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Cyclodipeptide synthase

Mireille Moutiez, Pascal Belin, Muriel Gondry
Aminoacyl-tRNAs were long thought to be involved solely in ribosome-dependent protein synthesis and essential primary metabolism processes, such as targeted protein degradation and peptidoglycan synthesis. About 10 years ago, an aminoacyl-tRNA-dependent enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic valanimycin was discovered in a Streptomyces strain. Far from being an isolated case, this discovery has been followed by the description of an increasing number of aminoacyl-tRNA-dependent enzymes involved in secondary metabolism...
April 26, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Omar González, Randy Ortíz-Castro, César Díaz-Pérez, Alma L Díaz-Pérez, Viridiana Magaña-Dueñas, José López-Bucio, Jesús Campos-García
Diverse molecules mediate cross-kingdom communication between bacteria and their eukaryotic partners and determine pathogenic or symbiotic relationships. N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum-sensing signaling represses the biosynthesis of bacterial cyclodipeptides (CDPs) that act as auxin signal mimics in the host plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this work, we performed bioinformatics, biochemical, and plant growth analyses to identify non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are involved in CDP synthesis...
April 2017: Microbial Ecology
Eric A First, Charles J Richardson
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play a central role in protein synthesis, catalyzing the attachment of amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. Here, we describe a spectrophotometric assay for tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase in which the Tyr-tRNA product is cleaved, regenerating the tRNA substrate. As tRNA is the limiting substrate in the assay, recycling it substantially increases the sensitivity of the assay while simultaneously reducing its cost. The tRNA aminoacylation reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by coupling the production of AMP to the conversion of NAD(+) to NADH...
January 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Elle D James, Bryan Knuckley, Norah Alqahtani, Suheel Porwal, Jisun Ban, Jonathan A Karty, Rajesh Viswanathan, Amy L Lane
Diketopiperazine natural products are structurally diverse and offer many biological activities. Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) were recently unveiled as a novel enzyme family that employs aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates for 2,5-diketopiperazine assembly. Here, the Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 genome is predicted to encode two CDPSs, NozA and NcdA. Metabolite profiles from E. coli expressing these genes and assays with purified recombinant enzymes revealed that NozA and NcdA catalyze cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (1) biosynthesis from tryptophanyl-tRNA and do not accept other aromatic aminoacyl-tRNA substrates...
July 15, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
T Bennur, A Ravi Kumar, S S Zinjarde, V Javdekar
Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are an ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important group of Actinomycetes. Most of the isolates are halotolerant or halophilic and they prevail in soils, marine environments or hypersaline locations. To aid their survival under these conditions, they mainly produce extremozymes, compatible solutes, surfactants and bioactive compounds. The current review details the bioactive compounds obtained for this genus. Important antimicrobial agents obtained from this genus include polyketides, phenzines, quinoline alkaloids, terphenyls, proteins, thiopeptides and amines...
January 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Isabelle B Jacques, Mireille Moutiez, Jerzy Witwinowski, Emmanuelle Darbon, Cécile Martel, Jérôme Seguin, Emmanuel Favry, Robert Thai, Alain Lecoq, Steven Dubois, Jean-Luc Pernodet, Muriel Gondry, Pascal Belin
Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) constitute a family of peptide bond-forming enzymes that use aminoacyl-tRNAs for the synthesis of cyclodipeptides. Here, we describe the activity of 41 new CDPSs. We also show that CDPSs can be classified into two main phylogenetically distinct subfamilies characterized by specific functional subsequence signatures, named NYH and XYP. All 11 previously characterized CDPSs belong to the NYH subfamily, suggesting that further special features may be yet to be discovered in the other subfamily...
September 2015: Nature Chemical Biology
Norah Alqahtani, Suheel K Porwal, Elle D James, Dana M Bis, Jonathan A Karty, Amy L Lane, Rajesh Viswanathan
Marine actinomycete-derived natural products continue to inspire chemical and biological investigations. Nocardioazines A and B (3 and 4), from Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232, are structurally unique alkaloids featuring a 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) core functionalized with indole C3-prenyl as well as indole C3- and N-methyl groups. The logic of their assembly remains cryptic. Bioinformatics analyses of the Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 draft genome afforded the noz cluster, split across two regions of the genome, and encoding putative open reading frames with roles in nocardioazine biosynthesis, including cyclodipeptide synthase (CDPS), prenyltransferase, methyltransferase, and cytochrome P450 homologs...
July 14, 2015: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Mireille Moutiez, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Jérôme Seguin, Robert Thai, Emmanuel Favry, Pascal Belin, Yves Mechulam, Muriel Gondry
Cyclodipeptide synthases form cyclodipeptides from two aminoacyl transfer RNAs. They use a ping-pong mechanism that begins with transfer of the aminoacyl moiety of the first aminoacyl tRNA onto a conserved serine, yielding an aminoacyl enzyme. Combining X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis and affinity labelling of the cyclodipeptide synthase AlbC, we demonstrate that the covalent intermediate reacts with the aminoacyl moiety of the second aminoacyl tRNA, forming a dipeptidyl enzyme, and identify the aminoacyl-binding sites of the aminoacyl tRNAs...
2014: Nature Communications
Tobias W Giessen, Mohamed A Marahiel
In recent years it has become apparent that aminoacyl-tRNAs are not only crucial components involved in protein biosynthesis, but are also used as substrates and amino acid donors in a variety of other important cellular processes, ranging from bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and lipid modification to protein turnover and secondary metabolite assembly. In this review, we focus on tRNA-dependent biosynthetic pathways that generate modified cyclic dipeptides (CDPs). The essential peptide bond-forming catalysts responsible for the initial generation of a CDP-scaffold are referred to as cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) and use loaded tRNAs as their substrates...
2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mireille Moutiez, Jérôme Seguin, Matthieu Fonvielle, Pascal Belin, Isabelle Béatrice Jacques, Emmanuel Favry, Michel Arthur, Muriel Gondry
Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) use two aminoacyl-tRNA substrates in a sequential ping-pong mechanism to form a cyclodipeptide. The crystal structures of three CDPSs have been determined and all show a Rossmann-fold domain similar to the catalytic domain of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). Structural features and mutational analyses however suggest that CDPSs and aaRSs interact differently with their tRNA substrates. We used AlbC from Streptomyces noursei that mainly produces cyclo(l-Phe-l-Leu) to investigate the interaction of a CDPS with its substrates...
June 2014: Nucleic Acids Research
Binbin Gu, Shan He, Xiaojun Yan, Lixin Zhang
Cyclodipeptides and their derivatives, the diketopiperazines (DKPs), constitute a large class of natural products that exhibit various biological properties. Until recently, there are a few characterized DKP biosynthetic pathways. In all these cases, the formation of the cyclodipeptides that harbor the DKP scaffold is catalyzed either by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or by cyclodipeptide synthases. This review focuses on the DKP biosynthetic pathways and their associated molecular mechanisms.
October 2013: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tobias W Giessen, Alexander M von Tesmar, Mohamed A Marahiel
The nocazines are a newly defined family of antibacterial and cytotoxic cyclic dipeptides produced by different actinobacterial species. Here, we identify a nocazine biosynthetic gene cluster in Nocardiopsis dassonvillei and describe the elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the nocazine family members nocazine E and XR334. Diketopiperazine (DKP) formation is carried out by a tRNA-dependent cyclodipeptide synthase (CDPS) showing an unknown product profile, while tailoring of the DKP-scaffold is achieved through the combined and combinatorial action of a cyclodipeptide oxidase and two distinct SAM-dependent O-/N-methyltransferases...
June 20, 2013: Chemistry & Biology
Tobias W Giessen, Alexander M von Tesmar, Mohamed A Marahiel
A large number of bioactive natural products containing a 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) moiety have been isolated from various microbial sources. Especially tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides (CDPs) show great structural and functional diversity, while little is known about their biosynthetic pathways. Here, we describe the bioinformatic analysis of a cyclodipeptide synthase (CDPS)-containing gene cluster from Actinosynnema mirum spanning 2.9 kb that contains two putative DKP-modifying enzymes. We establish the biosynthetic pathway leading to two methylated ditryptophan CDPs through in vivo and in vitro analyses...
June 18, 2013: Biochemistry
Pascal Belin, Mireille Moutiez, Sylvie Lautru, Jérôme Seguin, Jean-Luc Pernodet, Muriel Gondry
We review here work on the biosynthesis of diketopiperazines (DKPs), a large class of natural products with noteworthy biological activities, focusing on the biosynthetic pathways involving cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs), a newly defined family of enzymes. Distinct from nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), the other family of enzymes synthesizing DKPs, CDPSs bridge the primary and secondary metabolic pathways by hijacking aminoacyl-tRNAs to produce DKPs. This review includes a comprehensive description of the state of the art for CDPS-dependent pathways, and highlights the ways in which this knowledge could be used to increase the diversity of natural DKPs by pathway engineering...
September 2012: Natural Product Reports
M P de Carvalho, W-R Abraham
Diketopiperazines are the smallest cyclic peptides known. 90% of Gram-negative bacteria produce diketopiperazines and they have also been isolated from Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and higher organisms. Biosynthesis of cyclodipeptides can be achieved by dedicated nonribosomal peptide synthetases or by a novel type of synthetases named cyclopeptide synthases. Since the first report in 1924 a large number of bioactive diketopiperazines was discovered spanning activities as antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, antiprion, antihyperglycemic or glycosidase inhibitor agents...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jérôme Seguin, Mireille Moutiez, Yan Li, Pascal Belin, Alain Lecoq, Matthieu Fonvielle, Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier, Jean-Luc Pernodet, Muriel Gondry
Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) are small enzymes structurally related to class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). They divert aminoacylated tRNAs from their canonical role in ribosomal protein synthesis, for cyclodipeptide formation. All the CDPSs experimentally characterized to date are bacterial. We show here that a predicted CDPS from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an active CDPS catalyzing the formation of various cyclodipeptides, preferentially containing tryptophan. Our findings demonstrate that eukaryotes encode active CDPSs and suggest that all CDPSs have a similar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like architecture and ping-pong mechanism...
November 23, 2011: Chemistry & Biology
Wenjun Zhang, Ioanna Ntai, Neil L Kelleher, Christopher T Walsh
Pacidamycins are a family of uridyl tetra/pentapeptide antibiotics with antipseudomonal activities through inhibition of the translocase MraY in bacterial cell wall assembly. The biosynthetic gene cluster for pacidamycins has recently been identified through genome mining of the producer Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, and the highly dissociated nonribosomal peptide assembly line for the uridyl tetrapeptide scaffold of pacidamycin has been characterized. In this work a hypothetical protein PacB, conserved in known uridyl peptide antibiotics gene clusters, has been characterized by both genetic deletion and enzymatic analysis of the purified protein...
July 26, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Luc Bonnefond, Taiga Arai, Yuriko Sakaguchi, Tsutomu Suzuki, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Nureki
Cyclodipeptides are secondary metabolites biosynthesized by many bacteria and exhibit a wide array of biological activities. Recently, a new class of small proteins, named cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPS), which are unrelated to the typical nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was shown to generate several cyclodipeptides, using aminoacyl-tRNAs as substrates. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDPS, Rv2275, was found to generate cyclodityrosine through the formation of an aminoacyl-enzyme intermediate and to have a structure and oligomeric state similar to those of the class Ic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs)...
March 8, 2011: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ludovic Sauguet, Mireille Moutiez, Yan Li, Pascal Belin, Jérôme Seguin, Marie-Hélène Le Du, Robert Thai, Cédric Masson, Matthieu Fonvielle, Jean-Luc Pernodet, Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier, Muriel Gondry
Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) belong to a newly defined family of enzymes that use aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) as substrates to synthesize the two peptide bonds of various cyclodipeptides, which are the precursors of many natural products with noteworthy biological activities. Here, we describe the crystal structure of AlbC, a CDPS from Streptomyces noursei. The AlbC structure consists of a monomer containing a Rossmann-fold domain. Strikingly, it is highly similar to the catalytic domain of class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), especially class-Ic TyrRSs and TrpRSs...
May 2011: Nucleic Acids Research
L Aravind, Robson F de Souza, Lakshminarayan M Iyer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies point to a great diversity of non-ribosomal peptide synthesis systems with major roles in amino acid and co-factor biosynthesis, secondary metabolism, and post-translational modifications of proteins by peptide tags. The least studied of these systems are those utilizing tRNAs or aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AAtRS) in non-ribosomal peptide ligation. RESULTS: Here we describe novel examples of AAtRS related proteins that are likely to be involved in the synthesis of widely distributed peptide-derived metabolites...
August 2, 2010: Biology Direct
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