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Physiology water and sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222581/a-comparison-of-the-physiological-demands-imposed-by-competing-in-a-half-marathon-vs-a-marathon
#1
Juan Del Coso, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicén, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces
BACKGROUND: While there is widespread scientific information about the physiological challenges imposed on elite endurance runners during competitions, the information regarding the amateur population is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and physiological load imposed by competing in a real half-marathon vs a marathon race. METHODS: From a larger group of participants, we selected 22 experienced runners who were matched in pairs (11 marathoners and 11 half-marathoners) for age and anthropometric data...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216392/nitrergic-cardiovascular-regulation-in-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-aethiopicus
#2
Renato Filogonio, William Joyce, Tobias Wang
As a ubiquitous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) exerts various important effects on the cardiovascular system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone and myocardial metabolism in vertebrates. Lungfishes are closely related to tetrapods and provide an interesting possibility to understand the transition from water to land. Lungfishes are endowed with both systemic and pulmonary circulations, and their incompletely divided ventricle allows for blood to bypass either circuit. Lungfishes inhabit ephemeral waterbodies that may enforce prolonged aestivation during drought, throughout which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression is upregulated...
February 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214518/potentiating-slc-transporter-activity-emerging-drug-discovery-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Marie-Laure Rives, Jonathan A Javitch, Alan D Wickenden
Maintaining the integrity of cellular membranes is critical to protecting metabolic activities and genetic information from the environment. Regulation of transport across membranes of essential chemicals, including water, nutrients, hormones and many drugs, is therefore key to cellular homeostasis and physiological processes. The two main transporter superfamilies are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that primarily function as efflux transporters, and the solute carrier (SLC) transporters. SLC transporters encompass 52 gene families with almost 400 different human transporter genes...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190899/physiological-responses-of-rosa-rubiginosa-to-saline-environment
#4
Tomasz Hura, Bożena Szewczyk-Taranek, Katarzyna Hura, Krzysztof Nowak, Bożena Pawłowska
The aim of this work was to analyse the response of Rosa rubiginosa to salinity induced by different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride (0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). Besides salt accumulation and pH changes, other parameters were investigated including photosynthetic activity, leaf water content, the dynamics of necrosis and chlorosis appearance and leaf drying. The study was complemented with microscopic analysis of changes in leaf anatomy. R. rubiginosa was more sensitive to the salinity induced by calcium chloride than by sodium chloride...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179232/kidney-specific-genetic-deletion-of-both-ampk-%C3%AE-subunits-causes-salt-and-water-wasting
#5
Yoskaly Lazo-Fernández, Goretti Baile, Patricia Meade, Pilar Torcal, Laura Martínez, Carmen Ibañez, Maria Luisa Bernal, Benoit Viollet, Ignacio Giménez
AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) controls cell energy homeostasis by modulating ATP synthesis and expenditure. In vitro studies have suggested AMPK may also control key elements of renal epithelial electrolyte transport but in vivo physiological confirmation is still insufficient. We studied sodium renal handling and extracellular volume regulation in mice with genetic deletion of AMPK catalytic subunits. AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice exhibit normal renal sodium handling and a moderate antidiuretic state. This is accompanied by higher urinary aldosterone excretion rates and reduced blood pressure...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125020/relationship-between-surface-properties-and-in-vitro-drug-release-from-compressed-matrix-containing-polymeric-materials-with-different-hydrophobicity-degrees
#6
Cristhian J Yarce, Juan D Echeverri, Mario A Palacio, Carlos A Rivera, Constain H Salamanca
This work is the continuation of a study focused on establishing relations between surface thermodynamic properties and in vitro release mechanisms using a model drug (ampicillin trihydrate), besides analyzing the granulometric properties of new polymeric materials and thus establishing the potential to be used in the pharmaceutical field as modified delivery excipients. To do this, we used copolymeric materials derived from maleic anhydride with decreasing polarity corresponding to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic acid) (hydrophilic), sodium salt of poly(maleic acid-alt-octadecene) (amphiphilic), poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene) (hydrophobic) and the reference polymer hydroxyl-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC)...
January 24, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122568/thermodynamic-considerations-in-renal-separation-processes
#7
Robert H Louw, David M Rubin, David Glasser, Robyn F R Letts, Diane Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Urine production in the kidney is generally thought to be an energy-intensive process requiring large amounts of metabolic activity to power active transport mechanisms. This study uses a thermodynamic analysis to evaluate the minimum work requirements for urine production in the human kidney and provide a new perspective on the energy costs of urine production. In this study, black-box models are used to compare the Gibbs energy inflow and outflow of the overall kidney and physiologically-based subsections in the kidney, to calculate the work of separation for urine production...
January 26, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104983/hydrogen-sulfide-attenuates-gastric-mucosal-injury-induced-by-restraint-water-immersion-stress-via-activation-of-katp-channel-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-pathway
#8
Hong-Zhao Sun, Shan Zheng, Kai Lu, Feng-Tian Hou, Jie-Xue Bi, Xue-Lian Liu, Shan-Shan Wang
AIM: To explore the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS)-induced gastric lesions in rats and the influence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway on such an effect. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group, a physiological saline (PS) group, a sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group, a glibenclamide (Gl) group, Gl plus NaHS group, a pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group, and a PDTC plus NaHS group...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095390/hydrogen-sulfide-promotes-learning-and-memory-and-suppresses-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-repetitive-febrile-seizures
#9
Fei Zhuang, Xuhong Zhou, Hong Li, Xiaochun Yang, Zewu Dong, Wendi Zhou, Jian Chen
OBJECTIVE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a novel gasotransmitter, plays important roles in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in different types of brain disorders but not in repetitive febrile seizure (febrile status epilepticus; FSE) models. This study aims to test whether a donor of H2S sodium sulfhydrate (NaHS) is also effective for FSE in rats. METHODS: FSE was induced in rat pups on postnatal day 10 in water at 45...
January 18, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077272/evaluation-of-sodium-arsenite-exposure-on-reproductive-competence-in-pregnant-and-postlactational-dams-and-their-offspring
#10
Nadia Soledad Bourguignon, María Marta Bonaventura, Diego Rodríguez, Marianne Bizzozzero, Clara Ventura, Mariel Nuñez, Victoria Adela Lux-Lantos, Carlos Libertun
We investigated arsenite exposure on the reproductive axis of dams (during pregnancy and at cyclicity resumption) and their offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to 5 (A5) or 50ppm (A50) of sodium arsenite in drinking water from gestational day 1 (GD1) until sacrifice at GD18 or two months postpartum. Offspring were exposed to the same treatment as their mothers from weaning to adulthood. A50-pregnant rats gained less weight, showed increased testosterone and estradiol but pregnancy was unaffected. After lactation, arsenic-exposed dams presented compromised cyclicity, decreased estradiol, increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), less preovulatory follicles and presence of ovarian cysts, suggesting impaired reproduction...
January 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057549/novel-amphiphilic-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-sustained-oral-delivery-of-hydrophobic-drugs
#11
Marjan Motiei, Soheila Kashanian
Chitosan (CS) has been investigated for its ability to be modified hydrophobically and self-assembled into nanocarriers. They can encapsulate drugs and protect them in a promising approach. However, loss of carrier stability against biological environments induces low bioavailability of encapsulated drugs after oral administration. The objective of this work was to develop and characterize a novel self-assembled nanocarrier using cross-linker under acidic condition to enhance oral absorption of a hydrophobic model drug such as Letrozole (LTZ)...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996001/a-biomimetic-silk-fibroin-sodium-alginate-composite-scaffold-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#13
Yiyu Wang, Xinyu Wang, Jian Shi, Rong Zhu, Junhua Zhang, Zongrui Zhang, Daiwei Ma, Yuanjing Hou, Fei Lin, Jing Yang, Mamoru Mizuno
A cytocompatible porous scaffold mimicking the properties of extracellular matrices (ECMs) has great potential in promoting cellular attachment and proliferation for tissue regeneration. A biomimetic scaffold was prepared using silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) in which regular and uniform pore morphology can be formed through a facile freeze-dried method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed the presence of interconnected pores, mostly spread over the entire scaffold with pore diameter around 54~532 μm and porosity 66~94%...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995790/physiological-responses-of-salinity-stressed-vibrio-sp-and-the-effect-on-the-biofilm-formation-on-a-nanofiltration-membrane
#14
Lan Hee Kim, Tzyy Haur Chong
This study evaluated the effects of salinity on the physiological characteristics of Vibrio sp. B2 and biofilm formation on nanofiltration (NF) membrane coupons used in the high recovery seawater desalination process. The test conditions were at 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 M sodium chloride (NaCl), equivalent to salinity of seawater, brine at 50% and 75% water recovery, respectively. High salinity inhibited the cell growth rate but increased the viability and bacterial membrane integrity. In addition, protein and eDNA concentrations of salinity-stressed bacteria were increased at 1...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993861/novel-validated-rp-hplc-method-for-bendamustine-hydrochloride-based-on-ion-pair-chromatography-application-in-determining-infusion-stability-and-pharmacokinetics
#15
Yuvraj Singh, Anumandla Chandrashekar, Vivek K Pawar, Veeramuthu Saravanakumar, Jayagopal Meher, Kavit Raval, Pankaj Singh, R Dinesh Kumar, Manish K Chourasia
Ion pair chromatography was used for quantifying bendamustine hydrochloride (BH) in its marketed vial. The permissive objective was to investigate time duration for which highly susceptible drug content of the marketed vial remained stable after reconstitution. However, the method could also be used to measure extremely low levels of drug in rat plasma and a pharmacokinetic study was accordingly conducted to further showcase method's applicability. Optimized separation was achieved on C-18 Purospher(®)STAR (250 mm × 4...
January 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980242/a-novel-analytical-method-of-cisplatin-using-the-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-a-naphthylethyl-group-bonded-with-silica-gel-%C3%AF-nap-column
#16
Ryuji Kato, Takaji Sato, Michiko Kanamori, Mizuho Miyake, Ayumi Fujimoto, Kyohei Ogawa, Daiki Kobata, Tomoya Fujikawa, Yukari Wada, Rintaro Mitsuishi, Kodai Takahashi, Hideki Imano, Yoshio Ijiri, Yoshiki Mino, Masahiko Chikuma, Kazuhiko Tanaka, Tetsuya Hayashi
Cisplatin is the most widely used anticancer drug in the world. Mono-chloro and none-chloro complexes of cisplatin may be believed to be the activated compounds. The separation of these compounds using octa decyl silyl column or aminopropylsilyl silica gel column is difficult because of high-reactivity and structural similarity. In this study, cisplatin, hydroxo complexes, and OH-dimer were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a naphthylethyl group bonded with silica gel (π NAP) column...
December 14, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925707/natural-mineral-bottled-waters-available-on-the-polish-market-as-a-source-of-minerals-for-the-consumers-part-2-the-intake-of-sodium-and-potassium
#17
Anna Gątarska, Joanna Ciborska, Elżbieta Tońska
Background: Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921101/the-effect-of-common-anticoagulants-in-detection-and-quantification-of-malaria-parasitemia-in-human-red-blood-cells-by-atr-ftir-spectroscopy
#18
Miguela Martin, David Perez-Guaita, Dean W Andrew, Jack S Richards, Bayden R Wood, Philip Heraud
Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) has the potential to become a new diagnostic tool for malaria and other diseases. For point-of-care testing, the use of ATR-FTIR in malaria diagnosis enables the analysis of blood in the aqueous state, which represents an enormous advantage by minimising the sample preparation by removing the need for cell fixation. Here we report the quantification of malaria parasitemia in human RBCs in their normal physiological aqueous state...
December 6, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#19
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889505/candesartan-ameliorates-arsenic-induced-hypertensive-vascular-remodeling-by-regularizing-angiotensin-ii-and-tgf-beta-signaling-in-rats
#20
Maibam Wanta Khuman, Sankaran Kutty Harikumar, Abdul Sadam, Manickam Kesavan, Vattaparambil Sukumaran Susanth, Subhashree Parida, Karam Pal Singh, Souvendra Nath Sarkar
Arsenic exposure can cause several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis and microvascular disease. Earlier, we reported that arsenic-mediated enhancement of angiotensin II (AngII) signaling can impair vascular physiology. Here, we investigated whether the AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker candesartan can ameliorate the arsenic-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling in rats and whether the amelioration could relate to attenuation in vascular AngII and TGF-β signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (50ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days...
December 30, 2016: Toxicology
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