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Human ovary

Ruirui Xu, Mingyan Xu, Yucai Fu, Xiaoling Deng, Hui Han, Xihe Chen, Wenjing He, Gengzhen Chen
Although it is difficult to detect αvβ6 integrin (αvβ6) in normal epithelia cells, its expression is upregulated during wound healing and carcinogenesis. Overexpression of αvβ6 has been demonstrated in epithelial cell carcinomas, such as adenocarcinoma of the colon and ovary. However, the expression of αvβ6 has not been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously indicated that LPA may induce αvβ6-mediated TGF-β1 signaling mechanisms during the pathogenesis of lung injury and fibrosis...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Qian-Nan Li, Lei Guo, Yi Hou, Xiang-Hong Ou, Zhonghua Liu, Qing-Yuan Sun
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a familial aggregation disease that causes anovulation in women, has well-recognised characteristics, two of which are hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia. To determine whether the DNA methylation status is altered in oocytes by high insulin and androgen levels, we generated a mouse model with hyperinsulinaemia and hyperandrogenaemia by injection of insulin and human chorionic gonadotrophin and investigated DNA methylation changes through single-cell level whole genome bisulphite sequencing...
June 22, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Kadri Õunap, Kristiina Kurg, Liisi Võsa, Ülo Maiväli, Marina Teras, Anu Planken, Mart Ustav, Reet Kurg
Melanoma-associated antigen A (MAGEA) represent a class of tumor antigens that are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors, however, their expression in healthy normal tissues is restricted to germ cells of testis, fetal ovary and placenta. The restricted expression and immunogenicity of these antigens make them ideal targets for immunotherapy in human cancer. In the present study the presence of naturally occurring antibodies against two MAGEA subfamily proteins, MAGEA4 and MAGEA10, was analyzed in patients with melanoma at different stages of disease...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Yilu Chen, Tanchu Yang, Cuifang Hao, Junzhao Zhao
BACKGROUND Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are given letrozole before a trigger injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to lower estrogen (E2) levels, but can experience ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral letrozole, prior to administration of hCG, on the outcome of IVF and development of OHSS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective clinical review included 181 cases of women with PCOS who underwent IVF cycles with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) (IVF/ICSI-ET)...
June 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Hongyan Xu, Xinping Zhu, Wei Li, Zhoukai Tang, Yanyan Zhao, Xuling Wu
Gonadal cell lines provide valuable tools for studying gametogenesis, sex differentiation, and manipulating germ cells in reproductive biology. Female germline stem cells have been characterized and isolated from ovaries of mammalian species, including mice and human, but there has been very few studies on female germline stem cells in reptiles. Here, we described an ovarian stem cell-like line isolated and cultured from the Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), designated as PSO1. The cells showed high alkaline phosphatase activity with a normal diploid karyotype...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Keiko Motozawa, Mitsuru Motoyoshi, Akari Saiki, Hideto Sasaki, Noriyoshi Shimizu, Masatake Asano
Acid-electrolyzed functional water (FW) is obtained through the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. Stimulation of the human fibroblastic cell line HeLa by FW led to the augmented secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis revealed that both high and low molecular weight isoforms of bFGF were secreted in response to FW treatment. To explore intracellular bFGF localization, a cell fractionation assay was performed. Despite the presence of nuclear localization signals within the N-terminal portion of these proteins, the high molecular weight isoforms (34, 24, 22...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Momoko Kobayashi, Kaya Watanabe, Ritsuko Matsumura, Nozomi Anayama, Akio Miyamoto, Hitoshi Miyazaki, Koyomi Miyazaki, Takashi Shimizu, Makoto Akashi
Circadian dysfunction perturbs the female reproductive cycle. In particular, mice lacking the clock gene Bmal1 show severe infertility, implying that BMAL1 plays roles in ovulation and luteinization. Here, we examined temporal changes in clock gene expression in the ovary and oviduct before and during gonadotropin-induced follicular growth, ovulation, and luteinization in sexually immature mice. While the oviduct did not show a drastic change in clock gene expression, Bmal1 expression in the ovary was higher than that in control mice during the period from 4 to 16 hr after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration...
June 19, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Eleni A Greenwood, Lauri A Pasch, Marcelle I Cedars, Richard S Legro, Esther Eisenberg, Heather G Huddleston
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that insulin resistance is associated with depression risk in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized trial. SETTING: Multicenter university-based clinical practices. PATIENT(S): Seven hundred thirty-eight women with PCOS by modified Rotterdam criteria seeking pregnancy enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing clomiphene citrate versus letrozole...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Richard Piet, Bruna Kalil, Tim McLennan, Robert Porteous, Katja Czieselsky, Allan E Herbison
A population of kisspeptin-GABA co-expressing neurons located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) is believed to activate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to generate the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggering ovulation. Selective optogenetic activation of RP3V kisspeptin (RP3VKISS ) neurons in female mice for >30s and ≥10Hz in either a continuous or bursting mode was found to reliably generate a delayed and long-lasting activation of GnRH neuron firing in brain slices...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Soumi Sukla, Anisa Ghosh, Rajdeep Saha, Abhishek De, Samit Adhya, Subhajit Biswas
PURPOSE: Zika virus infections have recently been reported in many dengue-endemic areas globally. Both dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) virus are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, raising the possibility of mixed infections in both vector and host. We evaluated DENV and ZIKV prevalence in human and vector samples in Kolkata, a DENV-endemic city. METHODOLOGY: Blood samples were collected from 70 patients presenting dengue-like fever symptoms at a hospital in Kolkata during 2015-16...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Po-Lin Liao, Ching-Hao Li, Ling-Shan Tse, Jaw-Jou Kang, Yu-Wen Cheng
The pharmacological effects of Cistanches Herba, known as "Ginseng of the desert", have been extensively studied. In this study, we aimed to assess the genotoxic and oral toxic effects of the Cistanche tubulosa health food product Memoregain® using in vitro and in vivo tests. Ames tests using five strains of Salmonella typhimurium showed no signs of increased reverse mutation upon exposure to Memoregain® up to a concentration of 5 mg/plate. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells to Memoregain® did not increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in vitro...
June 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mohammad Reza Dorvash, Mohammad Javad Khoshnood, Hossein Saber, Amirreza Dehghanian, Pourya Mosaddeghi, Negar Firouzabadi
Gallstone disease (GD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and its related illnesses including type II diabetes (DMII) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While previous studies claimed that metformin decreases the chance of developing GD in PCOS patients, this phenomenon has not been investigated in animal models to date. Here we fed a high fat diet (HFD) containing 2% of cholesterol and 1% of cholic acid to ten-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice for 105 days. The groups were as follows: Low fat diet; HFD; HFD + Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (Met) (day 64-105)...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Asma Siavashpour, Younes Ghasemi, Bahman Khalvati, Fereshteh Jeivad, Negar Azarpira, Hossein Niknahad
Organophosphate pesticides are considered as endocrine disruptors that interfere with reproductive functions. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland that produces progesterone, a crucial hormone for a successful beginning and maintenance of pregnancy . Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein ( StAR ) facilitates the rate-limiting transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner organelle membranes. We investigated the effect of Diazinon (DZN), an organophosphate, on StAR mRNA expression by Sybergreen Real Time-PCR in a time-dependent manner in luteal phase...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Irma Virant-Klun
Data from the literature show that there are different populations of stem cells present in human adult ovaries, including small stem cells resembling very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). These small ovarian stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm are present in the ovarian surface epithelium and can grow into bigger, primitive oocyte-like cells that express several markers of a germinal lineage and exhibit pluripotency but not the zona pellucida structure when cultured in vitro. In this report, we present the results of the functional testing of such primitive oocyte-like cells from one patient with premature ovarian failure after insemination with her partners' sperm...
June 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Tatiana V Morozova, Yasmeen Hussain, Lenovia J McCoy, Eugenea V Zhirnov, Morgan R Davis, Victoria A Pray, Rachel A Lyman, Laura H Duncan, Anna McMillen, Aiden Jones, Trudy F C Mackay, Robert R H Anholt
Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes a wide range of adverse physiological, behavioral and cognitive consequences. However, identifying allelic variants and genetic networks associated with variation in susceptibility to prenatal alcohol exposure is challenging in human populations, since time and frequency of exposure and effective dose cannot be determined quantitatively and phenotypic manifestations are diverse. Here, we harnessed the power of natural variation in the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to identify genes and genetic networks associated with variation in sensitivity to developmental alcohol exposure...
June 5, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
E Zaczyńska, I Kochanowska, M Kruzel, M Zimecki
Immature B cells are susceptible to apoptosis due to ligation of surface immunoglobulin receptors. The WEHI 231 cell line represents a useful model to study the mode of action of factors preventing apoptosis. In this work we investigated the protective effects of multi-species lactoferrins in anti-mouse Ig-induced WEHI 231 cell death. Bovine milk-derived lactoferrin (bLF), recombinant human lactoferrin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells - rhLF(CHO) or in human endothelial kidney cells - rhLF(HEK), and recombinant mouse lactoferrin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells - rmLF(CHO), were used...
2018: Folia Biologica (Praha)
Jiawei Luo, Ying Yin, Chu Pan, Gen Xiang, Nguyen Hoang Tu
At the co-regulatory network level, functional modules comprising microRNAs (miRNAs), transcription factors (TFs), and common target genes (mRNAs) are found to be widespread in diverse organisms from bacteria to human, suggesting that co-regulatory functional modules (CRMs) serve as basic building blocks of transcription networks. Identification of CRMs would contribute to explore the miRNAs and TFs regulatory mechanism to specific cancer. However, few studies considered the functional modules which contain TFs and overlapping parts now...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Kahina Ghanem, A L Johnson
Similar to the domestic hen ovary, entry of a follicle into the preovulatory hierarchy in the turkey hen represents a process in which a single follicle initiates rapid growth and final maturation prior to ovulation. Published data derived from the laying hen support the proposal that differentiation of the follicle granulosa cell (GC) layer begins coincident with entry into the rapid growth phase and is characterized by the initial capacity for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated cell signaling. The present studies were conducted with photostimulated B...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Robert H Michell
This review attempts to explain why consuming extra myoinositol (Ins), an essential component of membrane phospholipids, is often beneficial for patients with conditions characterised by insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. For decades we assumed that most human diets provide an adequate Ins supply, but newer evidence suggests that increasing Ins intake ameliorates several disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome, gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome, poor sperm development and retinopathy of prematurity...
June 3, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Charikleia Stefanaki, Panagiota Pervanidou, Dario Boschiero, George P Chrousos
Recent studies have suggested that body composition is key to health and disease. First, fat tissue is a complex, essential, and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ that responds to afferent signals from traditional hormone systems and the central nervous system but also expresses and secretes factors with important endocrine, metabolic, and immune functions. Second, skeletal muscle mass is an important predictor of health in adult life, while severe mass loss has been associated with the frailty of old age...
March 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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