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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089629/a-rack1-like-protein-regulates-hyphal-morphogenesis-root-entry-and-in-vivo-virulence-in-verticillium-dahlia
#1
Lei Yuan, Yaxin Su, Shuai Zhou, Yigao Feng, Wangzhen Guo, Xinyu Wang
To identify key genes expressed in Verticillium dahliae in early stages of infection of cotton roots, spore suspensions of eight V. dahliae isolates with different virulence levels were induced by cotton roots and genes expressed in these isolates during the early stages of infection were profiled. A gene that was differentially expressed between highly and less virulent strains was identified. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of the gene suggested that it belongs to the putative Gβ-like/RACK1 protein family, and has seven WD40 domains...
January 9, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080992/microevolutionary-traits-and-comparative-population-genomics-of-the-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus-gattii
#2
Rhys A Farrer, Kerstin Voelz, Daniel A Henk, Simon A Johnston, Matthew C Fisher, Robin C May, Christina A Cuomo
Emerging fungal pathogens cause an expanding burden of disease across the animal kingdom, including a rise in morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, we currently have only a limited repertoire of available therapeutic interventions. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of fungal virulence and of the emergence of hypervirulence within species is therefore needed for new treatments and mitigation efforts. For example, over the past decade, an unusual lineage of Cryptococcus gattii, which was first detected on Vancouver Island, has spread to the Canadian mainland and the Pacific Northwest infecting otherwise healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060047/genotype-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-isolated-from-infants-with-invasive-diseases-in-south-korea
#3
Hyun Mi Kang, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Dae Sun Jo, Hye Soo Lee, Taek Soo Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Ki Wook Yun, Bongjin Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of invasive infections in infants. This study aimed to investigate the genotypic diversity of GBS causing invasive infections in infants and to observe the prevalence of the highly virulent clone in South Korea. METHODS: Invasive strains of GBS were collected prospectively from infants admitted at four hospitals during 1995 to 2015. Serotype and multilocus sequence typing was determined. All isolates underwent PCR amplification to detect the presence of the hypervirulent surface adhesin (hvgA) gene...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043225/australian-meningococcal-surveillance-programme-annual-report-2015
#4
Monica M Lahra, Rodney P Enriquez
In 2015, there were 174 laboratory-confirmed cases of invasive meningococcal disease analysed by the Australian National Neisseria Network. This number was higher than that reported in 2013 and 2014, which were the lowest and second-lowest totals reported, respectively, since inception of the Australian Meningococcal Surveillance Programme in 1994. Probable and laboratory confirmed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is notifiable in Australia. There were 182 IMD cases notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 2015, again, higher than in 2013 and 2014, which were the lowest and second-lowest totals of IMD cases recorded, respectively, by this system...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965935/clinical-and-genomic-analysis-of-liver-abscess-causing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-identifies-new-liver-abscess-associated-virulence-genes
#5
Meiping Ye, Jianfei Tu, Jianping Jiang, Yingmin Bi, Weibo You, Yanliang Zhang, Jianmin Ren, Taohui Zhu, Zhuo Cao, Zuochun Yu, Chuxiao Shao, Zhen Shen, Baixing Ding, Jinyi Yuan, Xu Zhao, Qinglan Guo, Xiaogang Xu, Jinwei Huang, Minggui Wang
Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) that cause invasive community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) have emerged globally. Little is known about the virulence determinants associated with hvKp, except for the virulence genes rmpA/A2 and siderophores (iroBCD/iucABCD) carried by the pK2044-like large virulence plasmid. Here, we collected most recent clinical isolates of hvKp from PLA samples in China, and performed clinical, molecular, and genomic sequencing analyses. We found that 90.9% (40/44) of the pathogens causing PLA were K...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938243/the-dinj-rele-toxin-antitoxin-system-suppresses-bacterial-proliferation-and-virulence-of-xylella-fastidiosa-in-grapevine
#6
Lindsey Burbank, Drake C Stenger
Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapes, is a slow-growing, xylem limited, bacterial pathogen. Disease progression is characterized by systemic spread of the bacterium through xylem vessel networks, causing leaf scorching symptoms, senescence and vine decline. It appears to be advantageous to this pathogen to avoid excessive blockage of xylem vessels, as living bacterial cells are generally found in plant tissue with low bacterial cell density and minimal scorching symptoms. The DinJ/RelE toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is characterized here for a role in controlling bacterial proliferation and population size during plant colonization...
December 12, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933784/biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-sulfomenaquinone-a-metabolite-associated-with-virulence-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Kimberly M Sogi, Cynthia M Holsclaw, Gabriela K Fragiadakis, Daniel K Nomura, Julie A Leary, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Sulfomenaquinone (SMK) is a recently identified metabolite that is unique to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) complex and is shown to modulate its virulence. Here, we report the identification of the SMK biosynthetic operon that, in addition to a previously identified sulfotransferase stf3, includes a putative cytochrome P450 gene (cyp128) and a gene of unknown function, rv2269c. We demonstrate that cyp128 and stf3 are sufficient for the biosynthesis of SMK from menaquinone and rv2269c exhibits promoter activity in M...
November 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932656/draft-genome-sequences-of-two-historical-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-from-human-listeriosis-cases-in-1933
#8
Vikrant Dutta, Sangmi Lee, Todd J Ward, Nathane Orwig, Eric Altermann, Dereje Jima, Cameron Parsons, Sophia Kathariou
We report here the draft genome sequences of two Listeria monocytogenes strains from some of the earliest reported cases of human listeriosis in North America. The strains were isolated in 1933 from patients in Massachusetts and Connecticut, USA, and belong to the widely disseminated hypervirulent clonal complex 1 (CC1) and CC2.
December 8, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932638/draft-genome-sequences-of-three-hypervirulent-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-bacteremia
#9
Chaitra Shankar, Laura E B Nabarro, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Jones Lionel Kumar Daniel, George Priya Doss C, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have been increasingly reported worldwide, and there is emergence of carbapenem resistance among them. Here, we report the genome sequences of three carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates isolated from bacteremic patients at a tertiary-care center in South India.
December 8, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923372/community-acquired-meningitis-caused-by-a-cg86-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-first-case-report-in-the-caribbean
#10
Bénédicte Melot, Sylvain Brisse, Sébastien Breurec, Virginie Passet, Edith Malpote, Isabelle Lamaury, Guillaume Thiery, Bruno Hoen
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae has mainly been described in Southeast Asia and has a poor prognosis. Severe invasive infections caused by K. pneumoniae, including meningitis, are often due to hypervirulent strains (hvKP), which are characterized by capsular serotypes K1 and K2, a gene responsible for hypermucoviscosity, and the cluster for synthesis of the siderophore aerobactin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55 year old man with a history of essential hypertension, benign prostate hyperplasia, hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic alcoholism was admitted for meningitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae with a wild-type susceptibility profile...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914959/virulence-traits-and-different-nle-profiles-in-cattle-and-human-verotoxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strains-from-argentina
#11
Juliana González, Andrea Mariel Sanso, Jimena Soledad Cadona, Ana Victoria Bustamante
Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) O157:H7 is the dominant serotype isolated from patients with HUS and, Argentina has the highest rate of HUS in the world. Molecular typing had allowed to identify subpopulations related to the origin and virulence of O157:H7 strains. Our aim was to perform a genetic characterization of 43 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentine mostly from cattle and humans in order to establish the potential public health risk. For it, we used a combination of molecular subtyping methods in order to identify clade 8_rhsA (C3468G), LSPA-6 and virulence profiles and, a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cell...
January 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#12
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897206/the-incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Chenjie Tang, Lunbiao Cui, Yuqiao Xu, Le Xie, Pengfei Sun, Chengcheng Liu, Wenying Xia, Genyan Liu
It has been widely reported that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically in North America and Europe. However, little is known about CDI in Mainland China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of CDI and the main epidemic and drug-resistant strains of C. difficile in Mainland China through meta-analysis of related studies published after the year 2010. A total of 51 eligible studies were included. The pooled incidence of toxigenic C. difficile among patients with diarrhoea was 14% (95% CI = 12-16%)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895637/high-prevalence-of-esbl-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-community-onset-infections-in-china
#14
Jing Zhang, Kai Zhou, Beiwen Zheng, Lina Zhao, Ping Shen, Jinru Ji, Zeqing Wei, Lanjuan Li, Jianying Zhou, Yonghong Xiao
The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) causing community-onset infections. K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 31 Chinese secondary hospitals between August 2010 and 2011. Genes encoding ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases were detected by PCR. The isolates were assigned to sequence types (STs) using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Eleven ESBL-Kp strains were selected for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for investigating the genetic environment and plasmids encoding ESBL genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880834/overexpressed-proteins-in-hypervirulent-clade-8-and-clade-6-strains-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-compared-to-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933-clade-3-strain
#15
Natalia Amigo, Qi Zhang, Ariel Amadio, Qunjie Zhang, Wanderson M Silva, Baiyuan Cui, Zhongjian Chen, Mariano Larzabal, Jinlong Bei, Angel Cataldi
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and predominantly affects children under 5 years. The major virulence traits are Shiga toxins, necessary to develop HUS and the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) through which bacteria translocate effector proteins directly into the host cell. By SNPs typing, E. coli O157:H7 was separated into nine different clades. Clade 8 and clade 6 strains were more frequently associated with severe disease and HUS. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in two strains of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876650/viruses-of-parasites-as-actors-in-the-parasite-host-relationship-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#16
REVIEW
Amaranta Gómez-Arreaza, Anne-Lise Haenni, Irene Dunia, Luisana Avilán
The complex parasite-host relationship involves multiple mechanisms. Moreover, parasites infected by viruses modify this relationship adding more complexity to the system that now comprises three partners. Viruses infecting parasites were described several decades ago. However, until recently little was known about the viruses involved and their impact on the resulting disease caused to the hosts. To clarify this situation, we have concentrated on parasitic diseases caused to humans and on how virus-infected parasites could alter the symptoms inflicted on the human host...
February 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860495/campylobacter-associated-diseases-in-animals
#17
Orhan Sahin, Michael Yaeger, Zuowei Wu, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni...
November 9, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856595/draft-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-mosselii-gil3-isolated-from-catfish-and-antagonistic-against-hypervirulent-aeromonas-hydrophila
#18
Dunhua Zhang, De-Hai Xu, Junqiang Qiu, Cody R Rasmussen-Ivey, Mark R Liles, Benjamin H Beck
Pseudomonas mosselii Gil3 was isolated from a catfish that survived from lethal challenge with hypervirulent Aeromonas hydrophila (vAh). When assayed in vitro, the bacterium showed antagonism against vAh. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome of P. mosselii Gil3 encodes numerous aromatic metabolism pathways and proteins for biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds.
November 17, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848981/listeria-monocytogenes-sequence-type-1-is-predominant-in-ruminant-rhombencephalitis
#19
Margaux Dreyer, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Sebastian Rupp, Claudia Guldimann, Roger Stephan, Alexandra Schock, Arthur Otter, Gertraud Schüpbach, Sylvain Brisse, Marc Lecuit, Joachim Frey, Anna Oevermann
Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is an opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in diverse mammalian species including humans and ruminants. As little is known on the link between strains and clinicopathological phenotypes, we studied potential strain-associated virulence and organ tropism in L. monocytogenes isolates from well-defined ruminant cases of clinical infections and the farm environment. The phylogeny of isolates and their virulence-associated genes were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence analysis of virulence-associated genes...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834717/draft-genome-sequence-of-an-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-positive-hypervirulent-klebsiella%C3%A2-pneumoniae-strain-with-novel-sequence-type-2318-isolated-from-a-neonate
#20
Chaitra Shankar, Sridhar Santhanam, Manish Kumar, Vijay Gupta, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Antimicrobial resistance among hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is increasingly reported. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strain isolated from a neonate with sepsis belonging to novel sequence type 2318 (ST2318).
November 10, 2016: Genome Announcements
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