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Physiology water and sodium

Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Md Mahabub Alam, M H M Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Hirosuke Oku, Masayuki Fujita
To investigate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-induced paraquat (PQ) tolerance in plants, we pretreated a set of 10-day-old Brassica napus seedlings with 500 μM sodium nitroprusside (SNP - a NO donor) for 24 h. Then, three doses of PQ (62.5, 125 and 250 μM) were applied separately, as well as to SNP-pretreated seedlings, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for an additional 48 h. The seedlings treated with PQ showed clear, dose-dependent signs of oxidative stress, with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, malondialdehyde), H2 O2 and O2 - generation, and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Kourosh Mohammadi, Ali Movahedi, Samaneh Sadat Maleki, Weibo Sun, Jiaxin Zhang, Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti, Saeed Nourmohammadi, Qiang Zhuge
Drought and salinity are two main abiotic stressors that can disrupt plant growth and survival. Various biotechnological approaches have been used to alleviate the problem of drought stress by improving water stress resistance in forestry and agriculture. The drought sensitive 1 (DRS1) gene acts as a regulator of drought stress, identified in human, yeast and some model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but there have been no reports of DRS1 transformation in poplar plants to date. In this study, we transformed the DRS1 gene from Populus trichocarpa into Populus deltoides × Populus euramericana 'Nanlin895' using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation...
February 21, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Nyuk Ling Ma, Wan Afifudeen Che Lah, Nisrin Abd Kadir, Mohamad Mustaqim, Zaidah Rahmat, Aziz Ahmad, Su Datt Lam, Mohd Razi Ismail
Salinity threat is estimated to reduce global rice production by 50%. Comprehensive analysis of the physiological and metabolite changes in rice plants from salinity stress (i.e. tolerant versus susceptible plants) is important to combat higher salinity conditions. In this study, we screened a total of 92 genotypes and selected the most salinity tolerant line (SS1-14) and most susceptible line (SS2-18) to conduct comparative physiological and metabolome inspections. We demonstrated that the tolerant line managed to maintain their water and chlorophyll content with lower incidence of sodium ion accumulation...
2018: PloS One
Nicole I Stacy, Karen A Bjorndal, Justin R Perrault, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten
Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin ) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin ) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin ) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Yipu Xu, Baoxing Pang, Liang Hu, Xiaoyu Feng, Lei Hu, Jingsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Songlin Wang
Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Á Jerzsele, Z Karancsi, E Pászti-Gere, Á Sterczer, A Bersényi, K Fodor, D Szabó, P Vajdovich
Xylitol is commonly used as sugar substitute in households. While it has numerous beneficial effects on human health, it is highly toxic to dogs. The goal of this study was to examine whether xylitol has similar deleterious effects, such as hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure, on cats. Our research included six healthy middle-aged cats. Xylitol was dissolved in deionized water and administered p.o. at three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight). These dosages have been considered toxic and can cause liver failure or even death in dogs...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Aleksandra Golob, Vekoslava Stibilj, Marijan Nečemer, Peter Kump, Ivan Kreft, Anja Hočevar, Alenka Gaberščik, Mateja Germ
Plants of the genus Fagopyrum contain high levels of crystalline calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposits, or druses, that can affect the leaf optical properties. As selenium has been shown to modify the uptake and accumulation of metabolically important elements such as calcium, we hypothesised that the numbers of druses can be altered by selenium treatment, and this would affect the leaf optical properties. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) was grown outdoors in an experimental field. At the beginning of flowering, plants were foliarly sprayed with sodium selenate solution at 10 mg selenium L-1 or only with water...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Ines Pagel-Langenickel
Natriuretic peptides (NP) are widely recognized as key regulators of blood pressure, water and salt homeostasis. In addition, they play a critical role in physiological cardiac growth and mediate a variety of biological effects including antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in other organs and tissues. The cardiac release of NPs ANP and BNP represents an important compensatory mechanism during acute and chronic cardiac overload and during the pathogenesis of heart failure where their actions counteract the sustained activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and other neurohormonal systems...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sandra M McLachlan, Holly A Aliesky, Basil Rapoport
We investigated factors underlying the varying effects of a high dietary iodide intake on serum T4 levels in a wide spectrum of mouse strains, including thyroiditis-susceptible NOD.H2h4, NOD.H2k, and NOD mice, as well as other strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6, NOD.Lc7, and B10.A4R) not previously investigated. Mice were maintained for up to 8 months on control or iodide-supplemented water (NaI 0.05%). On iodized water, serum T4 was reduced in BALB/c (males and females) in association with colloid goiters but was not significantly changed in mice that developed thyroiditis, namely NOD...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Fernanda Rosa, Sebastiano Busato, Fatima C Avaroma, Kali Linville, Erminio Trevisi, Johan S Osorio, Massimo Bionaz
After birth, a newborn calf has to adapt to an extrauterine life characterized by several physiological changes. In particular, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract in a new environment loaded with potential pathogens, which can predispose neonatal calves to develop diarrhea, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during the first 4 wks of life. We aimed to investigate the inflammatory adaptations at a transcriptomic level in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to a mild diarrhea in neonatal dairy calves using RNA isolated from fresh fecal samples...
2018: PloS One
Yan Liu, David Goldfarb, Tarek M El-Achkar, John C Lieske, Xue-Ru Wu
Expression of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP or uromodulin) is highly restricted to the kidneys' thick ascending limb (TAL) of loop of Henle. Despite the unique location and recent association of THP gene mutations with hereditary uromodulin-associated kidney disease and THP single nucleotide polymorphisms with chronic kidney disease and hypertension, the physiological function(s) of THP and its pathological involvement remain incompletely understood. By studying age-dependent changes of THP knockout (KO) mice, we show here that young KO mice had significant salt and water wasting but were partially responsive to furosemide, due to decreased luminal translocation of Na-K-Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) in the TAL...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Qi Wu, Hanne B Moeller, Donté A Stevens, Rebekah Sanchez-Hodge, Gabrielle Childers, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Lei Cheng, Lena L Rosenbaek, Carrie Rubel, Cam Patterson, Trairak Pisitkun, Jonathan C Schisler, Robert A Fenton
The importance of the kidney distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) is highlighted by various water and electrolyte disorders that arise when the unique transport properties of these segments are disturbed. Despite this critical role, little is known about which proteins have a regulatory role in these cells and how these cells can be regulated by individual physiologic stimuli. By combining proteomics, bioinformatics, and cell biology approaches, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP is highly expressed throughout the collecting duct; is modulated in abundance by vasopressin; interacts with aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hsp70, and Hsc70; and can directly ubiquitylate the water channel AQP2 in vitro shRNA knockdown of CHIP in CCD cells increased AQP2 protein t1/2 and reduced AQP2 ubiquitylation, resulting in greater levels of AQP2 and phosphorylated AQP2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Antonio Rafael Coelho Jorge, Pedro Henrique Sá Costa, Helena Serra Azul Monteiro, Manassés Claudino Fonteles
Urodilatin (UD) and uroguanylin (UGN) have been implicated in the regulation of salt and water homeostasis, particularly in the balance handling of salt intake. In this sense, the aim of the present work was to study the main effects of these peptides in kidneys from animals subjected to high NaCl (2%) intake, during 10 days in metabolic cages. The control group received only normal water, whereas the treated group drank 2% solution of NaCl (NaCl 2%). In addition, we studied effect of subthreshold UD (0.14 nM) and UGN (0...
December 12, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Long Zhao, Zongze Yang, Qiaobing Guo, Shun Mao, Shaoqiang Li, Fasheng Sun, Huan Wang, Chunwu Yang
Halophytes are remarkable plants that can tolerate extremely high-salinity conditions, and have different salinity tolerance mechanisms from those of glycophytic plants. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of salinity tolerance of an extreme halophyte, Kochia sieversiana (Pall.) C. A. M, using RNA sequencing and physiological tests. The results showed that moderate salinity stimulated the growth and water uptake of K. sieversiana and, even under 480-mM salinity condition, K. sieversiana maintained an extremely high water content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kimberly J Lucia, Kathleen S Curtis
Most investigators use a single treatment such as water deprivation or dietary sodium deficiency to evaluate thirst or sodium appetite, which underlie behavioral responses to body fluid challenges. The goal of the present experiments was to assess the effects of combined treatments in driving behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of combined overnight water deprivation and dietary sodium deficiency on water intake and salt intake by adult male rats in 2-bottle (0.5M NaCl and water) tests. Overnight water deprivation alone increased water intake, and 10days of dietary sodium deficiency increased 0...
February 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Nnabuike C Ngene, Jagidesa Moodley
PURPOSE: Pregnancy causes physiological changes in maternal organ systems, and blood pressure (BP) is one of the variables affected. This review is focusing on the physiology of BP relevant to the management of hypertension in pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed using electronic databases (including WorldCat, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar) to retrieve and review reports related to physiology of BP in pregnancy. RESULTS: During pregnancy, there is vasodilation caused by mediators such as increased levels of progesterone and nitric oxide...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Nardana Esmaeili, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Khosrou Abdi
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme and determination of total phenolic contents during dormancy and sprouting stages in Crocus sativus corms were performed. PPO enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A25 and two isoenzymes were obtained on the SDS-PAGE, which corresponded to molecular weights of 70 and 54 kDa. The Km values of the enzyme were 4.87 and 2.12 mM for l-DOPA in dormancy and waking stages, respectively...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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