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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437285/monitoring-protein-unbound-valproic-acid-serum-concentrations-in-clinical-practice
#1
Eveline Wallenburg, Bas Klok, Karin de Jong, Monique de Maat, Nielka van Erp, Sonja Stalpers-Konijnenburg, Guus Essink, Matthijs van Luin
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. A key characteristic of VPA is its high and saturable protein binding at higher concentrations. While the unbound concentration of VPA is responsible for its pharmacological activity, total drug concentrations are monitored in routine clinical practice. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of unbound VPA is recommended for specific clinical situations. The goal of this study was to evaluate TDM requests for unbound VPA in clinical practice...
April 6, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436627/-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#2
Liying Chen, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and severe neurological disorder which is often intractable. It can not only damage the normal structure and function of hippocampus, but also affect the neurogenesis in dentate gyrus (DG). It is well documented from researches on the animal models of TLE that after a latent period of several days, prolonged seizure activity leads to a dramatic increase in mitotic activity in the hippocampal DG. However, cell proliferation returns to baseline levels within 3-4 weeks after status epilepticus (SE)...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436625/-effects-of-crocin-on-hippocampus-rapid-kindling-epilepsy-in-mice
#3
Xiting Wang, Oufeng Tang, Yilu Ye, Mingzhi Zheng, Jue Hu, Zhong Chen, Kai Zhong
Objective: To investigate the effect of crocin on the progression and generalized seizure of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice. Methods: Hippocampus rapid kindling model was established in C57BL/6J mice. The effects of crocin on seizure stage, afterdischarge duration (ADD), number of stimulation in each stage and final state, the incidence of generalized seizure (GS), average seizure stage and ADD were observed. Results: Crocin (20 mg/kg) significantly retarded behavioral seizure stages ( P<0.05) and shortened cumulative ADD ( P<0...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433578/a-novel-device-for-continuous-long-term-electroencephalogram-recording-and-drug-administration-in-mice-with-a-nice-powerful-and-sophisticated-wired-system
#4
Shigeru Watanabe, Masanori Saito, Masaki Soma, Hitoshi Miyaoka, Masami Takahashi
BACKGROUND: To elucidate mechanisms of epileptogenesis and epileptic maturation, and to develop new AEDs, it is indispensable to administer various drugs and to examine their effects on EEG over a long period of observation. NEW METHOD: We constructed a device for the continuous measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) and the infusion of anti-epileptic drugs over a prolonged period of time in moving mice. The system includes a slip ring and a swivel to prevent twisting of the recording cable and infusion tube, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428755/pharmacological-analysis-of-the-anti-epileptic-mechanisms-of-fenfluramine-in-scn1a-mutant-zebrafish
#5
Jo Sourbron, Ilse Smolders, Peter de Witte, Lieven Lagae
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a genetic encephalopathy that is characterized by severe seizures and prominent co-morbidities (e.g., physical, intellectual disabilities). More than 85% of the DS patients carry an SCN1A mutation (sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit). Although numerous anti-epileptic drugs have entered the market since 1990, these drugs often fail to adequately control seizures in DS patients. Nonetheless, current clinical data shows significant seizure reduction in DS patients treated with the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) drug fenfluramine (FA)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428012/-retrospective-study-of-children-referred-from-paediatric-intensive-care-to-palliative-care-why-and-for-what
#6
Alberto García-Salido, Paula Santos-Herranz, Verónica Puertas-Martín, María Ángeles García-Teresa, Ricardo Martino-Alba, Ana Serrano-González
INTRODUCTION: The creation of paediatric palliative care units (PPCU) could optimise the management of children with palliative focus after admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This study describes the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children referred from PICU to the UCPP of the Autonomous Community of Madrid (CAM). The overall treatment, relapses, re-admissions, and deaths, if occurred, are described. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective review was performed using the medical records from children transferred from the CAM paediatric intensive care units to the paediatric palliative care unit (1 March 2008-31 January 2015)...
April 17, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425415/drug-induced-liver-injury-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-india-etiology-clinical-features-and-predictors-of-mortality
#7
Chetan Rathi, Nirav Pipaliya, Ruchir Patel, Meghraj Ingle, Aniruddha Phadke, Prabha Sawant
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is rare; however, it is one of the important causes of acute liver failure which results in significant morbidity or mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with suspected DILI were enrolled based on predefined criteria and followed up for at least 6 months or until normalization of liver tests. Causality assessment was done by applying the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method model. RESULTS: We collected data from 82 individuals diagnosed with DILI at our hospital from 2014 through 2015 (41 men; median age, 38 years)...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416780/new-onset-epilepsy-in-the-elderly-clinical-radiological-and-electroencephalographic-features-and-treatment-responses
#8
Erum M Shariff, Fahd A AlKhamis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate new onset epilepsy characteristics, etiology, radiological and electroencephalographic features and to document treatment response in the elderly. METHODS: This was a retrospective study carried out in King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2013. Medical records were searched to recruit patients. Hundred and nineteen patients were enrolled who fulfill the inclusion criteria. Clinical data with respect to seizure semiology, etiology, electroencephalographic findings, radiological findings, co-morbidities, and anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy were assessed...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412154/quality-indicator-for-epilepsy-treatment-15-quiet-15-intervening-after-recurrent-seizures-in-the-elderly
#9
Jerzy P Szaflarski, Roy C Martin, Edward Faught, Ellen Funkhouser, Joshua Richman, Kendra Piper, Lucia Juarez, Chen Dai, Maria Pisu
In this study, we examined the provision of care to older adults with epilepsy and compliance with the "Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 15" (QUIET-15) measure. We analyzed 2008-2010, 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries augmented with data from all beneficiaries who identified as a minority with claims related to seizures (780.3x) or epilepsy (345.xx). Of 36,912 identified epilepsy cases, 12.6% had ≥1 emergency room (ER) visit for seizure(s). For those who presented to ER, among those taking anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), AED was changed in 15...
April 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398022/teratology-of-valproic-acid-an-updated-review-of-the-possible-mediating-mechanisms
#10
Adalisa Ponzano, Gian M Tiboni
Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug (AED) which is currently being investigated for its potential application in the treatment of several types of cancers, including solid and non-solid tumor. It is well known that prenatal exposure to VPA largely increases the risk for malformations and other developmental disorders. This review concentrates on clinical and experimental data on congenital anomalies attributed to maternal VPA exposure during. Particular emphasis is paid to the potential mechanisms underlying VPA-induced malformations...
April 10, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394917/a%C3%AE-levels-in-the-jugular-vein-and-high-molecular-weight-a%C3%AE-oligomer-levels-in-csf-can-be-used-as-biomarkers-to-indicate-the-anti-amyloid-effect-of-ivig-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Takashi Kasai, Masaki Kondo, Ryotaro Ishii, Akihiro Tanaka, Suzuka Ataka, Hiroyuki Shimada, Takami Tomiyama, Hiroshi Mori, Mark Taylor, David Allsop, Masanori Nakagawa, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been a candidate as a potential anti-amyloid immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease (AD) because it contains anti-amyloid β (Aβ) antibodies. Although several studies with IVIg in AD have been published, changing levels of Aβ efflux from the brain, or disaggregation of Aβ species induced by immunotherapy, have not been properly investigated. Here, we carried out an open label study of therapy with IVIg in five patients with AD. We collected plasma from a peripheral vein (peripheral-plasma) and from the internal jugular vein (jugular-plasma) to estimate directly the efflux of soluble Aβ from the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388948/investigating-the-potential-of-the-anti-epileptic-drug-imepitoin-as-a-treatment-for-co-morbid-anxiety-in-dogs-with-idiopathic-epilepsy
#12
Rowena M A Packer, Luisa De Risio, Holger A Volk
BACKGROUND: Behavioural changes associated with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) have been identified in dogs, with fear and anxiety-related problems seen in both drug-naïve dogs and dogs treated with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Treating anxiety-related behaviour in dogs with IE may be challenging, as seizures are a contraindication for many conventional anxiolytic drugs. In addition, many dogs with IE are already treated with AEDs to reduce their seizure frequency, which may have negative effects if used in polytherapy...
April 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384919/unusual-presentation-of-porencephalic-cyst-in-an-adult
#13
Abel Thomas Oommen, Ganeswar Sethy, Noas Tobias Minz, Jogendra Patra, Swayang Sudha Panda
Porencephalic cyst is quite a rare entity in adults with only a few cases reported so far. It is usually congenital and seen in neonates. Here, we report a 28-year-old female who presented with post-ictal confusion following a new onset of focal seizures with secondary generalisation. She was diagnosed to have porencephalic cyst in left posterior parietal lobe on brain imaging. She was started on anti-epileptic drugs and is on follow up.
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374236/novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-a-patient-with-short-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#14
Chiplunkar, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Madhu Nagappa, Bobby Baby Panikulam, Hanumanthapura R Arvinda, Periyasamy Govindaraj, M M Srinivas Bharath, Narayanappa Gayathri, J N Jessiena Ponmalar, Pavagada S Mathuranath, Sanjib Sinha, Arun B Taly
Reports on magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS), are limited. Many asymptomatic carriers of ACAD variants have also been described necessitating careful evaluation of clinical and biochemical findings for an accurate diagnosis. Here we report a an infant with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency diagnosed based on the characteristic biochemical findings and confirmed by genetic testing...
April 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373803/evaluation-of-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibody-levels-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#15
Ayten Ceyhan Dirican, Sevilay Elibirlik, Ayhan Köksal, Musa Öztürk, Yavuz Altunkaynak, Sevim Baybaş, Ahmet Dirican
INTRODUCTION: Several clinical studies have been conducted to investigate the role of autoantibodies and immunological mechanisms in the etiology of treatment-resistant epilepsy in recent years. Some immunological treatments have been suggested as a result of these studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of autoimmunity in partial and idiopathic generalized epilepsy and determine the relationship between drug resistance and autoimmune antibodies. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (24 treatment-responsive and 4 treatment-resistant) with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 26 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLEHS) resistant to antiepileptic drug treatment, and 26 age-matched healthy control subjects were included in a two-year cross sectional study...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366991/supplementation-with-carnitine-reduces-the-severity-of-constipation-a-retrospective-study-of-patients-with-severe-motor-and-intellectual-disabilities
#16
Shinya Murata, Keisuke Inoue, Tomoki Aomatsu, Atsushi Yoden, Hiroshi Tamai
Carnitine is an essential nutrient for the mitochondrial transport of fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency causes a variety of symptoms in multiple organs. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities often have carnitine deficiency. This study aimed to determine the correlation between constipation and carnitine deficiency in them. Patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The correlation between level of free carnitine and severity of constipation was examined...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353375/determination-of-serum-carbamazepine-concentration-using-dried-blood-spot-specimens-for-resource-limited-settings
#17
Saibal Das, Denise H Fleming, Binu S Mathew, Blessed Winston A, Appaswamy T Prabhakar, Mathew Alexander
OBJECTIVES: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used anti-epileptic in rural hospitals in India. These hospitals lack the facilities to measure CBZ concentration; however, in larger hospitals this is performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dried blood spot (DBS) represents a feasible matrix for safe transportation by post/courier. This study was to determine whether the concentration of CBZ in serum can be predicted from that measured in DBS using an inexpensive HPLC method and inexpensive standard filter paper...
April 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352122/long-term-electrical-stimulation-at-ear-and-electro-acupuncture-at-st36-st37-attenuated-cox-2-in-the-ca1-of-hippocampus-in-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizure-rats
#18
En-Tzu Liao, Nou-Ying Tang, Yi-Wen Lin, Ching Liang Hsieh
Seizures produce brain inflammation, which in turn enhances neuronal excitability. Therefore, anti-inflammation has become a therapeutic strategy for antiepileptic treatment. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a critical role in postseizure brain inflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability. Our previous studies have shown that both electrical stimulation (ES) at the ear and electro-acupuncture (EA) at the Zusanli and Shangjuxu acupoints (ST36-ST37) for 6 weeks can reduce mossy fiber sprouting, spike population, and high-frequency hippocampal oscillations in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizure rats...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348963/unilateral-predominance-of-abnormal-movements-a-characteristic-feature-of-the-pediatric-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#19
Vanessa Benjumea-Cuartas, Monika Eisermann, Hina Simonnet, Marie Hully, Rima Nabbout, Isabelle Desguerre, Anna Kaminska
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a treatable autoimmune disease characterized by cognitive, motor and psychiatric features that primarily affects young adults and children. We present a case of a 7-year-old boy with asymmetrical (mainly right hemibody) and abnormal polymorphic movements without concomitant scalpictal EEG changes but had background slowing predominating over the left hemisphere. This report illustrates previous descriptions of asymmetric presentation of abnormal movements in pediatric anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and emphasizes the importance of video-EEG interpreted within the overall clinical context, to differentiate epileptic from non-epileptic abnormal movements in patients with autoimmune encephalitis...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#20
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
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