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Physiology water and sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242276/oral-sodium-butyrate-impacts-brain-metabolism-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-with-limited-effects-on-gut-anatomy-and-function-in-pigs
#2
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242247/chip-regulates-aquaporin-2-quality-control-and-body-water-homeostasis
#3
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232732/high-salt-intake-promotes-different-responses-to-urodilatin-and-uroguanylin-in-the-isolated-rat-kidney
#4
Antonio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Pedro Henrique Sá Costa, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Manassés Claudino Fonteles
Urodilatin (UD) and uroguanylin (UGN) have been implicated in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis, particularly in the balance handling of salt intake. In this sense, the aim of the present work was to study the main effects of these peptides in kidneys from animals subjected to high NaCl (2%) intake, during 10 days in metabolic cages. The control group received only normal water, whereas the treated group drank 2% solution of NaCl (NaCl 2%). In addition, we studied effect of subthreshold UD (0.14 nM) and UGN (0...
December 12, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225608/transcriptomic-profiling-and-physiological-responses-of-halophyte-kochia-sieversiana-provide-insights-into-salt-tolerance
#5
Long Zhao, Zongze Yang, Qiaobing Guo, Shun Mao, Shaoqiang Li, Fasheng Sun, Huan Wang, Chunwu Yang
Halophytes are remarkable plants that can tolerate extremely high-salinity conditions, and have different salinity tolerance mechanisms from those of glycophytic plants. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of salinity tolerance of an extreme halophyte, Kochia sieversiana (Pall.) C. A. M, using RNA sequencing and physiological tests. The results showed that moderate salinity stimulated the growth and water uptake of K. sieversiana and, even under 480-mM salinity condition, K. sieversiana maintained an extremely high water content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174912/behavioral-responses-and-fluid-regulation-in-male-rats-after-combined-dietary-sodium-deficiency-and-water-deprivation
#6
Kimberly J Lucia, Kathleen S Curtis
Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0...
November 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172798/physiology-of-blood-pressure-relevant-to-managing-hypertension-in-pregnancy
#7
Nnabuike C Ngene, Jagidesa Moodley
PURPOSE: Pregnancy causes physiological changes in maternal organ systems, and blood pressure (BP) is one of the variables affected. This review is focusing on the physiology of BP relevant to the management of hypertension in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed using electronic databases (including WorldCat, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar) to retrieve and review reports related to physiology of BP in pregnancy. RESULTS: During pregnancy, there is vasodilation caused by mediators such as increased levels of progesterone and nitric oxide...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142408/correlation-between-polyphenol-oxidase-ppo-activity-and-total-phenolic-contents-in-crocus-sativus-l-corms-during-dormancy-and-sprouting-stages
#8
Nardana Esmaeili, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Khosrou Abdi
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme and determination of total phenolic contents during dormancy and sprouting stages in Crocus sativus corms were performed. PPO enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A25 and two isoenzymes were obtained on the SDS-PAGE, which corresponded to molecular weights of 70 and 54 kDa. The Km values of the enzyme were 4.87 and 2.12 mM for l-DOPA in dormancy and waking stages, respectively...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140136/salt-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-enhances-fluid-retention-more-than-salt-or-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration
#9
Eric D B Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A Savoie, Jonathan Gosselin
Hyperhydration has been demonstrated to improve work capacity and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions, enhance orthostatic tolerance, slow or neutralize bone demineralization and decrease post-dive bubble formation. Adding sodium or glycerol to a hyperhydration solution optimizes fluid retention. Sodium and glycerol produce their effect through different physiological mechanisms. If combined into a hyperhydration solution their impact on fluid retention could potentially be greater than their singular effect...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127934/experimental-manipulation-of-dietary-arsenic-levels-in-great-tit-nestlings-accumulation-pattern-and-effects-on-growth-survival-and-plasma-biochemistry
#10
Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Antonio J García-Fernández, Tapio Eeva
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid classified as one of the most hazardous substances, but information about its exposure and effects in free-living passerines is lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of an As manipulation experiment on survival, growth and physiology of great tits (Parus major). Wild P. major nestlings inhabiting an unpolluted area were dosed with water, 0.2 or 1 μg g(-1) d(-1) of sodium arsenite (Control, Low and High As groups), whereas those living in a metal-polluted area were dosed with water (Smelter group)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#11
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
December 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109472/proteomic-analysis-reveals-an-impaired-ca-2-aqp5-pathway-in-the-submandibular-gland-in-hypertension
#12
Jing Zhang, Li-Jun Zhong, Yang Wang, Li-Mei Liu, Xin Cong, Ruo-Lan Xiang, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Yan Zhang
Hypertension is a systemic disorder that affects numerous physiological processes throughout the body. Improper sodium transport is a common comorbidity of hypertension, and sodium transport is also critical for maintaining the secretion of submandibular glands, whether the function of submandibular glands is affected by hypertension remains unclear. To determine whether hypertension induces changes in the protein expression of submandibular glands, we compared the proteome of submandibular glands from 14-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats using LC-MS/MS...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104159/physiological-and-pathophysiological-implications-of-pge2-and-the-pge2-synthases-in-the-kidney
#13
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Min Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guangrui Yang, Lihong Chen
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid synthesized in the kidney and plays an important role in renal function. Physiologically, PGE2 regulates renal hemodynamics, water and sodium metabolism, blood pressure, and so on. As a well-known proinflammatory lipid mediator, PGE2 also substantially mediates renal injury under many pathophysiological conditions. Multiple enzymes are involved in renal PGE2 biosynthesis, including the three main PGE2 terminal synthases, i.e. microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGE2 synthase (cPGES)...
November 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050664/sodium-chloride-does-not-ensure-microbiological-safety-of-foods-cases-and-solutions
#14
Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. This review examined a number of scientific reports and articles about the microbiological safety of salt-cured foods, which included salted, brined, pickled, and/or marinated vegetables, meat, and seafood...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#15
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021227/physiological-regulation-of-the-epithelial-na-channel-by-casein-kinase-ii
#16
Jonathan M Berman, Elena Mironova, James D Stockand
The Epithelial Na+ Channel, ENaC, is the final arbiter of sodium excretion in the kidneys. As such, discretionary control of ENaC by hormones is critical to the fine-tuning of electrolyte and water excretion and consequently, blood pressure. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates ENaC. Phosphorylation by CK2 is necessary for normal ENaC activity. We tested the physiological importance of CK2 regulation of ENaC as the degree to which ENaC activity is dependent on CK2 phosphorylation in the living organism is unknown...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944006/regulation-of-gene-expression-is-associated-with-tolerance-of-the-arctic-copepod-calanus-glacialis-to-co2-acidified-sea-water
#17
Allison Bailey, Pierre De Wit, Peter Thor, Howard I Browman, Reidun Bjelland, Steven Shema, David M Fields, Jeffrey A Runge, Cameron Thompson, Haakon Hop
Ocean acidification is the increase in seawater pCO 2 due to the uptake of atmospheric anthropogenic CO 2, with the largest changes predicted to occur in the Arctic seas. For some marine organisms, this change in pCO 2, and associated decrease in pH, represents a climate change-related stressor. In this study, we investigated the gene expression patterns of nauplii of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis cultured at low pH levels. We have previously shown that organismal-level performance (development, growth, respiration) of C...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878491/salt-stress-reveals-differential-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-responses-in-t-monococcum-and-t-durum-wheat-genotypes
#18
REVIEW
Sana Tounsi, Kaouthar Feki, Dorsaf Hmidi, Khaled Masmoudi, Faiçal Brini
Salt stress responses implicate a complex mechanism and differ from plant species to another. In this study, we analyzed the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses to salt stress of the diploid wheat (T. monococcum) and compared to the tetraploid wheat (T. durum). Our results showed that the diploid wheat cultivar (cv. Turkey) is relatively tolerant to different salt stress conditions than the tetraploid wheat cultivar (cv. Om Rabia3). This tolerance was manifested by significant germination, plant growth and uptake of water generating cell turgor and development...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843063/in-situ-depot-comprising-phase-change-materials-that-can-sustainably-release-a-gasotransmitter-h2s-to-treat-diabetic-wounds
#19
Wei-Chih Lin, Chieh-Cheng Huang, Shu-Jyuan Lin, Meng-Ju Li, Yen Chang, Yu-Jung Lin, Wei-Lin Wan, Po-Chien Shih, Hsing-Wen Sung
Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop refractory wounds. They exhibit reduced synthesis and levels of circulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is an ephemeral gaseous molecule. Physiologically, H2S is an endogenous gasotransmitter with multiple biological functions. An emulsion method is utilized to prepare a microparticle system that comprises phase-change materials with a nearly constant temperature of phase transitions to encapsulate sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a highly water-labile H2S donor...
August 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818532/myricetin-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-stability-assurance-from-system-preparation-to-site-of-action
#20
Dina M Gaber, Noha Nafee, Osama Y Abdallah
Myricetin - a natural flavonoid - has attracted a great interest due to its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging potential. However, its physicochemical instability critically impairs its dosage form design, evaluation and administration. In an attempt to protect from degradation, MYR was encapsulated into Gelucire-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The impact of medium pH, processing temperature and different additives on the drug degradation either in free or nanoencapsulated form was assessed. MYR stability was further monitored in essential biorelevant fluids...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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