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Xinfeng Zhang, Lei Wang, Renpeng Li, Peiqiang Hou, Yuanqing Zhang, Ming Fang, Bin Hu
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) from the intestinal tract. 43 KP strains were isolated from 551 stool specimens from diarrhea patients from 2013 to 2016,with a carriage rate of 7.80%. All isolates were hypervirulent KP (hvKp) strains with hypermucoviscosity (HM) phenotype. The virulence factors and antibiotic resistance exhibited diverse distribution. 2.33% (1/43), 2.33% (1/43), 6.98% (3/43), 6.98% (3/43), 4.65% (2/43), 11.63% (5/43) and 18...
March 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Klaus Aktories, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Carsten Schwan
Clostridium difficile infection causes antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Major virulence factors of C. difficile are the Rho-glucosylating toxins TcdA and TcdB. In addition, many, so-called hypervirulent C. difficile strains produce the binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin CDT. CDT causes depolymerization of F-actin and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Thereby, many cellular functions, which depend on actin, are altered. CDT disturbs the dynamic balance between actin and microtubules in target cells...
March 7, 2018: Anaerobe
Paulina S Rubilar, Gisselle N Barra, Jean-Marc Gabastou, Pedro Alarcón, Pamela Araya, Juan C Hormazábal, Jorge Fernandez
Neisseria meningitidis is a human exclusive pathogen that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease or may be carried in the upper respiratory tract without symptoms. The relationship between carriage and disease remains poorly understood but it is widely accepted that decreasing carriage by immunization should lead to a reduction of invasive cases. Latin America has experienced an increased incidence of serogroup W invasive cases of Neisseria meningitidis in the last decade. Specifically in Chile, despite low total incidence of invasive cases, serogroup W has become predominant since 2011 and has been associated with elevated mortality...
2018: PloS One
Bruna Fuga Araújo, Melina Lorraine Ferreira, Paola Amaral de Campos, Sabrina Royer, Iara Rossi Gonçalves, Deivid William da Fonseca Batistão, Miriam Rodriguez Fernandes, Louise Teixeira Cerdeira, Cristiane Silveira de Brito, Nilton Lincopan, Paulo Pinto Gontijo-Filho, Rosineide Marques Ribas
In this study, we describe the frequency of virulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP), including hypervirulent (hv) and hypermucoviscous (hm) strains by whole-genome sequencing. We also evaluate the capacity for biofilm formation by using phenotypic techniques. The occurrence of several virulence genes (fimABCDEFGHIK, mrkABCDFHJ, ecpA, wabG, entB, ugE, irp1, irp2, traT, iutA and ureADE) and a high frequency of hvhmKPC-KP isolates was found. Most hospital-associated lineages of KPC-KP belong to the international clonal group 258 (CG258)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Andrés E Marcoleta, Macarena A Varas, Javiera Ortiz-Severín, Leonardo Vásquez, Camilo Berríos-Pastén, Andrea V Sabag, Francisco P Chávez, Miguel L Allende, Carlos A Santiviago, Octavio Monasterio, Rosalba Lagos
Multiresistant and invasive hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have become one of the most urgent bacterial pathogen threats. Recent analyses revealed a high genomic plasticity of this species, harboring a variety of mobile genetic elements associated with virulent strains, encoding proteins of unknown function whose possible role in pathogenesis have not been addressed. K. pneumoniae virulence has been studied mainly in animal models such as mice and pigs, however, practical, financial, ethical and methodological issues limit the use of mammal hosts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Timothy Mitchell, James W MacDonald, Sengkeo Srinouanpranchanh, Theodor K Bammler, Sean Merillat, Erica Boldenow, Michelle Coleman, Kathy Agnew, Audrey Baldessari, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Richard R Green, Michael J Gale, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
BACKGROUND: Most early preterm births are associated with intraamniotic infection and inflammation, which can lead to systemic inflammation in the fetus. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome describes elevations in the fetal interleukin-6 level, which is a marker for inflammation and fetal organ injury. An understanding of the effects of inflammation on fetal cardiac development may lead to insight into the fetal origins of adult cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is associated with disruptions in gene networks that program fetal cardiac development...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Michael C Abt
Outbreaks of hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile began to be reported in healthcare facilities worldwide around 20 years ago. Concurrently, trehalose became a common additive used by the global food industry. A new study provides evidence that these two observations are a linked phenomenon (Collins et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Lena-Mari Tamminen, Helena Fransson, Madeleine Tråvén, Anna Aspán, Stefan Alenius, Ulf Emanuelson, Ilmars Dreimanis, Mats Törnquist, Erik Eriksson
In 2007, human infections with a hypervirulent strain of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 increased in Sweden and especially in the Halland County. A connection between the cases and a local beef cattle farm with an on-farm abattoir and meat processing plant was established. In this observational study the control measures implemented on the infected farm and the dynamics of infection in the herd are described. In May 2008, when measures were initiated and animals put to pasture, the prevalence of positive individuals was 40 per cent and 18 carcasses out of 24 slaughtered animals were contaminated...
February 14, 2018: Veterinary Record
Randall W Renshaw, Jennifer Griffing, Jaime Weisman, Lisa M Crofton, Melissa A Laverack, Robert P Poston, Gerald E Duhamel, Edward J Dubovi
Four out of eleven affected dogs died despite aggressive treatment during a 2015 focal outbreak of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis following a stay in a pet housing facility. Routine diagnostic investigations failed to identify a specific cause. Virus isolation from fresh necropsy tissues yielded a calicivirus with sequence homology to a vesivirus within the group colloquially known as the 2117 strains that were originally identified as contaminants in CHO cell bioreactors. In situ hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR assays of tissues from the four deceased dogs confirmed the presence of canine vesivirus (CaVV) nucleic acids that localized to endothelial cells of arterial and capillary blood vessels...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Chaitra Shankar, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Laura Eve Buchnan Nabarro, Raji Ravi, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Priscilla Rupali
BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) causes severe community acquired infections, predominantly in Asia. Though initially isolated from liver abscesses, they are now prevalent among invasive infections such as bacteraemia. There have been no studies reported till date on the prevalence and characterisation of hvKp in India. The objective of this study is to characterise the hypervirulent strains isolated from bacteraemic patients for determination of various virulence genes and resistance genes and also to investigate the difference between healthcare associated and community acquired hvKp with respect to clinical profile, antibiogram, clinical outcome and molecular epidemiology...
January 8, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Yi-Ling Lo, Chyi-Liang Chen, Lunda Shen, Ying-Ching Chen, Yi-Hsin Wang, Chung-Chan Lee, Lian-Chen Wang, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hwan-You Chang
FliA is known to be a sigma factor that regulates bacterial flagella gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that FliA is involved in bacterial behavior other than motility. To elucidate the contribution of FliA to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathophysiology, we analyzed the biological properties and gene expression profiles of a ΔfliA mutant. Transcriptome analysis results demonstrated that the expression levels of flagella biogenesis genes decreased dramatically in the mutant; consequently, the ΔfliA mutant failed to synthesize flagella and exhibited reduced motility...
February 9, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Shuai Shao, Xiaorong Zhang, G Paul H van Heusden, Paul J J Hooykaas
Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain Chry5 is hypervirulent on many plants including soybean that are poorly transformed by other A. tumefaciens strains. Therefore, it is considered as a preferred vector for genetic transformation of plants. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of its chrysopine-type Ti-plasmid pTiChry5. It is comprised of 197,268 bp with an overall GC content of 54.5%. Two T-DNA regions are present and 219 putative protein-coding sequences could be identified in pTiChry5. Roughly one half of the plasmid is highly similar to the agropine-type Ti plasmid pTiBo542, including the virulence genes with an identical virG gene, which is responsible for the supervirulence caused by pTiBo542...
February 7, 2018: Plasmid
Pil Hun Song, Jung Hwa Min, You Sun Kim, Soo Yeon Jo, Eun Jin Kim, Kyung Jin Lee, Jeonghun Lee, Hyun Sung, Jeong Seop Moon, Dong Hee Whang
Background/Aims: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide, resulting in a need for rapid and accurate diagnostic methods. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare CDI diagnosis methods between January 2014 and December 2014. The stool samples, which were obtained in presumptive CDI patients, were compared for their diagnostic accuracy and rapidity, including real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of toxin genes, C...
January 2018: Intestinal Research
Hamparsun Hampikyan, Enver Baris Bingol, Karlo Muratoglu, Esra Akkaya, Omer Cetin, Hilal Colak
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, spore forming, rod shaped bacterium frequently isolated from butchery animals in recent years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of C. difficile (especially ribotype 027 and 078) in cattle and sheep carcasses and to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates. The bacterium was isolated in 83 out of 247 (33.6%) cattle and 78 out of 308 (25.3%) sheep carcass samples. 15/83 (18.1%) cattle and 6/78 (7.7%) sheep isolates were identified as ribotype 027, whereas the other hypervirulent isolate ribotype 078 could not be detected among the analysed samples...
January 31, 2018: Meat Science
Emmanuel Ofori, Daryl Ramai, Monica Dhawan, Fareeza Mustafa, James Gasperino, Madhavi Reddy
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological landscape of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over the past 30 years. AIM: To review studies of CDI in the community setting. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus,, and Cochrane Databases were searched for human studies performed between 2000 and 2017 that assessed the epidemiology, risk factors, ribotypes, hospital and intensive care unit outcomes, and management of community-acquired CDI...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Rebekah M Martin, Michael A Bachman
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Holger Barth, Nigel Minton, Klaus Aktories
Research on the human gut pathogen Clostridium difficile and its toxins has gained much attention, particularly as a consequence of the increasing threat to human health presented by emerging hypervirulent strains. Toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) are the two major virulence determinants of C. difficile. Both are single-chain proteins with a similar multidomain architecture. Certain hypervirulent C. difficile strains also produce a third toxin, namely binary toxin CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase). As C. difficile toxins are the causative agents of C...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jeanne Couturier, Kerrie Davies, Cécile Gateau, Frédéric Barbut
Clostridium difficile is a major bacterial cause of post-antibiotic diarrhoea. The epidemiology of C. difficile infections (CDI) has dramatically changed since the early 2000s, with an increasing incidence and severity across Europe. This trend is partly due to the emergence and rapid worldwide spread of the hypervirulent and epidemic PCR ribotype 027. Profiles of patients with CDI have also evolved, with description of community-acquired (CA) infections in patients with no traditional risk factors for CDI...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sandra Milena Gualtero, Lina Alejandra Abril, Nathalia Camelo, Susi Daniela Sanchez, Fabián Antonio Davila, Gerson Arias, Edwin Silva, Ingrid Gissel Bustos, Diego Fernando Josa, Isabel Cristina Torres, Luis Carlos Zambrano, María José Pareja
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C...
December 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Hong Wang, Lijuan Luo, Zhengdong Zhang, Jianping Deng, Yan Wang, Yimao Miao, Ling Zhang, Xi Chen, Xiang Liu, Songsong Sun, Bo Xiao, Qun Li, Changyun Ye
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products in Zigong City, China. The overall occurrence of the L. monocytogenes in the ready-to-eat (RTE) shops and mutton restaurants surveyed was 16.2% (141/873). An occurrence of 13.5% was observed in RTE pork, 6.5% in RTE vegetables, and more than 24.0% in either cooked mutton or cooked haggis. Serotype 1/2b (45.4%), 1/2a (33.3%), and 1/2c (14.2%) were the predominant types. By comparing the clonal complexes (CCs) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the L...
January 25, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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