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Exoskeletal prosthesis

Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Daniel J Stinner, John R Fergason, Jason M Wilken
BACKGROUND: Surgical advances have substantially improved outcomes for individuals sustaining traumatic lower extremity injury. Injuries once requiring lower limb amputation are now routinely managed with limb reconstruction surgery. However, comparisons of functional outcomes between the procedures are inconclusive. PURPOSE: To compare gait biomechanics after lower limb reconstruction and transtibial amputation. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with unilateral lower limb reconstruction wearing a custom ankle-foot orthosis (Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis), 24 with unilateral, transtibial amputation, and 24 able-bodied control subjects underwent gait analysis at a standardized Froude speed based on leg length...
May 2017: Gait & Posture
M Schäfer, O Gawron
BACKGROUND: In Germany around 70,000 amputations are carried out on extremities each year. Modern prosthetic functional components have become more and more sophisticated and must be understood and applied by their users to be of beneficial use in everyday life. The prosthetic socket is the most important component of modern extremity prosthetics. OBJECTIVES: Which demands have to be met by a modern prosthetic socket so that innovative function-improving components in prosthetics can be successfully applied? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Complex prosthetic technologies are rarely compatible with a lower overall weight of the prosthesis...
June 2015: Der Orthopäde
Luke M Mooney, Elliott J Rouse, Hugh M Herr
BACKGROUND: Passive exoskeletons that assist with human locomotion are often lightweight and compact, but are unable to provide net mechanical power to the exoskeletal wearer. In contrast, powered exoskeletons often provide biologically appropriate levels of mechanical power, but the size and mass of their actuator/power source designs often lead to heavy and unwieldy devices. In this study, we extend the design and evaluation of a lightweight and powerful autonomous exoskeleton evaluated for loaded walking in (J Neuroeng Rehab 11:80, 2014) to the case of unloaded walking conditions...
2014: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Luke M Mooney, Elliott J Rouse, Hugh M Herr
BACKGROUND: Many soldiers are expected to carry heavy loads over extended distances, often resulting in physical and mental fatigue. In this study, the design and testing of an autonomous leg exoskeleton is presented. The aim of the device is to reduce the energetic cost of loaded walking. In addition, we present the Augmentation Factor, a general framework of exoskeletal performance that unifies our results with the varying abilities of previously developed exoskeletons. METHODS: We developed an autonomous battery powered exoskeleton that is capable of providing substantial levels of positive mechanical power to the ankle during the push-off region of stance phase...
2014: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
André Desrochers, Guy St-Jean, David E Anderson
Limb amputation is an alternative to euthanasia when catastrophic injury prevents successful restoration of the limb or when cost is an issue. Proximal limb disarticulation for amputation is preferred if a prosthesis is not considered. Distal amputations are needed to accommodate exoskeletal prosthesis. This article reviews the considerations and describes techniques for this surgery.
March 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Grant Elliott, Gregory S Sawicki, Andrew Marecki, Hugh Herr
While the effects of series compliance on running biomechanics are well documented, the effects of parallel compliance are known only for the simpler case of hopping. As many practical exoskeletal and orthotic designs act in parallel with the leg, it is desirable to understand the effects of such an intervention. Spring-like forces offer a natural choice of perturbation for running, as they are both biologically motivated and energetically inexpensive to implement. To this end, we investigate the hypothesis that the addition of an external elastic element at the knee during the stance phase of running results in a reduction in knee extensor activation so that total joint quasi-stiffness is maintained...
June 2013: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Osamu Fukayama, Hiroshi Otsuka, Ryuta Hashimoto, Takafumi Suzuki, Kunihiko Mabuchi
A pair of exoskeletal limbs for a rat has been developed based on a vehicular Brain-Machine Interface "Rat-Car". The "RatCar" is a whole-body motor prosthesis system for a rat developed by the authors, estimating locomotion velocity according to neural signals pattern to move the rat body by the vehicle instead of its original limbs. In this paper, exoskeletal limbs have displaced the wheels for more natural modality of body control. The system was tested by applying peripheral nerve signals from a behaving rat...
2012: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
M Schäfer
The exoskeletal prosthetic care of the upper extremities poses a variety of challenges to the experienced orthopaedic technician. In addition to the clinical factors which are initially decisive, such as general condition, amputation level, condition of the stump and resilience, the patient must be given equal attention when it comes to the design of the prosthetic device. The requirement to regain physical appearance which, in most cases, approaches the same importance as retrieving the best possible motor skills, underscores the necessary variety in design options for the prosthetic device...
February 2008: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
T Rahman, W Sample, R Seliktar, M Alexander, M Scavina
This paper describes the development and preliminary testing of a functional upper-limb orthosis for people that have limited strength in their arms. This is symptomatic of conditions such as muscular dystrophy (MD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and partial spinal cord injury. The exoskeletal orthosis is wheelchair mounted, has two links and four degrees of freedom. It uses linear elastic elements to balance out the effects of gravity in three dimensions. Preliminary results on testing with ten subjects will be presented...
November 2000: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
S M Zaffer, R L Braddom, A Conti, J Goff, D Bokma
A majority of hip disarticulations are performed in young people, with malignancy being the most common cause. The exoskeletal Canadian Hip Disarticulation prosthesis had been widely used as a standard total hip disarticulation prosthesis until recently when an endoskeletal modular version became the prosthesis of choice. However, the "basket-shaped" socket provided by the standard total hip disarticulation prostheses has been a source of discomfort and a reason for prosthetic rejection by many patients. This report concerns two patients with true lower limb disarticulation at the hip joint...
March 1999: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
A Magan, U Ripamonti
Coral-derived porous hydroxyapatite disks of two geometric configurations were implanted in 16 calvarial defects, 25 mm in diameter, prepared in eight subadult male baboons (Papio ursinus). To determine whether the orientation of the exoskeletal microstructures (corallites) influences bone ingrowth and osteogenesis, hydroxyapatite disks were prepared by cutting the coral either longitudinally or transversally, to obtain two distinct implant geometries defined by the orientation of the corallites. In the same animals, 16 defects were left untreated to assess the regeneration potential of the subadult baboon calvaria...
January 1996: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
S N Rout
In view of the anticipated activity of the patient and working environment, lightweight prostheses were designed for an adult female, bilateral below-elbow (BE) amputee at NIRTAR to provide the greatest degree of function. The prostheses were fabricated using lightweight materials and new techniques. Depending on the stump length there were two different types of lightweight prostheses designed and successfully used, (1) an endoskeletal BE prosthesis and (2) an exoskeletal BE prosthesis. After periodic follow-up and evaluation the function of the prostheses was found to be most satisfactory...
August 1993: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Z Borkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1975: Chirurgia Narzadów Ruchu i Ortopedia Polska
E Y Chao, R R Hoffman
Accurate measurement of human joint motion is essential to the design and evaluation of internal joint prostheses and artificial limb replacements. A triaxial electrogoniometer instrumented by three miniature precision potentiometers was developed to fulfill this task. A special linkage was used to attach this apparatus externally to the joint. Three-dimensional angular motion following the classical Eulerian angle definition was measured in real time. The error due to exoskeletal attachment was corrected by the method of 4 x 4 matrix...
1978: ISA Transactions
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