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Physiology water and sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628670/combining-ability-heritability-and-genotypic-relations-of-different-physiological-traits-in-cacao-hybrids
#1
Allan Silva Pereira, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Márcia Christina da Silva Branco, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso Costa, Dario Ahnert
Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611439/raman-micro-spectroscopy-as-a-viable-tool-to-monitor-and-estimate-the-ionic-transport-in-epithelial-cells
#2
Leonardo Puppulin, Giuseppe Pezzotti, Hongxin Sun, Shigekuni Hosogi, Takashi Nakahari, Toshio Inui, Yasuaki Kumamoto, Hideo Tanaka, Yoshinori Marunaka
The typical response to the lowering of plasma Na(+) concentration and blood pressure in our body involves the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which triggers the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney. Although the effects of aldosterone on this physiological mechanism were extensively studied in the past decades, there are still some aspects to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we propose for the first time a new approach based on Raman spectroscopy to monitor the ionic activity in aldosterone-treated A6 renal epithelial cells...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599248/the-multifaceted-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Prasanna K Santhekadur, Divya P Kumar, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
Due to globalization and sophisticated western and sedentary lifestyle, metabolic syndrome has emerged as a serious public health challenge. Obesity is significantly increasing worldwide because of increased high calorie food intake and decreased physical activity leading to hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and insulin resistance. Thus, metabolic syndrome constitutes cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and recently some cancers are also considered to be associated with this syndrome...
June 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588258/non-uniform-salinity-in-the-root-zone-alleviates-salt-damage-by-increasing-sodium-water-and-nutrient-transport-genes-expression-in-cotton
#4
Xiangqiang Kong, Zhen Luo, Hezhong Dong, Weijiang Li, Yizhen Chen
Non-uniform salinity alleviates salt damage through sets of physiological adjustments in Na(+) transport in leaf and water and nutrient uptake in the non-saline root side. However, little is known of how non-uniform salinity induces these adjustments. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis shown that the expression of sodium transport and photosynthesis related genes in the non-uniform treatment were higher than that in the uniform treatment, which may be the reason for the increased photosynthetic (Pn) rate and decreased Na(+) content in leaves of the non-uniform salinity treatment...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578974/aot-reverse-micelles-as-versatile-reaction-media-for-chitosan-nanoparticles-synthesis
#5
M Soledad Orellano, Carina Porporatto, Juana J Silber, R Darío Falcone, N Mariano Correa
It is known that Chitosan (Ch) can be used in several applications, such as antimicrobial agent or as drug delivery agent. However, being its water dispersibility very low at physiological pH it is necessary to find a way to improve it. One attractive strategy is to synthesize Chitosan Nanoparticles (Ch-NPs). In this work, a versatile method to obtain Ch-NPs with different and controlled sizes, that were successfully prepared by cross-linking reaction of glutaraldehyde and native chitosan inside of n-heptane/sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT)/water reverse micelles (RMs) is presented...
September 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574094/effect-of-storage-medium-and-aging-duration-on-mechanical-properties-of-self-adhesive-resin-based-cements
#6
Anja Liebermann, Nicoleta Ilie, Malgorzata Roos, Bogna Stawarczyk
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage medium and aging duration on Martens hardness (HM) and indentation modulus (EIT) of self-adhesive resin-based cements (SARCs). METHODS: A total of 416 discs were fabricated from 8 SARCs (n = 52 per SARC): (i) BeautyCem (BEA), (ii) Bifix SE (BIF), (iii) Clearfil SA Cement Automix (CLE), (iv) RelyX Unicem2 Automix (RXU), (v) SeT (SET), (vi) SmartCem 2 (SMC), (vii) SoloCem (SOC) and (viii) SpeedCEM (SPC)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#7
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557567/gene-expression-of-the-concentration-sensitive-sodium-channel-is-suppressed-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#8
Teruki Hagiwara, Shigeru Yoshida, Yuji Hidaka
PURPOSE: The concentration-sensitive sodium channel (NaC) is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in mouse lungs. We recently reported that NaC contributes to amiloride-insensitive sodium transport in mouse lungs (Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2016). However, details regarding its physiological role in the lung remain unknown. To examine whether NaC is involved in alveolar fluid clearance during an acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed the relationship between NaC gene expression in the lung and the development of pulmonary edema in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice...
April 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554145/physiological-and-biochemical-perspectives-of-non-salt-tolerant-plants-during-bacterial-interaction-against-soil-salinity
#9
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Kwang Hyun Baek
Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#10
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548169/photophysicochemical-characterization-of-mycosporine-like-amino-acids-in-micellar-solutions
#11
D E Orallo, S G Bertolotti, M S Churio
The properties and photochemical and photophysical behavior of the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) shinorine and porphyra-334 were experimentally evaluated in solutions of direct ionic micelles as simple biomimicking environments. The preferential partition of the natural molecules in the aqueous phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) micellar systems is confirmed. Although the proton dissociation of the carboxylic groups in the MAAs is slightly inhibited in CTAC solutions, the molecules are predicted to be in the form of zwitterions in all the explored media around physiological pH...
May 26, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534826/atp-driven-contraction-of-phage-t3-capsids-with-dna-incompletely-packaged-in-vivo
#12
Philip Serwer, Elena T Wright
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cleavage powers packaging of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule in a pre-assembled capsid of phages that include T3. Several observations constitute a challenge to the conventional view that the shell of the capsid is energetically inert during packaging. Here, we test this challenge by analyzing the in vitro effects of ATP on the shells of capsids generated by DNA packaging in vivo. These capsids retain incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) and are called ipDNA-capsids; the ipDNA-capsids are assumed to be products of premature genome maturation-cleavage...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534026/how-cells-can-control-their-size-by-pumping-ions
#13
Alan R Kay
The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960). Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na(+) and K(+) staving off water inundation...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507199/whole-body-vibration-exercise-combined-with-an-extract-of-coriandrum-sativum-modify-some-biochemical-physiological-parameters-in-rats
#14
Éric H F F Frederico, André L B D Cardoso, Carlos A S Guimarães, Lívia P Almeida, Rosane F Neves, Danúbia C Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Carla F Dionello, Danielle S Morel, Laisa L Paineiras-Domingos, Rebeca G Costa-Cavalcanti, Cintia R Sousa-Gonçalves, Adriano Arnóbio, Nasser R Asad, Mario Bernardo-Filho
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the association of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise with an aqueous extract of coriander on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate, on the concentration of some plasma biomarker, on the feed intake, on the body mass, and on the stool consistency in rats. Rats were divided in four groups and submitted to different treatments for 40 days. The control group (CON) received deionized water. The group treated with coriander (COR) received the extract of coriander...
June 30, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500994/salt-tolerance-mechanisms-induced-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-effects-on-mineral-nutrition-antioxidative-metabolism-and-steviol-glycoside-content
#15
Daniel Cantabella, Abel Piqueras, José Ramón Acosta-Motos, Agustina Bernal-Vicente, José A Hernández, Pedro Díaz-Vivancos
In order to cope with challenges linked to climate change such as salinity, plants must develop a wide spectrum of physiological and molecular mechanisms to rapidly adapt. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants are a case in point. According to our findings, salt stress has no significant effect on plant growth in these plants, which accumulate sodium (Na(+)) in their roots, thus avoiding excessive Na(+) accumulation in leaves. Furthermore, salt stress (NaCl stress) increases the potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride ion (Cl(-)) and proline concentrations in Stevia leaves, which could contribute to osmotic adjustment...
June 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484814/contemporary-approaches-to-perioperative-iv-fluid-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Paul S Myles, Sam Andrews, Jonathan Nicholson, Dileep N Lobo, Monty Mythen
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid therapy is required for most surgical patients, but inappropriate regimens are commonly prescribed. The aim of this narrative review was to provide evidence-based guidance on appropriate perioperative fluid management. METHOD: We did a systematic literature search of the literature to identify relevant studies and meta-analyses to develop recommendations. RESULTS: Of 275 retrieved articles, we identified 25 articles to inform this review...
May 8, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479737/flavonoids-from-whole-plant-of-euphorbia-hirta-and-their-evaluation-against-experimentally-induced-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-in-rats
#17
Shyam Sundar Gupta, Lubna Azmi, P K Mohapatra, Ch V Rao
BACKGROUND: Euphorbia hirta possesses antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, galactogenic, antidiarrheal, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antiasthmatic, antiamebic, antifungal, and antimalarial activities. OBJECTIVE: The overall objective of the current study was the investigation of the whole plant extract of E. hirta and flavonoids from E. hirta on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The whole plant extract of E...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466626/stimulatory-effect-of-food-restriction-on-the-steroidogenesis-of-aldosterone-in-ovariectomized-rats
#18
Mei-Mei Kau, Ching-Han Yu, Shiow-Chwen Tsai, Jiing-Rong Wang, Paulus S. Wang
Food or calorie restriction (FR or CR) induces several physiological changes including weight loss, metabolic adaptations, mineral and hormonal changes. However, the effects of FR on aldosterone steroidogenesis in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells have not been elucidated. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effects of FR on aldosterone secretion and the involved mechanisms in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Ovx rats were divided into ad libitum fed (control) and FR groups. The FR rats exhibited decreased body weight, water intake, urine flow, sodium excretion and increased plasma aldosterone in comparison with control rats...
April 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396810/management-of-liddle-syndrome-in-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Michael Awadalla, Manasi Patwardhan, Adham Alsamsam, Nashat Imran
Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that causes hypertension and hypokalemia due to a gain-of-function mutation in the SCNN1B or SCNN1G genes which code for the epithelial sodium channel in the kidney. This leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption causing hypertension. We report a case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman who was admitted for hypertension and hypokalemia and later diagnosed and treated for Liddle syndrome using amiloride. Maintaining a high suspicion of Liddle syndrome in pregnancy is essential in such cases to be able to adequately and effectively treat the hypertension...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384425/ionoregulatory-characteristics-of-non-rio-negro-characiforms-and-cichlids
#20
R J Gonzalez, S L Jones, T V Nguyen
We examined ionoregulatory characteristics of two species of characiform fish and two species of cichlids that are not native to the Rio Negro, an extremely ion-poor, acidic tributary of the Amazon River, in order to gain insight into the origin of the specializations possessed by Rio Negro fish. The two characiform species examined, Congo tetras (Phenacogrammus interruptus) and black neon tetras (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi), had high-affinity/high-capacity transporters that produce high rates of uptake in dilute water...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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