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Physiology water and sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077272/evaluation-of-sodium-arsenite-exposure-on-reproductive-competence-in-pregnant-and-postlactational-dams-and-their-offspring
#1
Nadia Soledad Bourguignon, María Marta Bonaventura, Diego Rodríguez, Marianne Bizzozzero, Clara Ventura, Mariel Nuñez, Victoria Adela Lux-Lantos, Carlos Libertun
We investigated arsenite exposure on the reproductive axis of dams (during pregnancy and at cyclicity resumption) and their offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to 5 (A5) or 50ppm (A50) of sodium arsenite in drinking water from gestational day 1 (GD1) until sacrifice at GD18 or two months postpartum. Offspring were exposed to the same treatment as their mothers from weaning to adulthood. A50-pregnant rats gained less weight, showed increased testosterone and estradiol but pregnancy was unaffected. After lactation, arsenic-exposed dams presented compromised cyclicity, decreased estradiol, increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), less preovulatory follicles and presence of ovarian cysts, suggesting impaired reproduction...
January 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057549/novel-amphiphilic-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-sustained-oral-delivery-of-hydrophobic-drugs
#2
Marjan Motiei, Soheila Kashanian
Chitosan (CS) has been investigated for its ability to be modified hydrophobically and self-assembled into nanocarriers. They can encapsulate drugs and protect them in a promising approach. However, loss of carrier stability against biological environments induces low bioavailability of encapsulated drugs after oral administration. The objective of this work was to develop and characterize a novel self-assembled nanocarrier using cross-linker under acidic condition to enhance oral absorption of a hydrophobic model drug such as Letrozole (LTZ)...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017410/disorders-of-sodium-and-water-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Julien Guillaumin, Stephen DiBartola
This review article discusses normal and abnormal sodium balance in small animals. The terms and concepts central to understanding normal sodium and water balance are presented as well as of the physiology of body fluid compartments and the movement of fluid between those compartments. As dysnatremia is a very common disorder across the spectrum of critically ill patients, the main focus of the article is to present several clinical examples of both acute and chronic hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their practical, clinical management...
December 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996001/a-biomimetic-silk-fibroin-sodium-alginate-composite-scaffold-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#4
Yiyu Wang, Xinyu Wang, Jian Shi, Rong Zhu, Junhua Zhang, Zongrui Zhang, Daiwei Ma, Yuanjing Hou, Fei Lin, Jing Yang, Mamoru Mizuno
A cytocompatible porous scaffold mimicking the properties of extracellular matrices (ECMs) has great potential in promoting cellular attachment and proliferation for tissue regeneration. A biomimetic scaffold was prepared using silk fibroin (SF)/sodium alginate (SA) in which regular and uniform pore morphology can be formed through a facile freeze-dried method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed the presence of interconnected pores, mostly spread over the entire scaffold with pore diameter around 54~532 μm and porosity 66~94%...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995790/physiological-responses-of-salinity-stressed-vibrio-sp-and-the-effect-on-the-biofilm-formation-on-a-nanofiltration-membrane
#5
Lan Hee Kim, Tzyy Haur Chong
This study evaluated the effects of salinity on the physiological characteristics of Vibrio sp. B2 and biofilm formation on nanofiltration (NF) membrane coupons used in the high recovery seawater desalination process. The test conditions were at 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 M sodium chloride (NaCl), equivalent to salinity of seawater, brine at 50% and 75% water recovery, respectively. High salinity inhibited the cell growth rate but increased the viability and bacterial membrane integrity. In addition, protein and eDNA concentrations of salinity-stressed bacteria were increased at 1...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993861/novel-validated-rp-hplc-method-for-bendamustine-hydrochloride-based-on-ion-pair-chromatography-application-in-determining-infusion-stability-and-pharmacokinetics
#6
Yuvraj Singh, Anumandla Chandrashekar, Vivek K Pawar, Veeramuthu Saravanakumar, Jayagopal Meher, Kavit Raval, Pankaj Singh, R Dinesh Kumar, Manish K Chourasia
Ion pair chromatography was used for quantifying bendamustine hydrochloride (BH) in its marketed vial. The permissive objective was to investigate time duration for which highly susceptible drug content of the marketed vial remained stable after reconstitution. However, the method could also be used to measure extremely low levels of drug in rat plasma and a pharmacokinetic study was accordingly conducted to further showcase method's applicability. Optimized separation was achieved on C-18 Purospher(®)STAR (250 mm × 4...
January 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980242/a-novel-analytical-method-of-cisplatin-using-the-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-a-naphthylethyl-group-bonded-with-silica-gel-%C3%AF-nap-column
#7
Ryuji Kato, Takaji Sato, Michiko Kanamori, Mizuho Miyake, Ayumi Fujimoto, Kyohei Ogawa, Daiki Kobata, Tomoya Fujikawa, Yukari Wada, Rintaro Mitsuishi, Kodai Takahashi, Hideki Imano, Yoshio Ijiri, Yoshiki Mino, Masahiko Chikuma, Kazuhiko Tanaka, Tetsuya Hayashi
Cisplatin is the most widely used anticancer drug in the world. Mono-chloro and none-chloro complexes of cisplatin may be believed to be the activated compounds. The separation of these compounds using octa decyl silyl column or aminopropylsilyl silica gel column is difficult because of high-reactivity and structural similarity. In this study, cisplatin, hydroxo complexes, and OH-dimer were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a naphthylethyl group bonded with silica gel (π NAP) column...
December 14, 2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925707/natural-mineral-bottled-waters-available-on-the-polish-market-as-a-source-of-minerals-for-the-consumers-part-2-the-intake-of-sodium-and-potassium
#8
Anna Gątarska, Joanna Ciborska, Elżbieta Tońska
Background: Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921101/the-effect-of-common-anticoagulants-in-detection-and-quantification-of-malaria-parasitemia-in-human-red-blood-cells-by-atr-ftir-spectroscopy
#9
Miguela Martin, David Perez-Guaita, Dean W Andrew, Jack S Richards, Bayden R Wood, Philip Heraud
Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) has the potential to become a new diagnostic tool for malaria and other diseases. For point-of-care testing, the use of ATR-FTIR in malaria diagnosis enables the analysis of blood in the aqueous state, which represents an enormous advantage by minimising the sample preparation by removing the need for cell fixation. Here we report the quantification of malaria parasitemia in human RBCs in their normal physiological aqueous state...
December 6, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#10
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889505/candesartan-ameliorates-arsenic-induced-hypertensive-vascular-remodeling-by-regularizing-angiotensin-ii-and-tgf-beta-signaling-in-rats
#11
Maibam Wanta Khuman, Sankaran Kutty Harikumar, Abdul Sadam, Manickam Kesavan, Vattaparambil Sukumaran Susanth, Subhashree Parida, Karam Pal Singh, Souvendra Nath Sarkar
Arsenic exposure can cause several cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis and microvascular disease. Earlier, we reported that arsenic-mediated enhancement of angiotensin II (AngII) signaling can impair vascular physiology. Here, we investigated whether the AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker candesartan can ameliorate the arsenic-induced hypertensive vascular remodeling in rats and whether the amelioration could relate to attenuation in vascular AngII and TGF-β signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (50ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days...
December 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885225/the-physical-signs-of-impending-dehydration-among-elderly-people-in-nursing-homes-the-association-with-axillary-skin-temperature-humidity-intraoral-moisture-content-and-salivary-components
#12
Mayumi Okuyama, Masumi Nishida
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between impending dehydration among elderly people in nursing homes and physical signs, including the axillary skin temperature, humidity, intraoral moisture content, and salivary components. METHODS: The study included 78 elderly individuals who required long-term care in a nursing home (11 men and 67 women; average age, 86.6±7.3 years). The elderly subjects were classified in two groups according to their serum osmolality levels: those with levels between the upper limit reference value (292 mOsm/kg H2O) and the diagnostic reference value of dehydration (300 mOsm/kg H2O) were classified into the boundary zone group and those with levels of <292 mOsm/kg H2O were classified into the normal range group...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881775/a-biophysical-model-for-cytotoxic-cell-swelling
#13
Koen Dijkstra, Jeannette Hofmeijer, Stephan A van Gils, Michel J A M van Putten
: We present a dynamic biophysical model to explain neuronal swelling underlying cytotoxic edema in conditions of low energy supply, as observed in cerebral ischemia. Our model contains Hodgkin-Huxley-type ion currents, a recently discovered voltage-gated chloride flux through the ion exchanger SLC26A11, active KCC2-mediated chloride extrusion, and ATP-dependent pumps. The model predicts changes in ion gradients and cell swelling during ischemia of various severity or channel blockage with realistic timescales...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881286/renal-adaptive-changes-and-sodium-handling-in-the-fetal-to-newborn-transition
#14
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789672/promoter-cpg-island-methylation-in-ion-transport-mechanisms-and-associated-dietary-intakes-jointly-influence-the-risk-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-cancer
#15
Ivette A G Deckers, Manon van Engeland, Piet A van den Brandt, Leander Van Neste, Patricia M M B Soetekouw, Maureen J B Aarts, Marcella M L L Baldewijns, András P Keszei, Leo J Schouten
BACKGROUND: Sodium intake, but not potassium or fluid intake, has been associated with higher renal cell cancer (RCC) risk. However, risk factors may differ by molecular subtypes of the tumour. In renal physiology, electrolyte and water homeostasis is facilitated by ion transport mechanisms (ITM). Aberrant regulation of ITM genes, for example by promoter CpG island methylation, may modify associations between sodium, potassium and fluid intake and RCC risk. METHODS: We identified ARHGDIG, ATP1A1, SCNN1B and SLC8A3 as ITM genes exhibiting RCC-specific promoter methylation and down-regulation...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784925/evaluation-of-various-soaking-agents-as-a-novel-tool-for-pesticide-residues-mitigation-from-cauliflower-brassica-oleracea-var-botrytis
#16
Abdullah, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Ali Asghar, Imran Pasha, Rabia Usman, Muhammad Shamoon, Muhammad Arslan Bhatti, Muhammad Asim Irshad, Naveed Ahmad
The increasing use of pesticides for boosting the yield of agricultural crops also impart toxic residues which ultimately extend to numerous physiological disorders upon consumption. The present study was designed as an effort to assess the reduction potential of various chemical solutions and to minimize the pesticide residues in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). The samples were soaked in various solutions along with tap water to mitigate pesticide residues. Afterwards, the extracted supernatant was passed through column containing anhydrous sodium sulfate trailed by activated carbon for clean-up...
August 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769016/the-efficient-physiological-strategy-of-a-tomato-landrace-in-response-to-short-term-salinity-stress
#17
Tommaso Michele Moles, Antonio Pompeiano, Thais Huarancca Reyes, Andrea Scartazza, Lorenzo Guglielminetti
Landraces represent an important part of the biodiversity well-adapted under limiting environmental conditions. We investigated the response of two Southern Italy tomato landraces, the well-known San Marzano (our commercial standard) and a local accession called "Ciettaicale", to different levels of sodium chloride in water irrigation (from 0 up to 600 mM) for a short-time exposure (one week). The combination of the chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange analyses suggested that Ciettaicale maintained a higher efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and CO2 utilization at high salinity concentrations than San Marzano...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757236/salinity-tolerances-of-two-australian-freshwater-turtles-chelodina-expansa-and-emydura-macquarii-testudinata-chelidae
#18
Deborah S Bower, David M Scheltinga, Simon Clulow, John Clulow, Craig E Franklin, Arthur Georges
Freshwater biota experience physiological challenges in regions affected by salinization, but often the effects on particular species are poorly understood. Freshwater turtles are of particular concern as they appear to have limited ability to cope with environmental conditions that are hyperosmotic to their body fluids. Here, we determined the physiological responses of two Australian freshwater chelid turtles, Emydura macquarii and Chelodina expansa, exposed to freshwater (0‰) and brackish water (15‰, representing a hyperosmotic environment)...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#19
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#20
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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