and bloodfeeding patterns of mosquitoes was studied from 2008 to 2010 at an 18 ha. oak woodland in Lake County, CA. Host-seeking females were collected weekly from sunset to sunrise by paired dry-ice-baited CDC style traps, whereas resting females were aspirated from paired walk-in red boxes. Sequences of the COI gene amplified from bloodmeals from engorged resting females were used to identify the bloodmeal hosts. Aedes sierrensis (Ludlow) and Aedes increpitus Dyar complex mosquitoes were univoltine, although the timing of emergence and abundance varied temporally and seemed weather dependent...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869518/combining-theory-driven-evaluation-and-causal-loop-diagramming-for-opening-the-black-box-of-an-intervention-in-the-health-sector-a-case-of-performance-based-financing-in-western-uganda
#9
Dimitri Renmans, Nathalie Holvoet, Bart Criel
Increased attention on "complexity" in health systems evaluation has resulted in many different methodological responses. Theory-driven evaluations and systems thinking are two such responses that aim for better understanding of the mechanisms underlying given outcomes. Here, we studied the implementation of a performance-based financing intervention by the Belgian Technical Cooperation in Western Uganda to illustrate a methodological strategy of combining these two approaches. We utilized a systems dynamics tool called causal loop diagramming (CLD) to generate hypotheses feeding into a theory-driven evaluation...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866546/understanding-the-relationship-between-interactive-optimisation-and-visual-analytics-in-the-context-of-prostate-brachytherapy
#10
Jie Liu, Tim Dwyer, Kim Marriott, Jeremy Millar, Annette Haworth
The fields of operations research and computer science have long sought to find automatic solver techniques that can find high-quality solutions to difficult real-world optimisation problems. The traditional workflow is to exactly model the problem and then enter this model into a general-purpose "black-box" solver. In practice, however, many problems cannot be solved completely automatically, but require a "human-in-the-loop" to iteratively refine the model and give hints to the solver. In this paper, we explore the parallels between this interactive optimisation workflow and the visual analytics sense-making loop...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866526/lstmvis-a-tool-for-visual-analysis-of-hidden-state-dynamics-in-recurrent-neural-networks
#11
Hendrik Strobelt, Sebastian Gehrmann, Hanspeter Pfister, Alexander M Rush
Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVIS, a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865122/investigation-of-challenging-spin-systems-using-monte-carlo-configuration-interaction-and-the-density-matrix-renormalization-group
#12
Jeremy P Coe, Nuno M S Almeida, Martin J Paterson
We investigate if a range of challenging spin systems can be described sufficiently well using Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) and the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in a way that heads toward a more "black box" approach. Experimental results and other computational methods are used for comparison. The gap between the lowest doublet and quartet state of methylidyne (CH) is first considered. We then look at a range of first-row transition metal monocarbonyls: MCO when M is titanium, vanadium, chromium, or manganese...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835721/immunotherapy-searching-in-the-immune-checkpoint-black-box
#13
M Teresa Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834736/establishing-a-safe-rapid-convenient-and-low-cost-antiviral-assay-of-interferon-bioactivity-based-on-recombinant-vsv-expressing-gfp
#14
Weiye Chen, Zhiyuan Wen, Jialin Zhang, Cuicui Li, Kehe Huang, Zhigao Bu
The methods of the quantitative assay of the antiviral activity of interferons (IFNs) (type I, II or III) are very important during carrying out of the research of them, since they were found. Here a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (VSV/GFP) and MDBK cells were used to develop an antiviral assay (AVA) for IFNs. This method was carried out on a 96-well cell culture plate, and the half reduction of virus replication was quantified by assaying GFP. To quantify GFP, cell lysis buffer was directly added to the wells infected with VSV/GFP to lyse cells, the VSV/GFP was then inactivated, and relative fluorescence unit (RFU) of GFP was measured and used to calculate the antiviral activity...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820754/sleep-apps-what-role-do-they-play-in-clinical-medicine
#15
Christopher P Lorenz, Adrian J Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Today's smartphones boast more computing power than the Apollo Guidance Computer. Given the ubiquity and popularity of smartphones, are we already carrying around miniaturized sleep labs in our pockets? RECENT FINDINGS: There is still a lack of validation studies for consumer sleep technologies in general and apps for monitoring sleep in particular. To overcome this gap, multidisciplinary teams are needed that focus on feasibility work at the intersection of software engineering, data science and clinical sleep medicine...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818882/neuropsychiatric-adverse-drug-reactions-in-children-initiated-on-montelukast-in-real-life-practice
#16
Brigitte Benard, Valérie Bastien, Benjamin Vinet, Roger Yang, Maja Krajinovic, Francine M Ducharme
Although montelukast is generally well tolerated, postmarketing studies have reported serious neuropsychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) leading to a United States Food and Drug Administration black box warning. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of neuropsychiatric ADRs leading to discontinuation of montelukast in asthmatic children.We conducted a retrospective cohort study in children aged 1-17 years initiated on montelukast. In a nested cohort study, children initiated on montelukast as monotherapy or adjunct therapy to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were matched to those initiated on ICS monotherapy...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812674/red-list-of-a-black-box
#17
Helen R P Phillips, Erin K Cameron, Olga Ferlian, Manfred Türke, Marten Winter, Nico Eisenhauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804525/mdts-automatic-complex-materials-design-using-monte-carlo-tree-search
#18
Thaer M Dieb, Shenghong Ju, Kazuki Yoshizoe, Zhufeng Hou, Junichiro Shiomi, Koji Tsuda
Complex materials design is often represented as a black-box combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we present a novel python library called MDTS (Materials Design using Tree Search). Our algorithm employs a Monte Carlo tree search approach, which has shown exceptional performance in computer Go game. Unlike evolutionary algorithms that require user intervention to set parameters appropriately, MDTS has no tuning parameters and works autonomously in various problems. In comparison to a Bayesian optimization package, our algorithm showed competitive search efficiency and superior scalability...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799544/cancer-immunotherapy-searching-in-the-immune-checkpoint-black-box
#19
M Teresa Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797974/a-portable-training-model-for-deep-bypass-surgery
#20
Jiwook Ryu, Seok Keun Choi, Yeongu Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Bi-O Jeong
INTRODUCTION: Deep bypass surgery remains a challenging operative procedure. For novice trainees, there is a high barrier to improving the microsurgical skills needed for this procedure because of the relatively low number of cases and the high cost of microsurgical instruments. Here, the authors introduce a training model that includes highly accessible devices and does not require a microscope. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical environment consisted of two 15...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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