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Physiology water and sodium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767557/polycystin-1-dysfunction-impairs-electrolyte-and-water-handling-in-a-renal-pre-cystic-mouse-model-for-adpkd
#1
Eric H J Verschuren, Sami G Mohammed, Wouter N Leonhard, Caro Overmars-Bos, Kimberly A M Veraar, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Dorien J M Peters, Francisco J Arjona
The PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), a mechanosensor triggering intracellular responses upon urinary flow sensing in kidney tubular cells. Mutations in PKD1 lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The involvement of PC1 in renal electrolyte handling remains unknown since renal electrolyte physiology in ADPKD patients has only been characterized in cystic ADPKD. We thus studied the renal electrolyte handling in inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout (iKsp-Pkd1-/-) mice manifesting a pre-cystic phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763836/salicylic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-alleviate-high-temperature-induced-oxidative-damage-in-lablab-purpureus-l-plants-by-regulating-bio-physical-processes-and-dna-methylation
#2
Krishna Kumar Rai, Nagendra Rai, Shashi Pandey Rai
Salicylic acid (SA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) modulates plant growth and development processes and recent findings have also revealed their involvement in the regulation of epigenetic factors under stress condition. In the present study, some of these factors were comparatively studied in hyacinth bean plants subjected to high temperature (HT) environment (40-42 °C) with and without exogenous application of SA and SNP under field condition. Exogenous application of SA and SNP substantially modulated the growth and biophysical process of hyacinth bean plants under HT environment...
April 26, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758100/diagnostic-approach-to-low-renin-hypertension
#3
Silvia Monticone, Isabel Losano, Martina Tetti, Fabrizio Buffolo, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a crucial role in maintaining water and electrolytes homeostasis and its deregulation contributes to the development of arterial hypertension. Since the historical description of the "classical" RAAS, a dramatic increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of both essential and secondary hypertension has occurred. Approximatively 25% of the patients affected by arterial hypertension display low renin levels, a definition that is largely arbitrary and depends on the investigated population and the specific characteristics of the assay...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739983/acute-physiology-and-neurologic-outcomes-after-brain-injury-in-scop-phlpp1-ko-mice
#4
Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Vincent Vagni, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) (a.k.a. PHLPP1) regulates long-term memory consolidation in the brain. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) we tested if (1) brain tissue levels of SCOP/PHLPP1 increase after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) if SCOP/PHLPP1 gene knockout (KO) mice have improved (or worse) neurologic outcomes. Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2 , pO2 , pSO2 , base excess, sodium bicarbonate, and osmolarity) and arterial pressure (MAP) differed in isoflurane anesthetized WT vs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718058/a-three-dimensional-transient-mixed-hybrid-finite-element-model-for-superabsorbent-polymers-with-strain-dependent-permeability
#5
Cong Yu, Kamyar Malakpoor, Jacques M Huyghe
A hydrogel is a cross-linked polymer network with water as solvent. Industrially widely used superabsorbent polymers (SAP) are partially neutralized sodium polyacrylate hydrogels. The extremely large degree of swelling is one of the most distinctive characteristics of such hydrogels, as the volume increase can be about 30 times its original volume when exposed to physiological solution. The large deformation resulting from the swelling demands careful numerical treatment. In this work, we present a biphasic continuum-level swelling model using the mixed hybrid finite element method (MHFEM) in three dimensions...
May 2, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700220/intensive-care-management-of-severe-hypernatraemia-in-the-context-of-group-a-streptococcal-septicaemia
#6
Bethan Davies, Robert Jesty, Shahana Uddin, Victoria Metaxa
This case describes a 54-year-old woman with exudative eczema, who was admitted to the intensive care unit with a serum sodium concentration of 191 mmol/L, secondary to profound dehydration in the context of group A streptococcal septicaemia. Successful rehydration and electrolyte normalisation was achieved with continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), the replacement fluid of which was infused with hypertonic saline to limit the rate of sodium reduction. This case report comments on three areas of interest...
April 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682811/upregulation-of-hypothalamic-arginine-vasopressin-by-peripherally-administered-furosemide-in-transgenic-rats-expressing-arginine-vasopressin-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein
#7
Hiromichi Ueno, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Kentaro Tanaka, Haruki Nishimura, Kazuaki Nishimura, Satomi Sonoda, Yasuhito Motojima, Reiko Saito, Takashi Maruyama, Tetsu Miyamoto, Ryota Serino, Masahito Tamura, Tatsushi Onaka, Yutaka Otsuji, Yoichi Ueta
Furosemide, which is used worldwide as a diuretic agent, inhibits sodium reabsorption in the Henle's loop, resulting in diuresis and natriuresis. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The synthesis AVP in the magnocellular neurons of SON and PVN physiologically regulated by plasma osmolality and blood volume and contributed water homeostasis by increasing water reabsorption in the collecting duct...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656252/assessing-the-effect-of-industrial-wastewater-on-soil-properties-and-physiological-and-nutritional-responses-of-robinia-pseudoacacia-cercis-siliquastrum-and-caesalpinia-gilliesii-seedlings
#8
Maryam Saffari Aman, Mohammad Jafari, Majid Karimpour Reihan, Babak Motesharezadeh, Salman Zare
The main aim of this study is to investigate the physical and chemical properties, including soil salinity, acidity, concentrations of macro-nutrients (phosphorus, potassium, and Calcium-Magnesium) and sodium adsorption ratio to the soil, physiological and nutritional traits of three plant species including Caesalpinia gilliesii, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Cercis siliquastrum. First, some sample were taken from the agricultural soils irrigated with wastewater. The results of initial soil test revealed that the irrigation with wastewater significantly increased sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity (ECe), cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil (p < 0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616395/expression-of-tagf14b-a-14-3-3-adaptor-protein-gene-from-wheat-enhances-drought-and-salt-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco
#9
Yang Zhang, Hongyan Zhao, Shiyi Zhou, Yuan He, Qingchen Luo, Fan Zhang, Ding Qiu, Jialu Feng, Qiuhui Wei, Lihong Chen, Mingjie Chen, Junli Chang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
TaGF14b enhances tolerance to multiple stresses through ABA signaling pathway by altering physiological and biochemical processes, including ROS-scavenging system, stomatal closure, compatible osmolytes, and stress-related gene expressions in tobaccos. The 14-3-3 proteins are involved in plant growth, development, and in responding to abiotic stresses. However, the precise functions of 14-3-3s in responding to drought and salt stresses remained unclear, especially in wheat. In this study, a 14-3-3 gene from wheat, designated TaGF14b, was cloned and characterized...
April 3, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614824/oligo-alginate-with-low-molecular-mass-improves-growth-and-physiological-activity-of-eucomis-autumnalis-under-salinity-stress
#10
Piotr Salachna, Monika Grzeszczuk, Edward Meller, Marcin Soból
Biopolymers have become increasingly popular as biostimulators of plant growth. One of them, oligo-alginate, is a molecule that regulates plant biological processes and may be used in horticultural practice as a plant growth regulator. Biostimulators are mainly used to improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of salinity and oligo-alginate of various molecular masses on the growth and physiological activity of Eucomis autumnalis . The species is an ornamental and medicinal plant that has been used for a long time in the traditional medicine of South Africa...
April 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602756/tolvaptan-for-heart-failure-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan Sen, Erin Chung, Darryl McGill
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is frequently associated with renal impairment. Tolvaptan is reported to be effective in treating congestion in HF without significant electrolyte loss compared to conventional diuretics. However, the safety and efficacy of its use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety outcomes of tolvaptan for HF management in patients with CKD, with a focus at a physiologic basis related to safety...
February 13, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582401/trpv4-a-sensor-for-homeostasis-and-pathological-events-in-the-cns
#12
REVIEW
Hemant Kumar, Soo-Hong Lee, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Xiang Zeng, Inbo Han
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) was originally described as a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel. TRPV4 is now recognized as a polymodal ionotropic receptor: it is a broadly expressed, nonselective cation channel (permeable to calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium) that plays an important role in a multitude of physiological processes. TRPV4 is involved in maintaining homeostasis, serves as an osmosensor and thermosensor, can be activated directly by endogenous or exogenous chemical stimuli, and can be activated or sensitized indirectly via intracellular signaling pathways...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556787/dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-vasopressinergic-system-interactions-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Ewa Szczepanska-Sadowska, Katarzyna Czarzasta, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In many instances, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the vasopressinergic system (VPS) are jointly activated by the same stimuli and engaged in the regulation of the same processes. RECENT FINDINGS: Angiotensin II (Ang II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), which are the main active compounds of the RAS and the VPS, interact at several levels. Firstly, Ang II, acting on AT1 receptors (AT1R), plays a significant role in the release of AVP from vasopressinergic neurons and AVP, stimulating V1a receptors (V1aR), regulates the release of renin in the kidney...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525441/exogenous-nitric-oxide-pretreatment-protects-brassica-napus-l-seedlings-from-paraquat-toxicity-through-the-modulation-of-antioxidant-defense-and-glyoxalase-systems
#14
Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Kamrun Nahar, Md Mahabub Alam, M H M Borhannuddin Bhuyan, Hirosuke Oku, Masayuki Fujita
To investigate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-induced paraquat (PQ) tolerance in plants, we pretreated a set of 10-day-old Brassica napus seedlings with 500 μM sodium nitroprusside (SNP - a NO donor) for 24 h. Then, three doses of PQ (62.5, 125 and 250 μM) were applied separately, as well as to SNP-pretreated seedlings, and the seedlings were allowed to grow for an additional 48 h. The seedlings treated with PQ showed clear, dose-dependent signs of oxidative stress, with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, malondialdehyde), H2 O2 and O2 - generation, and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#15
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494985/functional-analysis-of-overexpressed-ptdrs1-involved-in-abiotic-stresses-enhances-growth-in-transgenic-poplar
#16
Kourosh Mohammadi, Ali Movahedi, Samaneh Sadat Maleki, Weibo Sun, Jiaxin Zhang, Amir Almasi Zadeh Yaghuti, Saeed Nourmohammadi, Qiang Zhuge
Drought and salinity are two main abiotic stressors that can disrupt plant growth and survival. Various biotechnological approaches have been used to alleviate the problem of drought stress by improving water stress resistance in forestry and agriculture. The drought sensitive 1 (DRS1) gene acts as a regulator of drought stress, identified in human, yeast and some model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but there have been no reports of DRS1 transformation in poplar plants to date. In this study, we transformed the DRS1 gene from Populus trichocarpa into Populus deltoides × Populus euramericana 'Nanlin895' using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489838/susceptibility-and-tolerance-of-rice-crop-to-salt-threat-physiological-and-metabolic-inspections
#17
Nyuk Ling Ma, Wan Afifudeen Che Lah, Nisrin Abd Kadir, Mohamad Mustaqim, Zaidah Rahmat, Aziz Ahmad, Su Datt Lam, Mohd Razi Ismail
Salinity threat is estimated to reduce global rice production by 50%. Comprehensive analysis of the physiological and metabolite changes in rice plants from salinity stress (i.e. tolerant versus susceptible plants) is important to combat higher salinity conditions. In this study, we screened a total of 92 genotypes and selected the most salinity tolerant line (SS1-14) and most susceptible line (SS2-18) to conduct comparative physiological and metabolome inspections. We demonstrated that the tolerant line managed to maintain their water and chlorophyll content with lower incidence of sodium ion accumulation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479433/blood-analytes-of-oceanic-juvenile-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-azorean-waters-reference-intervals-size-relevant-correlations-and-comparisons-to-neritic-loggerheads-from-western-atlantic-coastal-waters
#18
Nicole I Stacy, Karen A Bjorndal, Justin R Perrault, Helen R Martins, Alan B Bolten
Blood analyte reference intervals are scarce for immature life stages of the loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ). The objectives of this study were to (1) document reference intervals of packed cell volume (PCV) and 20 plasma chemistry analytes from wild oceanic-juvenile stage loggerhead turtles from Azorean waters, (2) investigate correlations with body size (minimum straight carapace length: SCLmin ) and (3) compare plasma chemistry data to those from older, larger neritic juveniles (<80 cm SCLmin ) and adult loggerheads (≥80 cm SCLmin ) that have recruited to the West Atlantic in waters around Cape Canaveral, Florida...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432741/dietary-nitrate-protects-submandibular-gland-from-hyposalivation-in-ovariectomized-rats-via-suppressing-cell-apoptosis
#19
Yipu Xu, Baoxing Pang, Liang Hu, Xiaoyu Feng, Lei Hu, Jingsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Songlin Wang
Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia...
February 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430681/effects-of-p-o-administered-xylitol-in-cats
#20
Á Jerzsele, Z Karancsi, E Pászti-Gere, Á Sterczer, A Bersényi, K Fodor, D Szabó, P Vajdovich
Xylitol is commonly used as sugar substitute in households. While it has numerous beneficial effects on human health, it is highly toxic to dogs. The goal of this study was to examine whether xylitol has similar deleterious effects, such as hypoglycaemia and acute hepatic failure, on cats. Our research included six healthy middle-aged cats. Xylitol was dissolved in deionized water and administered p.o. at three doses (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight). These dosages have been considered toxic and can cause liver failure or even death in dogs...
June 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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