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Physiology water and sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142408/correlation-between-polyphenol-oxidase-ppo-activity-and-total-phenolic-contents-in-crocus-sativus-l-corms-during-dormancy-and-sprouting-stages
#1
Nardana Esmaeili, Hassan Ebrahimzadeh, Khosrou Abdi
Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme and determination of total phenolic contents during dormancy and sprouting stages in Crocus sativus corms were performed. PPO enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A25 and two isoenzymes were obtained on the SDS-PAGE, which corresponded to molecular weights of 70 and 54 kDa. The Km values of the enzyme were 4.87 and 2.12 mM for l-DOPA in dormancy and waking stages, respectively...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140136/salt-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration-enhances-fluid-retention-more-than-salt-or-glycerol-induced-hyperhydration
#2
Eric D B Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A Savoie, Jonathan Gosselin
Hyperhydration has been demonstrated to improve work capacity and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions, enhance orthostatic tolerance, slow or neutralize bone demineralization and decrease post-dive bubble formation. Adding sodium or glycerol to a hyperhydration solution optimizes fluid retention. Sodium and glycerol produce their effect through different physiological mechanisms. If combined into a hyperhydration solution their impact on fluid retention could potentially be greater than their singular effect...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127934/experimental-manipulation-of-dietary-arsenic-levels-in-great-tit-nestlings-accumulation-pattern-and-effects-on-growth-survival-and-plasma-biochemistry
#3
Pablo Sánchez-Virosta, Silvia Espín, Sandra Ruiz, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Antonio J García-Fernández, Tapio Eeva
Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous metalloid classified as one of the most hazardous substances, but information about its exposure and effects in free-living passerines is lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of an As manipulation experiment on survival, growth and physiology of great tits (Parus major). Wild P. major nestlings inhabiting an unpolluted area were dosed with water, 0.2 or 1 μg g(-1) d(-1) of sodium arsenite (Control, Low and High As groups), whereas those living in a metal-polluted area were dosed with water (Smelter group)...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127487/towards-a-unified-understanding-of-lithium-action-in-basic-biology-and-its-significance-for-applied-biology
#4
REVIEW
Eric Jakobsson, Orlando Argüello-Miranda, See-Wing Chiu, Zeeshan Fazal, James Kruczek, Santiago Nunez-Corrales, Sagar Pandit, Laura Pritchet
Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109472/proteomic-analysis-reveals-an-impaired-ca-2-aqp5-pathway-in-the-submandibular-gland-in-hypertension
#5
Jing Zhang, Li-Jun Zhong, Yang Wang, Li-Mei Liu, Xin Cong, Ruo-Lan Xiang, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Yan Zhang
Hypertension is a systemic disorder that affects numerous physiological processes throughout the body. Improper sodium transport is a common comorbidity of hypertension, and sodium transport is also critical for maintaining the secretion of submandibular glands, whether the function of submandibular glands is affected by hypertension remains unclear. To determine whether hypertension induces changes in the protein expression of submandibular glands, we compared the proteome of submandibular glands from 14-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats using LC-MS/MS...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104159/physiological-and-pathophysiological-implications-of-pge2-and-the-pge2-synthases-in-the-kidney
#6
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Min Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Guangrui Yang, Lihong Chen
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid synthesized in the kidney and plays an important role in renal function. Physiologically, PGE2 regulates renal hemodynamics, water and sodium metabolism, blood pressure, and so on. As a well-known proinflammatory lipid mediator, PGE2 also substantially mediates renal injury under many pathophysiological conditions. Multiple enzymes are involved in renal PGE2 biosynthesis, including the three main PGE2 terminal synthases, i.e. microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), mPGES-2 and cytosolic PGE2 synthase (cPGES)...
November 2, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050664/sodium-chloride-does-not-ensure-microbiological-safety-of-foods-cases-and-solutions
#7
Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. This review examined a number of scientific reports and articles about the microbiological safety of salt-cured foods, which included salted, brined, pickled, and/or marinated vegetables, meat, and seafood...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027912/guanidinium-toxins-and-their-interactions-with-voltage-gated-sodium-ion-channels
#8
REVIEW
Lorena M Durán-Riveroll, Allan D Cembella
Guanidinium toxins, such as saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their analogs, are naturally occurring alkaloids with divergent evolutionary origins and biogeographical distribution, but which share the common chemical feature of guanidinium moieties. These guanidinium groups confer high biological activity with high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Members of the STX group, known collectively as paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and about a dozen genera of primarily freshwater or brackish water cyanobacteria...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021227/physiological-regulation-of-the-epithelial-na-channel-by-casein-kinase-ii
#9
Jonathan M Berman, Elena Mironova, James D Stockand
The Epithelial Na+ Channel, ENaC, is the final arbiter of sodium excretion in the kidneys. As such, discretionary control of ENaC by hormones is critical to the fine-tuning of electrolyte and water excretion and consequently, blood pressure. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates ENaC. Phosphorylation by CK2 is necessary for normal ENaC activity. We tested the physiological importance of CK2 regulation of ENaC as the degree to which ENaC activity is dependent on CK2 phosphorylation in the living organism is unknown...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944006/regulation-of-gene-expression-is-associated-with-tolerance-of-the-arctic-copepod-calanus-glacialis-to-co2-acidified-sea-water
#10
Allison Bailey, Pierre De Wit, Peter Thor, Howard I Browman, Reidun Bjelland, Steven Shema, David M Fields, Jeffrey A Runge, Cameron Thompson, Haakon Hop
Ocean acidification is the increase in seawater pCO 2 due to the uptake of atmospheric anthropogenic CO 2, with the largest changes predicted to occur in the Arctic seas. For some marine organisms, this change in pCO 2, and associated decrease in pH, represents a climate change-related stressor. In this study, we investigated the gene expression patterns of nauplii of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis cultured at low pH levels. We have previously shown that organismal-level performance (development, growth, respiration) of C...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878491/salt-stress-reveals-differential-physiological-biochemical-and-molecular-responses-in-t-monococcum-and-t-durum-wheat-genotypes
#11
REVIEW
Sana Tounsi, Kaouthar Feki, Dorsaf Hmidi, Khaled Masmoudi, Faiçal Brini
Salt stress responses implicate a complex mechanism and differ from plant species to another. In this study, we analyzed the physiological, biochemical and molecular responses to salt stress of the diploid wheat (T. monococcum) and compared to the tetraploid wheat (T. durum). Our results showed that the diploid wheat cultivar (cv. Turkey) is relatively tolerant to different salt stress conditions than the tetraploid wheat cultivar (cv. Om Rabia3). This tolerance was manifested by significant germination, plant growth and uptake of water generating cell turgor and development...
July 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843063/in-situ-depot-comprising-phase-change-materials-that-can-sustainably-release-a-gasotransmitter-h2s-to-treat-diabetic-wounds
#12
Wei-Chih Lin, Chieh-Cheng Huang, Shu-Jyuan Lin, Meng-Ju Li, Yen Chang, Yu-Jung Lin, Wei-Lin Wan, Po-Chien Shih, Hsing-Wen Sung
Patients with diabetes mellitus are prone to develop refractory wounds. They exhibit reduced synthesis and levels of circulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is an ephemeral gaseous molecule. Physiologically, H2S is an endogenous gasotransmitter with multiple biological functions. An emulsion method is utilized to prepare a microparticle system that comprises phase-change materials with a nearly constant temperature of phase transitions to encapsulate sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a highly water-labile H2S donor...
August 17, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818532/myricetin-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-stability-assurance-from-system-preparation-to-site-of-action
#13
Dina M Gaber, Noha Nafee, Osama Y Abdallah
Myricetin - a natural flavonoid - has attracted a great interest due to its antioxidant and free-radical scavenging potential. However, its physicochemical instability critically impairs its dosage form design, evaluation and administration. In an attempt to protect from degradation, MYR was encapsulated into Gelucire-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). The impact of medium pH, processing temperature and different additives on the drug degradation either in free or nanoencapsulated form was assessed. MYR stability was further monitored in essential biorelevant fluids...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811745/inhibition-of-inflammation-mediated-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-biochemical-pathway-can-lead-to-favorable-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#14
REVIEW
Daniah Shamim, Michael Laskowski
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808392/antiurolithiatic-effect-of-sirupeelai-samoola-kudineer-a-polyherbal-siddha-decoction-on-ethylene-glycol-induced-renal-calculus-in-experimental-rats
#15
A Hannah Rachel Vasanthi, V Muthulakshmi, V Gayathri, R Manikandan, S Ananthi, Sarah Kuruvilla
BACKGROUND: Sirupeelai Samoola Kudineer (SK), a polyherbal decoction containing four medicinal plants has been used in Siddha system of medicine, practiced in Southern parts of India for the management of urolithiasis. OBJECTIVE: The present study is carried out to scientifically validate the traditional claim and to study the mechanism of action of the drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, anti-urolithiatic effect of SK was evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats using ethylene glycol through drinking water and intraperitoneal injection of sodium oxalate...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774150/new-elastomeric-materials-based-on-natural-rubber-obtained-by-electron-beam-irradiation-for-food-and-pharmaceutical-use
#16
Gabriela Craciun, Elena Manaila, Maria Daniela Stelescu
The efficiency of polyfunctional monomers as cross-linking co-agents on the chemical properties of natural rubber vulcanized by electron beam irradiation was studied. The following polyfunctional monomers were used: trimethylolpropane-trimethacrylate, zinc-diacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triallylcyanurate and triallylisocyanurate. The electron beam treatment was done using irradiation doses in the range of 75 kGy-300 kGy. The gel fraction, crosslink density and effects of different aqueous solutions, by absorption tests, have been investigated as a function of polyfunctional monomers type and absorbed dose...
December 21, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766715/hypertonic-nacl-versus-osmotic-stimuli-distinct-ovlt-neurones-can-sense-the-difference-to-control-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure
#17
V R Antunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763971/impact-of-trehalose-on-the-activity-of-sodium-and-potassium-chloride-in-aqueous-solutions-why-trehalose-is-worth-its-salt
#18
Michal Poplinger, Ilan Shumilin, Daniel Harries
Trehalose is revered for its multiple unique impacts on solution properties, including the ability to modulate the salty and bitter tastes of sodium and potassium salts. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying trehalose's effect on taste perception are unknown. Here we focus on the physico-chemical effect of trehalose to alter the activity of monovalent salts in aqueous solution. Using a modified isopiestic methodology that relies on contemporary vapor pressure osmometry, we elucidate how trehalose modifies the thermodynamic chemical activity of sodium and potassium chloride, as well as the effect of the salts on the sugar's activity...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755357/in-vitro-assessment-of-abiotic-stress-in-date-palm-salinity-and-drought
#19
Jameel M Al-Khayri, Poornananda M Naik, Hussain A Alwael
Date palm is one of the major crops growing in regions where abiotic stress conditions are extreme. Abiotic stress affects plant growth, development, physiology, and biochemical processes. This chapter describes a protocol to evaluate the response of date palm cultures to abiotic stresses. Tolerance to salinity stress is assessed using calcium chloride (CaCl2), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl) at 11.96, 12.06, and 9.45 g/L, respectively (equivalent to 0.8 MPa osmotic potential), with different exposure durations (1-12 days)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736378/-optimization-of-emollient-formulation-for-treating-atopic-dermatitis-by-skin-physiological-index-testing
#20
Song-Gen Huang, Xi-Xiao Yang, Li-Qian Mo, Xian-Yi Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To optimize the formulation of an emollient for treatment of atopic dermatitis prepared using ceramide, sodium hyaluronate, paeonol, and camellia-seed oil. METHODS: The emollients with different ratios of the 4 components were designed according to the L9(34)orthogonal table with 4 factors and 3 levels. The efficacy of the prepared emollients was tested in 4-6 week-old BALB/c mouse models of atopic dermatitis to determine the optimal formulation of the emollient by evaluating skin water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pharmacodynamics and skin irritation...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
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