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anti epileptic

Kyle P Lillis, Kevin J Staley
For over a century, epileptic seizures have been characterized as a state of pathological, hypersynchronous brain activity. Anti-epileptic therapies have been developed largely based on the dogma that the altered brain rhythms result from an overabundance of glutamatergic activity or insufficient GABAergic inhibition. The most effective drugs in use today act to globally decrease excitation, increase inhibition, or decrease all activity. Unfortunately, such broad alterations to brain activity often lead to impactful side effects such as mood disordersdrowsiness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disruption...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Seow-Mun Hue, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus , is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shirley L Zhang, Zhifeng Yue, Denice M Arnold, Gregory Artiushin, Amita Sehgal
Endogenous circadian rhythms are thought to modulate responses to external factors, but mechanisms that confer time-of-day differences in organismal responses to environmental insults/therapeutic treatments are poorly understood. Using a xenobiotic, we find that permeability of the Drosophila "blood"-brain barrier (BBB) is higher at night. The permeability rhythm is driven by circadian regulation of efflux and depends on a molecular clock in the perineurial glia of the BBB, although efflux transporters are restricted to subperineurial glia (SPG)...
February 27, 2018: Cell
C Vallée, A Biraben, A Nica, M Loiseau
OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of depression in people with epilepsy is almost twice as common as in the general population. Furthermore, depression is the first cause of lower quality of life among those patients. Which is why the main goal of this study was to assess the epidemiology of depression and its associated factors among the patients from the tertiary department of epileptology in Rennes. METHODS/RESULTS: The subjects were included prospectively and consecutively at the moment of their consultation or hospitalisation in the department...
March 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
Zsolt Kovács, Dominic P D'Agostino, Csilla Ari
Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental health problems worldwide, but the exact pathophysiology remains largely unknown. It has been demonstrated previously that administration of exogenous ketone supplement KSMCT (ketone salt/KS + medium chain triglyceride/MCT oil) by intragastric gavage for 7 days decreased the anxiety level in genetically absence epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. To investigate the potential role of the adenosinergic system in the pathomechanism of anxiety we tested whether the inhibition of adenosine A1 receptors (A1 Rs) influence the anxiolytic effect of the exogenous ketone supplement...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sushma Yerram, Nakul Katyal, Keerthivaas Premkumar, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christopher R Newey
Background: Seizures are a considerable complication in critically ill patients. Their incidence is significantly high in neurosciences intensive care unit patients. Seizure prophylaxis with anti-epileptic drugs is a common practice in neurosciences intensive care unit. However, its utility in patients without clinical seizure, with an underlying neurological injury, is somewhat controversial. Body: In this article, we have reviewed the evidence for seizure prophylaxis in commonly encountered neurological conditions in neurosciences intensive care unit and discussed the possible prognostic role of continuous electroencephalography monitoring in detecting early seizures in critically ill patients...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
Ding Zhou, Yi-Xuan Chen, Jun-Hui Yin, Shi-Cong Tao, Shang-Chun Guo, Zhan-Ying Wei, Yong Feng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the most common cause of atraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) because their effect compromises the osteogenic capability of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anti‑epileptic and anti‑convulsant drug. Previous studies have reported that VPA promotes osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro and osteogenesis in vivo as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of VPA as a precautionary treatment of ONFH after GC treatment in rats...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Elisabetta Grillo, Claudia Cagnetti, Alberto Verrotti, Gaetano Zaccara, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: In the treatment of pediatric epilepsy, there is a critical demand for effective and safe therapeutic options to address patients' unmet clinical needs. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug and a third-generation single enantiomer member of the dibenzazepine family. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on treatment for focal-onset seizures in pediatric patients using meta-analytical techniques...
March 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
Adriana Fernanda K Vizuete, Fernanda Hansen, Elisa Negri, Marina Concli Leite, Diogo Losch de Oliveira, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of partial epilepsy and is accompanied, in one third of cases, by resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AED). Most AED target neuronal activity modulated by ionic channels, and the steroid sensitivity of these channels has supported the use of corticosteroids as adjunctives to AED. Assuming the importance of astrocytes in neuronal activity, we investigated inflammatory and astroglial markers in the hippocampus, a key structure affected in TLE and in the Li-pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bushra Parveen, Manjari Tripathi, Divya Vohora
Long-term anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy compromises bone health. Though vitamin-D deficiency is proposed to be involved, it alone is not held responsible. This accounts for investigating other mechanisms in bone accrual. Recent studies have shown modulation of inhibitors of wnt pathway, sclerostin and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), in glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis. We investigated whether AED monotherapy modulates wnt inhibitors in Indian women with epilepsy. Women of age > 20-40 years with the diagnosis of epilepsy and receiving AEDs (carbamazepine, valproate and levetiracetam) for at least a year were enrolled...
March 5, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Omnia Ahmed Mohamed Abed El-Gaphar, Amira M Abo-Youssef, Gouda Kamel Halal
Levetiracetam (LEV), a novel anti-epileptic drug that has been demonstrated with an anti-inflammatory effect, but the exact mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of LEV on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) as well as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/ mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways activation in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). Rats were allocated into normal control, three arthritic control groups: Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) (0...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Guo-Hua Gong, Feng-Mao An, Yu Wang, Ming Bian, Di Wang, Cheng-Xi Wei
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), the most common type of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is particularly relevant due to its high frequency of therapeutic resistance of anti-epileptic therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be dysregulated in epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases, and we hypothesized that miRNAs could be involved in the pathogenesis of MTLE. The present study aimed to explore the expression and functions of miRNA-153 in mTLE. The expression levels of miRNA-153 in refractory TLE patients were evaluated...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Tsuneo Nakajima, Toshihiro Sakai, Hitoshi Hara
We report a forty-six-year-old man with a past history of brain abscess managed by surgical drainage and recurrent ischemic strokes. After treatment of brain abscess, he had been on medication for symptomatic epilepsy, but had ceased medication by his judgment. He was taken to a hospital in an ambulance for an epileptic seizure. In the hospital he suffered from drug-induced renal dysfunction caused by the intravenous anti-epileptic drug, and right hemiparesis due to ischemic stroke occurred on the third hospitalization day...
February 28, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
George Thom, Matthew Burrell, Arsalan S Haqqani, Alvaro Yogi, Etienne Lessard, Eric Brunette, Christie Delany, Ewa Baumann, Deborah Callaghan, Natalia Rodrigo, Carl I Webster, Danica B Stanimirovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable obstacle for brain delivery of therapeutic antibodies. However, antibodies against the transferrin receptor (TfR), enriched in brain endothelial cells, have been developed as delivery carriers of therapeutic cargos into the brain via a receptor-mediated transcytosis pathway. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that either a low-affinity or mono-valent binding of these antibodies to the TfR improves their release on the abluminal side of the BBB and target engagement in brain parenchyma...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Guo-Shuai Yang, Xiao-Yan Zhou, Xue-Fang An, Xuan-Jun Liu, Yan-Jun Zhang, Dan Yu
Stroke is considered an underlying etiology of the development of seizures. Stroke leads to glucose and oxygen deficiency in neurons, resulting in brain dysfunction and injury. Mild hypothermia is a therapeutic strategy to inhibit stroke‑induced seizures, which may be associated with the regulation of energy metabolism of the brain. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member (GLUT)‑1 are critical for energy metabolism. Furthermore, mTOR overactivation and GLUT‑1 deficiency are associated with genetically acquired seizures...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Luana Carvalho Cezar, Thiago Berti Kirsten, Caio Cesar Navarrete da Fonseca, Ana Paula Nascimento de Lima, Maria Martha Bernardi, Luciano Freitas Felicio
Autism is characterized by numerous behavioral impairments, such as in communication, socialization and cognition. Recent studies have suggested that valproic acid (VPA), an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenic activity, is related to autism. In rodents, VPA exposure during pregnancy induces autistic-like effects. Exposure to VPA may alter zinc metabolism resulting in a transient deficiency of zinc. Therefore, we selected zinc as a prenatal treatment to prevent VPA-induced impairments in a rat model of autism...
February 23, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hugo Zeberg, Johanna Nilsson, Peter Århem
Understanding the relationships between the rates and dynamics of current wave forms under voltage clamp conditions is essential for understanding phenomena such as state-dependence and use-dependence, which are fundamental for the action of drugs used as anti-epileptics, anti-arrhythmics, and anesthetics. In the present study, we mathematically analyze models of blocking mechanisms. In previous experimental studies of potassium channels we have shown that the effect of local anesthetics can be explained by binding to channels in the open state...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Rani A Sarkis, Scott McGinnis, Sara N Rushia, Suna Park, Emile E Ansari, Kim C Willment
We aimed to investigate the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of patients older than 50 with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy as compared to a younger cohort. One hundred and thirty-one patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (47% age ≥ 50) who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing were retrospectively identified. A comparison of percentage of Z scores < - 1.5 between the older and younger cohort on Trail Making Tests A and B, Boston Naming Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) delayed recall, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test delayed recall was performed as well as the presence of disability due to epilepsy and depression scores...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Vrinda M, Arun S, Srikumar B N, Bindu M Kutty, Shankaranarayana Rao B S
Epilepsy is a neurological condition associated with seizures, neurodegeneration, circuit reorganization, and other structural and functional abnormalities. These elements ultimately lead to behavioural alterations such as anxiety, depression, and importantly cognitive impairment like learning disability and memory impairment. These factors can attribute to acceleration of aging and cognitive impairment in middle-aged people, which is otherwise evident in dementia and Alzheimer's disease among elderly people...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Tariq Zaman, Ingo Helbig, Ivana Babić Božović, Suzanne D DeBrosse, A Christina Bergqvist, Kimberly Wallis, Livija Medne, Aleš Maver, Borut Peterlin, Katherine L Helbig, Xiaohong Zhang, Ethan M Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-gated sodium (Na+ ) channels underlie action potential generation and propagation and hence are central to the regulation of excitability in the nervous system. Mutations in the genes SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN8A, encoding the Na+ channel pore-forming (α) subunits Nav1.1, 1.2, and 1.6, respectively, and SCN1B, encoding the accessory subunit β1 , are established causes of genetic epilepsies. SCN3A, encoding Nav1.3, is known to be highly expressed in brain, but has not previously been linked to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Neurology
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