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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634474/different-dynamic-distribution-in-chickens-and-ducks-of-the-hypervirulent-novel-genotype-fowl-adenovirus-serotype-4-recently-emerged-in-china
#1
Qing Pan, Yanchao Yang, Zhibin Shi, Linlin Liu, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Hongyu Cui, Xiaomei Wang
A hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) has caused hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) with mortalities that range from 30 to 80% in outbreaks across China since 2015. The FAdV-4 strain was characterized as a novel genotype based on the specific genome characteristics. However, our understanding of the dynamic distribution, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis of the novel FAdV-4 is incomplete. In this study, a new, sensitive and FAdV-4-specific real-time PCR was developed and applied to detect the dynamic distribution of the duck origin, novel FAdV-4 strain HLJDAd15 in experimentally infected special-pathogen free (SPF) chickens and ducks...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622015/the-first-whole-genome-sequence-and-pathogenicity-characterization-of-a-fowl-adenovirus-4-isolated-from-ducks-associated-with-inclusion-body-hepatitis-and-hydropericardium-syndrome
#2
Qing Pan, Linlin Liu, Yongqiang Wang, Yanping Zhang, Xiaole Qi, Changjun Liu, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang, Hongyu Cui
In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks...
June 16, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607468/clostridium-difficile-flagella-induce-a-pro-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-epithelium-of-mice-in-cooperation-with-toxins
#3
Jameel Batah, Hussein Kobeissy, Phuong Trang Bui Pham, Cécile Denève-Larrazet, Sarah Kuehne, Anne Collignon, Claire Janoir-Jouveshomme, Jean-Christophe Marvaud, Imad Kansau
Clostridium difficile is the most important enteropathogen involved in gut nosocomial post-antibiotic infections. The emergence of hypervirulent strains has contributed to increased mortality and morbidity of CDI. The C. difficile toxins contribute directly to CDI-associated lesions of the gut, but other bacterial factors are needed for the bacteria to adhere and colonize the intestinal epithelium. The C. difficile flagella, which confer motility and chemotaxis for successful intestinal colonization, could play an additional role in bacterial pathogenesis by contributing to the inflammatory response of the host and mucosal injury...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596600/detection-of-dna-amplicons-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-using-litmus-test
#4
Dingran Chang, Kha Tram, Ben Li, Qian Feng, Zhifa Shen, Christine H Lee, Bruno J Salena, Yingfu Li
We report on a new colorimetric DNA detection method that takes advantage of the power of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the simplicity of the classic litmus test. The strategy makes use of a modified set of primers for PCR to facilitate ensuing manipulations of resultant DNA amplicons: their tagging with urease and immobilization onto magnetic beads. The amplicon/urease-laden beads are then used to hydrolyze urea, resulting in the increase of pH that can be conveniently reported by a pH-sensitive dye...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581267/characterization-of-oropharyngeal-carriage-isolates-of-neisseria-meningitidis-in-healthy-korean-adolescents-in-2015
#5
Han Wool Kim, Soyoung Lee, Daeho Kwon, Jihei Cha, Jong Gyun Ahn, Kyung Hyo Kim
The meningococcus carriage rate is age-dependent, with a high prevalence in adolescents and young adults. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the oropharyngeal carriage rate of meningococcus among healthy Korean adolescents and its relationship with several population characteristics. The survey was conducted from April to May 2015 among 1,460 first-year high-school students in 9 high schools located in Gyeonggi province, Korea. Each student answered a short questionnaire assessing risk factors for carriage, and posterior pharyngeal wall swab samples were obtained...
July 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577357/assessing-the-effect-of-patient-screening-and-isolation-on-curtailing-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospital-settings
#6
Sara Maghdoori, Seyed M Moghadas
BACKGROUND: Patient screening at the time of hospital admission is not recommended as a routine practice, but may be an important strategy for containment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospital settings. We sought to investigate the effect of patient screening in the presence of asymptomatic carriers and in the context of imperfect patient isolation. METHODS: We developed and parameterized a stochastic simulation model for the transmission dynamics of CDI in a hospital ward...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573471/emergence-of-clostridium-difficile-tcdc-variant-078-in-marseille-france
#7
N Cassir, N Fahsi, G Durand, J-C Lagier, D Raoult, P-E Fournier
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the epidemiology of hypervirulent Clostridium difficile ribotypes from January 2013 to February 2017 in the Marseille area of southern France. By using the Xpert Clostridium difficile Epi polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequencing the tcdC gene, we characterised C. difficile isolates from symptomatic patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Marseille university hospitals. We first tested retrospectively 278 C. difficile samples isolated from January 2013 to December 2014 and observed a high prevalence of isolates with tcdC mutations and deletions previously described in both hypervirulent ribotypes RT027 and RT078 (16...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572329/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-hypervirulent-strain-usa300-c2406-isolated-from-a-patient-with-a-lethal-case-of-necrotizing-pneumonia
#8
Jo-Ann McClure, Kunyan Zhang
USA300 is a predominant community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain causing significant morbidity and mortality. We present here the full annotated genome of a USA300 hypervirulent clinical strain, USA300-C2406, isolated from a patient with a lethal case of necrotizing pneumonia, to gain a better understanding of USA300 hypervirulence.
June 1, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560183/outbreak-by-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st11-isolates-with-carbapenem-resistance-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#9
Lingling Zhan, Shanshan Wang, Yinjuan Guo, Ye Jin, Jingjing Duan, Zhihao Hao, Jingnan Lv, Xiuqin Qi, Longhua Hu, Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth, Rong Zhang, Jingye Pan, Liangxing Wang, Fangyou Yu
Hypervirulent and multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains pose a significant threat to the public health. In the present study, 21 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (CRKP) were determined by the string test as hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae (HMKP), with the prevalence of 15.0% (21/140) among CRKP, and 1.1% (21/1838) among all K. pneumoniae isolates. Among them, 7 (33.3%), and 1 (4.76%) isolate belonged to capsular serotype K20 and K2 respectively, while 13 (61.9%, 13/21) weren't successfully typed by capsular serotyping...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546578/erratum-uncovering-listeria-monocytogenes-hypervirulence-by-harnessing-its-biodiversity
#10
Mylène M Maury, Yu-Huan Tsai, Caroline Charlier, Marie Touchon, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Alexandre Leclercq, Alexis Criscuolo, Charlotte Gaultier, Sophie Roussel, Anne Brisabois, Olivier Disson, Eduardo P C Rocha, Sylvain Brisse, Marc Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494709/hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-california-sea-lions-zalophus-californianus-pathologic-findings-in-natural-infections
#11
Mauricio Seguel, Nicole L Gottdenker, Kathleen Colegrove, Shawn Johnson, Carsten Struve, Elizabeth W Howerth
Tissues of stranded California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) naturally infected with a hyperviruluent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry against the K. pneumoniae K2 capsular antigen. In 7 of 8 animals, there was severe purulent bronchopneumonia, sometimes complicated by fibrinonecrotizing pleuritis with pyothorax. In affected areas of lung, large numbers of degenerate neutrophils and macrophages were admixed with rare large extracellular and intracellular gram-negative bacilli surrounded by a prominent capsule...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484429/protective-effect-of-carvacrol-against-gut-dysbiosis-and-clostridium-difficile-associated-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#12
Shankumar Mooyottu, Genevieve Flock, Abhinav Upadhyay, Indu Upadhyaya, Kendra Maas, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
This study investigated the effect of carvacrol (CR), a phytophenolic compound on antibiotic-associated gut dysbiosis and C. difficile infection in a mouse model. Five to six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into seven treatment groups (challenge and control) of eight mice each. Mice were fed with irradiated feed supplemented with CR (0, 0.05, and 0.1%); the challenge groups were made susceptible to C. difficile by orally administering an antibiotic cocktail in water and an intra-peritoneal injection of clindamycin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482027/cmr-is-a-redox-responsive-regulator-of-dosr-that-contributes-to-m-tuberculosis-virulence
#13
Laura J Smith, Aleksandra Bochkareva, Matthew D Rolfe, Debbie M Hunt, Christina Kahramanoglou, Yvonne Braun, Angela Rodgers, Alix Blockley, Stephen Coade, Kathryn E A Lougheed, Nor Azian Hafneh, Sarah M Glenn, Jason C Crack, Nick E Le Brun, José W Saldanha, Vadim Makarov, Irene Nobeli, Kristine Arnvig, Galina V Mukamolova, Roger S Buxton, Jeffrey Green
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) is the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). MTb colonizes the human lung, often entering a non-replicating state before progressing to life-threatening active infections. Transcriptional reprogramming is essential for TB pathogenesis. In vitro, Cmr (a member of the CRP/FNR super-family of transcription regulators) bound at a single DNA site to act as a dual regulator of cmr transcription and an activator of the divergent rv1676 gene. Transcriptional profiling and DNA-binding assays suggested that Cmr directly represses dosR expression...
May 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481721/s-oralis-activates-the-efg1-filamentation-pathway-in-c-albicans-to-promote-cross-kingdom-interactions-and-mucosal-biofilms
#14
Hongbin Xu, Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson, Margaret Vickerman, Clarissa J Nobile, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou
Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis are ubiquitous oral commensal organisms. Under host-permissive conditions these organisms can form hypervirulent mucosal biofilms. C. albicans biofilm formation is controlled by 6 master transcriptional regulators: Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1. The objective of this work was to test whether any of these regulators play a role in cross-kingdom interactions between C. albicans and S. oralis in oral mucosal biofilms, and identify downstream target gene(s) that promote these interactions...
May 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463987/the-emergence-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-asia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-incidence-and-impact
#15
Nienke Z Borren, Shadi Ghadermarzi, Susan Hutfless, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare associated infection and is highly prevalent in Europe and North America. Limited data is available on the prevalence of CDI in Asia. However, secular increases in prevalence of risk factors for CDI suggest that it may be emerging as a major cause of morbidity, highlighting the urgent need for a systematic study of the prevalence of CDI in Asia. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed/Medline and Embase for publications from Asia between 2000-16 examining prevalence of CDI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450867/p2x7-receptor-in-bone-marrow-derived-cells-aggravates-tuberculosis-caused-by-hypervirulent-mycobacterium-bovis
#16
Caio César Barbosa Bomfim, Eduardo Pinheiro Amaral, Alexandra Dos Anjos Cassado, Érika Machado Salles, Rogério Silva do Nascimento, Elena Lasunskaia, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, José Maria Álvarez, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem despite the great scientific advances in the recent decades. We have previously shown that aggressive forms of TB caused by hypervirulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are attenuated in mice lacking the P2X7 receptor, an ion channel activated by extracellular ATP. Therefore, P2X7 receptor is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In vitro, hypervirulent mycobacteria cause macrophage death by a P2X7-dependent mechanism that facilitates bacillus dissemination...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439781/batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-and-the-decline-and-survival-of-the-relict-leopard-frog
#17
Jef R Jaeger, Anthony W Waddle, Rebeca Rivera, D Tyler Harrison, Silas Ellison, Matthew J Forrest, Vance T Vredenburg, Frank van Breukelen
Epizootic disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major driver of amphibian declines, yet many amphibians declined before the pathogen was described. The Relict Leopard Frog, Rana onca (=Lithobates onca), was nearly extinct, with the exception of populations within a few geothermal springs. Growth of Bd, however, is limited by high water temperature, and geothermal springs may have provided refuge during outbreaks of chytridiomycosis. We conducted field surveys and laboratory experiments to assess the susceptibility of R...
April 24, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409125/colibactin-contributes-to-the-hypervirulence-of-pks-k1-cc23-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-meningitis-infections
#18
Min-Chi Lu, Ying-Tsong Chen, Ming-Ko Chiang, Yao-Chen Wang, Pei-Yi Hsiao, Yi-Jhen Huang, Ching-Ting Lin, Ching-Chang Cheng, Chih-Lung Liang, Yi-Chyi Lai
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired meningitis in Taiwan. However, the lack of a physiologically relevant meningitis model for K. pneumoniae has impeded research into its pathogenesis mechanism. Based on the core genome MLST analyses, the hypervirulent K1 K. pneumoniae strains, which are etiologically implicated in adult meningitis, mostly belong to a single clonal complex, CC23. Some K1 CC23 K. pneumoniae strains carry a gene cluster responsible for colibactin production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402698/hypervirulence-and-hypermucoviscosity-two-different-but-complementary-klebsiella-spp-phenotypes
#19
Juan Carlos Catalán-Nájera, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Humberto Barrios-Camacho
Since the hypermucoviscous variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported, many cases of primary liver abscesses and other invasive infections caused by this pathogen have been described worldwide. Hypermucoviscosity is a phenotypic feature characterized by the formation of a viscous filament ≥5 mm when a bacterial colony is stretched by a bacteriological loop; this is the so-called positive string test. Hypermucoviscosity appears to be associated with this unusual and aggressive type of infection, and therefore, the causal strains are considered hypervirulent...
April 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400757/streptococcus-agalactiae-causing-neonatal-infections-in-portugal-2005-2015-diversification-and-emergence-of-a-cc17-pi-2b-multidrug-resistant-sublineage
#20
Elisabete R Martins, Cristiano Pedroso-Roussado, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez
The molecular characterization of 218 GBS isolates recovered from neonatal invasive infections in Portugal in 2005-2015 revealed the existence of a small number of genetically distinct lineages that were present over a significant time-span. Serotypes III and Ia were dominant in the population, together accounting for >80% of the isolates. Clonal complex 17 included 50% of all isolates, highlighting the importance of the hypervirulent genetic lineage represented by serotype III ST17/rib/PI-1+PI-2b. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by ST23, previously reported as dominant among invasive disease in non-pregnant adults in Portugal, but also by ST24, showing an increased frequency among late-onset disease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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