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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341937/correction-for-opening-the-black-box-of-electronic-health-collecting-analyzing-and-interpreting-log-data
#1
Floor Sieverink, Saskia Kelders, Mannes Poel, Lisette van Gemert-Pijnen
[This corrects the article DOI: .].
January 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320387/identification-of-inherited-retinal-disease-associated-genetic-variants-in-11-candidate-genes
#2
Galuh D N Astuti, L Ingeborgh van den Born, M Imran Khan, Christian P Hamel, Béatrice Bocquet, Gaël Manes, Mathieu Quinodoz, Manir Ali, Carmel Toomes, Martin McKibbin, Mohammed E El-Asrag, Lonneke Haer-Wigman, Chris F Inglehearn, Graeme C M Black, Carel B Hoyng, Frans P M Cremers, Susanne Roosing
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) display an enormous genetic heterogeneity. Whole exome sequencing (WES) recently identified genes that were mutated in a small proportion of IRD cases. Consequently, finding a second case or family carrying pathogenic variants in the same candidate gene often is challenging. In this study, we searched for novel candidate IRD gene-associated variants in isolated IRD families, assessed their causality, and searched for novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Whole exome sequencing was performed in 11 probands affected with IRDs...
January 10, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313679/a-pair-natural-orbitals-restricted-open-shell-configuration-interaction-pno-rocis-approach-for-calculating-x-ray-absorption-spectra-of-large-chemical-systems
#3
Dimitrios Maganas, Serena DeBeer, Frank Neese
In this work, the efficiency of first principles calculations of X-ray absorption spectra of large chemical systems is drastically improved. The approach is based on the previously developed restricted open shell configuration interaction singles (ROCIS) method and its parameterized version, based on a density functional theory (DFT) ground state determinant ROCIS/DFT. The combination of the ROCIS or DFT/ROCIS methods with the well-known machinery of the pair natural orbitals (PNOs) leads to the new PNO-ROCIS and PNO-ROCIS/DFT variants...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313596/miaquant-a-novel-system-for-automatic-segmentation-measurement-and-localization-comparison-of-different-biomarkers-from-serialized-histological-slices
#4
Elena Casiraghi, Mara Cossa, Veronica Huber, Licia Rivoltini, Matteo Tozzi, Antonello Villa, Barbara Vergani
In the clinical practice, automatic image analysis methods quickly quantizing histological results by objective and replicable methods are getting more and more necessary and widespread. Despite several commercial software products are available for this task, they are very little flexible, and provided as black boxes without modifiable source code. To overcome the aforementioned problems, we employed the commonly used MATLAB platform to develop an automatic method, MIAQuant, for the analysis of histochemical and immunohistochemical images, stained with various methods and acquired by different tools...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313157/microbial-community-response-reveals-underlying-mechanism-of-industrial-scale-manganese-sand-biofilters-used-for-the-simultaneous-removal-of-iron-manganese-and-ammonia-from-groundwater
#5
Yu Zhang, Rui Sun, Aijuan Zhou, Jiaguang Zhang, Yunbo Luan, Jianna Jia, Xiuping Yue, Jie Zhang
Most studies have employed aeration-biofiltration process for the simultaneous removal of iron, manganese and ammonia in groundwater. However, what's inside the "black box", i.e., the potential contribution of functional microorganisms behavior and interactions have seldom been investigated. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the correlations between environmental variables and functional microorganisms. In this study, the performance of industrial-scale biofilters for the contaminated groundwater treatment was studied...
January 8, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289764/unravelling-complex-primary-care-programmes-to-maintain-independent-living-in-older-people-a-systematic-overview
#6
L C Smit, M J Schuurmans, J W Blom, I N Fabbricotti, A P D Jansen, G I J M Kempen, R Koopmans, W M Looman, R J F Melis, S F Metzelthin, E P Moll van Charante, M E Muntinga, F G H Ruikes, S L W Spoorenberg, J J Suijker, K Wynia, J Gussekloo, N J De Wit, N Bleijenberg
OBJECTIVE: Complex interventions are criticized for being a 'black box', which makes it difficult to determine why they succeed or fail. Recently, nine proactive primary care programmes aiming to prevent functional decline in older adults showed inconclusive effects. The aim of this study was to systematically unravel, compare and synthesize the development and evaluation of nine primary care programs within a controlled trial to further improve the development and evaluation of complex interventions...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289703/enhancing-interpretability-of-automatically-extracted-machine-learning-features-application-to-a-rbm-random-forest-system-on-brain-lesion-segmentation
#7
Sérgio Pereira, Raphael Meier, Richard McKinley, Roland Wiest, Victor Alves, Carlos A Silva, Mauricio Reyes
Machine learning systems are achieving better performances at the cost of becoming increasingly complex. However, because of that, they become less interpretable, which may cause some distrust by the end-user of the system. This is especially important as these systems are pervasively being introduced to critical domains, such as the medical field. Representation Learning techniques are general methods for automatic feature computation. Nevertheless, these techniques are regarded as uninterpretable "black boxes"...
December 20, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283491/will-removal-of-black-box-warning-get-psychiatrists-to-move-on-tobacco
#8
Jill M Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280765/vigabatrin-lessons-learned-from-the-united-states-experience
#9
Rod Foroozan
Vigabatrin was introduced as an antiseizure medication in the United Kingdom in 1989 and was extensively used until 1997 when concerns arose regarding peripheral visual field loss. When the drug was approved in the United States in 2009, it carried a black box warning for the risk of permanent visual loss, and the pharmaceutical company was mandated to create a drug registry to assess for visual deficits. The vigabatrin drug registry has documented a relatively large percentage (37%) of preexisting, baseline visual deficits and a paucity (2%) of potential new visual findings...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277154/comparing-behavior-and-clock-gene-expression-between-caterpillars-butterflies-and-moths
#10
Natalie Niepoth, Gao Ke, Jacobus C de Roode, Astrid T Groot
Circadian behavior is widely observed in insects; however, the mechanisms that drive its evolution remain a black box. While circadian activity rhythms are well characterized in adults within the order Lepidoptera (i.e., most butterfly species are day active, while most moths are night active), much less is known about daily activity and clock gene expression in the larval stage. Additionally, direct comparison of clock gene expression between day-active and night-active species reared together has not been quantified...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274955/injury-severity-analysis-in-taxi-pedestrian-crashes-an-application-of-reconstructed-crash-data-using-a-vehicle-black-box
#11
Younshik Chung
In-vehicle recording devices have enabled recent changes in methodological paradigms for traffic safety research. Such devices include event data recorders (EDRs), vehicle black boxes (VBBs), and various sensors used in naturalistic driving studies (NDSs). These technologies may help improve the validity of models used to assess impacts on traffic safety. The objective of this study is to analyze the injury severity in taxi-pedestrian crashes using the accurate crash data from VBBs, such as the time-to-collision (TTC), speed, angle, and region of the crash...
December 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273280/epidemix-an-interactive-multi-model-application-for-teaching-and-visualizing-infectious-disease-transmission
#12
Ulrich Muellner, Guillaume Fournié, Petra Muellner, Christina Ahlstrom, Dirk U Pfeiffer
Mathematical models of disease transmission are used to improve our understanding of patterns of infection and to identify factors influencing them. During recent public and animal health crises, such as pandemic influenza, Ebola, Zika, foot-and-mouth disease, models have made important contributions in addressing policy questions, especially through the assessment of the trajectory and scale of outbreaks, and the evaluation of control interventions. However, their mathematical formulation means that they may appear as a "black box" to those without the appropriate mathematical background...
December 11, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272940/applicability-of-transfer-tensor-method-for-open-quantum-system-dynamics
#13
Andrius Gelzinis, Edvardas Rybakovas, Leonas Valkunas
Accurate simulations of open quantum system dynamics is a long standing issue in the field of chemical physics. Exact methods exist, but are costly, while perturbative methods are limited in their applicability. Recently a new black-box type method, called transfer tensor method (TTM), was proposed [J. Cerrillo and J. Cao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110401 (2014)]. It allows one to accurately simulate long time dynamics with a numerical cost of solving a time-convolution master equation, provided many initial system evolution trajectories are obtained from some exact method beforehand...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272930/mesoscopic-microscopic-spatial-stochastic-simulation-with-automatic-system-partitioning
#14
Stefan Hellander, Andreas Hellander, Linda Petzold
The reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is a model that allows for efficient on-lattice simulation of spatially resolved stochastic chemical kinetics. Compared to off-lattice hard-sphere simulations with Brownian dynamics or Green's function reaction dynamics, the RDME can be orders of magnitude faster if the lattice spacing can be chosen coarse enough. However, strongly diffusion-controlled reactions mandate a very fine mesh resolution for acceptable accuracy. It is common that reactions in the same model differ in their degree of diffusion control and therefore require different degrees of mesh resolution...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248385/a-cytosolic-sensor-pmddx41-mediates-antiviral-immune-response-in-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#15
Suthinee Soponpong, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a receptor belonging to the DExD family, has recently been identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in vertebrates. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of PmDDX41, the first cytosolic DNA sensor in shrimp. By searching a Penaeus monodon expressed sequence tag (EST) database (http://pmonodon.biotec.or.th), three cDNA fragments exhibiting similarity to DDX41 in various species were identified and assembled, resulting in a complete open reading frame of PmDDX41 that contains 1868-bp and encodes a putative protein of 620 amino acids...
December 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243391/bayesian-molecular-dating-opening-up-the-black-box
#16
Lindell Bromham, Sebastián Duchêne, Xia Hua, Andrew M Ritchie, David A Duchêne, Simon Y W Ho
Molecular dating analyses allow evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data, offering an unprecedented capacity for investigating the evolutionary past of all species. These methods require us to make assumptions about the relationship between genetic change and evolutionary time, often referred to as a 'molecular clock'. Although initially regarded with scepticism, molecular dating has now been adopted in many areas of biology. This broad uptake has been due partly to the development of Bayesian methods that allow complex aspects of molecular evolution, such as variation in rates of change across lineages, to be taken into account...
December 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241697/opening-the-black-box-of-endocrine-disruption-of-brain-development-lessons-from-the-characterization-of-bisphenol-a
#17
REVIEW
Dinushan Nesan, Laronna C Sewell, Deborah M Kurrasch
Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the best-studied endocrine disrupting chemicals, known to act via multiple steroid hormone receptors to mediate a myriad of cellular effects. Pre-, peri-, and postnatal BPA exposure have been linked to a variety of altered behaviors in multiple model organisms, ranging from zebrafish to frogs to mammalian models. Given that BPA can cross the human placental barrier and has been found in the serum of human fetuses during gestation, BPA has been postulated to adversely affect ongoing neurodevelopment, ultimately leading to behavioral disorders later in life...
December 11, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241433/long-run-trends-in-antidepressant-use-among-youths-after-the-fda-black-box-warning
#18
Nilay Kafali, Ana Progovac, Sherry Shu-Yeu Hou, Benjamin Lê Cook
OBJECTIVE: In October 2004, the Food and Drug Administration directed pharmaceutical companies to issue a black box warning about the potential link between the use of antidepressants and suicidal ideation among children. This study analyzed long-run trends in antidepressant use among children before and after the black box warning for those with and without severe psychological impairment. METHODS: The analysis used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for children ages five to 17, covering years 2000-2011 (N=75,819)...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240330/regulating-black-box-medicine
#19
W Nicholson Price
Data drive modern medicine. And our tools to analyze those data are growing ever more powerful. As health data are collected in greater and greater amounts, sophisticated algorithms based on those data can drive medical innovation, improve the process of care, and increase efficiency. Those algorithms, however, vary widely in quality. Some are accurate and powerful, while others may be riddled with errors or based on faulty science. When an opaque algorithm recommends an insulin dose to a diabetic patient, how do we know that dose is correct? Patients, providers, and insurers face substantial difficulties in identifying high-quality algorithms; they lack both expertise and proprietary information...
2017: Michigan Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235174/big-data-and-medicine-a-big-deal
#20
Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Erik Ingelsson
Big Data promises huge benefits for medical research. Looking beyond superficial increases in the amount of data collected, we identify three key areas where Big Data differs from conventional analyses of data samples: (1) data is captured more comprehensively relative to the phenomenon under study; this reduces some bias but surfaces important tradeoffs, such as between data quantity and data quality; (2) data is often analyzed using machine learning tools, such as neural networks rather than conventional statistical methods resulting in systems that over time capture insights implicit in data, but remain black boxes, rarely revealing causal connections; and (3) the purpose of the analyses of data is no longer simply answering existing questions, but hinting at novel ones and generating promising new hypotheses...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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