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Xiaoyun Ren, David A Eccles, Gabrielle A Greig, Jane Clapham, Nicole E Wheeler, Stinus Lindgreen, Paul P Gardner, Joanna K MacKichan
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) can cause meningococcal disease, a rapidly progressing and often fatal disease that can occur in previously healthy children. Meningococci are found in healthy carriers, where they reside in the nasopharynx as commensals. While carriage is relatively common, invasive disease, associated with hypervirulent strains, is a comparatively rare event. The basis of increased virulence in some strains is not well understood. New Zealand suffered a protracted meningococcal disease epidemic, from 1991 to 2008...
November 2017: MSystems
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
K Hayes, L Cotter, L Barry, F O'Halloran
Group B Streptococcal isolates (n = 235) from the South of Ireland were characterised by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility and determination of the phenotypic and genotypic mechanisms of resistance. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was observed in 21·3% and 20·4% of the total population, respectively. The c-MLSB phenotype was the most common phenotype detected (62%), with ermB being the predominant genetic determinant, present in 84% of resistant isolates. The rare L phenotype was observed in 2·9% (n = 7) of isolates, four of which harboured the lsaC gene responsible for clindamycin resistance...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Lukasz Grzeskowiak, Beatriz Martínez-Vallespín, Temesgen H Dadi, Judith Radloff, Salah Amasheh, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Knut Reinert, Wilfried Vahjen, Jürgen Zentek, Robert Pieper
Spontaneous Clostridium difficile (CD) outbreaks occur in neonatal piglets but the predisposing factors are largely not known. To study the conditions for CD colonisation and infection development, neonatal piglets (n=48) were moved into isolators, fed bovine milk-based formula and infected with CD 078. Analyses included: clinical scoring; faecal CD, toxin B, calprotectin; post-mortem colon histopathology. Controls were non-infected suckling piglets. Faeces from suckling, formula-fed and formula-fed-CD-infected piglets were used for metagenomics...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Peter Jorth, Kathryn McLean, Anina Ratjen, Patrick R Secor, Gilbert E Bautista, Sumedha Ravishankar, Amir Rezayat, Jayanthi Garudathri, Joe J Harrison, Rachel A Harwood, Kelsi Penewit, Adam Waalkes, Pradeep K Singh, Stephen J Salipante
While much attention has been focused on acquired antibiotic resistance genes, chromosomal mutations may be most important in chronic infections where isolated, persistently infecting lineages experience repeated antibiotic exposure. Here, we used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing to investigate chromosomally encoded mutations causing aztreonam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized the secondary consequences of resistance development. We identified 19 recurrently mutated genes associated with aztreonam resistance...
October 31, 2017: MBio
Kine Nordheim, Ingunn Holmefoss Hovland, Bjørn Erik Kristiansen, Per Ivar Kaaresen, Trond Flaegstad
AIM: We examined children hospitalised for invasive meningococcal disease, a leading cause of paediatric sepsis, in Troms county, North Norway, from 1973-2016, including the epidemic in the 1970s and 1980s. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of children under the age of 15 years who were hospitalised for meningococcal disease at the University Hospital of North Norway and Harstad Hospital. We studied hospital and bacteriological records to determine the incidence rates and phenotypes involved...
October 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Samuel Jourdan, Isolde M Francis, Benoit Deflandre, Elodie Tenconi, Jennifer Riley, Sören Planckaert, Pierre Tocquin, Loïc Martinet, Bart Devreese, Rosemary Loria, Sébastien Rigali
Common scab disease on root and tuber plants is caused by Streptomyces scabies and related species which use the cellulose synthase inhibitor thaxtomin A as the main phytotoxin. Thaxtomin production is primarily triggered by the import of cello-oligosaccharides. Once inside the cell, the fate of the cello-oligosaccharides is dichotomized into i) fueling glycolysis with glucose for the saprophytic lifestyle through the action of β-glucosidase(s) (BG), and ii) eliciting the pathogenic lifestyle by inhibiting the CebR-mediated transcriptional repression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Fiorella Krapp, Andrew R Morris, Egon A Ozer, Alan R Hauser
Two types of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) strains are currently emerging: hypervirulent (hvKP) strains and carbapenem-resistant (CR-KP) strains. To date, these two strain types rarely overlap. Recent reports, however, suggest that CR-KP strains are increasing in virulence. hvKP strains frequently present as highly invasive infections, such as necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (NSSTI). To examine whether CR-KP strains with features of hvKP were present in our U.S. hospital, we retrospectively identified four cases of CR-KP NSSTI diagnosed between January 2012 and January 2016...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Matthew J Sullivan, Brian M Forde, Darren W Prince, Deepak S Ipe, Nouri L Ben Zakour, Mark R Davies, Gordon Dougan, Scott A Beatson, Glen C Ulett
Here we report the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain 874391. This serotype III isolate is a member of the hypervirulent sequence type 17 (ST-17) lineage that causes a disproportionate number of cases of invasive disease in humans and mammals. A brief historical context of the strain is discussed.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
Nontobeko E Mvubu, Balakrishna Pillay, Lyle R McKinnon, Manormoney Pillay
M. tuberculosis F15/LAM4/KZN has been associated with high transmission rates of drug resistant tuberculosis in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The current study elucidated the cytokine/chemokine responses induced by representatives of the F15/LAM4/KZN and other dominant strain families in pulmonary epithelial cells. Multiplex cytokine analyses were performed at 24, 48 and 72h post infection of the A549 pulmonary epithelial cell line with the F15/LAM4/KZN, F28, F11, Beijing, Unique and H37Rv strains at an MOI of ∼10:1...
October 9, 2017: Cytokine
Okechukwu Mgbemena, David P Serota, Sonali Kumar, Jessie E Wozniak, David S Weiss, Russell Ryan Kempker
This report describes the first confirmed case of isolated pyomyositis caused by a hypervirulent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pyomyositis is almost universally caused by gram-positive organisms and while the recent emergence of invasive disease due to hypervirulent K. pneumoniae has been well documented, the most common clinical manifestation reported is liver abscess. The K. pneumoniae isolate in our case had a hypermucousviscous phenotype as demonstrated by a positive string test and was confirmed to be hypervirulent with molecular testing...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Eugénie Hébrard, Agnès Pinel-Galzi, Aderonke Oludare, Nils Poulicard, Jamel Aribi, Sandrine Fabre, Souley Issaka, Cédric Mariac, Alexis Dereeper, Laurence Albar, Drissa Silué, Denis Fargette
Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) causes high losses to rice production in Africa. Several sources of varietal high resistance are available but the emergence of virulent pathotypes that are able to overcome one or two resistance alleles can sometimes occur. Both resistance spectra and viral adaptability have to be taken into account to develop sustainable rice breeding strategies against RYMV. In this study, we extended previous resistance spectrum analyses by testing the rymv1-4 and rymv1-5 alleles that are carried by the rice accessions Tog5438 and Tog5674, respectively, against isolates that are representative of RYMV genetic and pathogenic diversity...
October 9, 2017: Phytopathology
Yizhi Tang, Richard J Meinersmann, Orhan Sahin, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, James Carlson, Jodie Plumblee, Linda Genzlinger, Jeffrey T LeJeune, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni clone SA is the major cause of sheep abortion and contributes significantly to foodborne illnesses in the United States. Clone SA is hypervirulent because of its distinct ability to produce systemic infection and its predominant role in clinical sheep abortion. Despite the importance of clone SA, little is known about its distribution and epidemiological features in cattle. Here, we describe a prospective study on C. jejuni clone SA prevalence in 35 feedlots in 5 different states in the U...
September 29, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Quanmin Wang, Yao Ma, Lijun Liu, Jun Zhu, Zhi Liu
Biofilm associated Vibrio cholerae exhibits hypervirulence and supreme fitness against the harsh stresses during its infectious cycle. It is important to study the relationships between the regulation mechanism of V. cholerae biofilm development and its environmental adaption in host niche and aquatic habitat. Here, we summarize the recent advances in V. cholerae biofilm, including biofilm compositions, development and regulation. Particularly, we extensively discuss how V. cholerae fosters its biofilm architecture and assembly via sensing and responding various environmental determinants, such as bacterium self-produced molecules, natural environment components and host factors...
September 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Katerina G Oikonomou, Myint Aye
BACKGROUND Liver abscesses represent a serious infection of hepatic parenchyma and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of a new hypervirulent variant of Klebsiella pneumoniae, which can cause serious infections in the Asian population, is under investigation. We report a case series of six Asian patients hospitalized at our institution from January 2013 to November 2015 for liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae. CASE REPORT Charts of six Asian patients were retrospectively reviewed...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
Wenchao Feng, Dylan Minor, Mengyao Liu, Benfang Lei
Hypervirulent Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can inhibit neutrophil recruitment and cause systemic infection in mouse model of skin infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PAF acetylhydrolase Sse and streptolysin S (SLS) have synergistic contributions to inhibition of neutrophil recruitment and systemic infection in subcutaneous infection of mice by MGAS315, a hypervirulent genotype emm3 GAS strain. Deletions of sse and sagA in MGAS315 synergistically reduced skin lesion size and GAS burden in the liver and spleen...
September 25, 2017: Infection and Immunity
Daniela Loconsole, Anna Lisa De Robertis, Anna Morea, Angela Metallo, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Maria Chironna
BACKGROUND: Despite universal immunization programs, pertussis remains a major public health concern. This study aimed to describe the pertussis epidemiology in the Puglia region in 2006-2015 and to identify recent polymorphisms in Bordetella pertussis (BP) virulence-associated genes. METHODS: The pertussis cases in 2006-2015 were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the Information System of Infectious Diseases. Samples of pertussis cases in 2014-2016 that were confirmed by the Regional Reference Laboratory were subjected to ptxA, ptxP, and prn gene sequencing and, in 10 cases, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
I Russel Lee, Ethel Sng, Kok-Onn Lee, James S Molton, Monica Chan, Shirin Kalimuddin, Ezlyn Izharuddin, David C Lye, Sophia Archuleta, Yunn-Hwen Gan
The major risk factor for Klebsiella liver abscess (KLA) is type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the immunological mechanisms involved in the increased susceptibility are poorly defined. We investigated the responses of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), the causative agent of KLA. DNA and myeloperoxidase levels were elevated in the plasma of KLA patients compared to uninfected individuals indicating neutrophil activation, but diabetic status had no effect on these neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) biomarkers in both subject groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian M Luna, Kevin W Bruhn, Jun Yan, Ken Dekitani, Sarah Hsieh, Brandon Yeshoua, Bryan Pascual, Evgeny Vinogradov, Kristine M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Robert A Bonomo, Thomas A Russo, Magda Lesczcyniecka, Thomas Schneider, Brad Spellberg
Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate. Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Treating with a single dose of C8 as low as 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
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