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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865546/french-consensus-management-of-patients-with-hypersomnia-which-strategy
#1
R Lopez, I Arnulf, X Drouot, M Lecendreux, Y Dauvilliers
Central hypersomnias principally involves type 1 narcolepsy (NT1), type 2 narcolepsy (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH). Despite great progress made in understanding the physiopathology of NT1 with low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels, current treatment remains symptomatic. The same applies to NT2 and IH, for which the physiopathology is still largely unknown. Controlling excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and disturbed night-time sleep are key therapeutic targets in NT1...
November 16, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765008/sglt2-inhibitors-in-diabetes-mellitus-treatment
#2
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533070/a-novel-pathophysiological-mechanism-contributing-to-trigeminal-neuralgia
#3
Giovanni Grasso, Alessandro Landi, Concetta Alafaci
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a form of neuropathic pain that affects the fifth cranial nerve, the most widely distributed nerve in the head. Although TN has been associated with a variety of pathological conditions, neurovascular compression on the trigeminal nerve, as it exits the brain stem, is the most frequent reported cause. This compression provides a progressive demyelination of the nerve and a subsequent aberrant neural transmission. Although several studies have clarified some physiopathological mechanisms underlying TN, the molecular basis remains vague...
August 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513198/is-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-involved-in-the-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-glucocorticoids-in-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Rosaliana Libro, Sabrina Giacoppo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
The Wnt canonical or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in the regulation of several physiopathological pathways such as inflammation. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are administered widely to treat inflammation in several diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Wnt canonical pathway is involved in experimental SCI and whether it is implicated in the anti-inflammatory activity of two different GCs: the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), considered the standard treatment for acute SCI, and mometasone furoate (MF), mainly administered for the treatment of airway and skin diseases...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479742/context-dependent-regulation-of-th17-associated-genes-and-ifn%C3%AE-expression-by-the-transcription-factor-nfat5
#5
Maria Alberdi, Marcos Iglesias, Sonia Tejedor, Ramón Merino, Cristina López-Rodríguez, Jose Aramburu
Stress-activated transcription factors influence T cell function in different physiopathologic contexts. NFAT5, a relative of NF-κB and the calcineurin-activated NFATc transcription factors, protects mammalian cells from hyperosmotic stress caused by the elevation of extracellular sodium levels. In T cells exposed to hypernatremia NFAT5 not only induces osmoprotective gene products, but also cytokines and immune receptors, which raises the question of whether this factor could regulate other T cell functions in osmostress-independent contexts...
August 1, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349210/dialysis-headache-a-narrative-review
#6
Eduardo Sousa Melo, Filipe Carrilho Aguiar, Pedro Augusto Sampaio Rocha-Filho
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease who need dialysis often have poor quality of life. Dialysis headache is a frequent complication of hemodialysis and is often a challenge for nephrologists, neurologists, and headache specialists. METHOD: This was a narrative review. RESULTS: The prevalence of dialysis headache varies between 27% and 73%. Among the characteristics of this headache are the pulsatile pattern, frontal location, moderate to severe intensity, and onset a few hours after the beginning of dialysis...
June 28, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27302387/pharmacokinetics-and-local-tolerance-of-cefovecin-sodium-after-intra-articular-administration-in-horses
#7
M Pérez-Nogués, T Encinas, J López-SanRoman
Searching for new therapeutic options against septic arthritis in horses, this research was focused on the study of the kinetics and local side effects after the intra-articular treatment of horses with cefovecin sodium. A single dose (240 mg) of the drug (Convenia(®) ) was administered into the radiocarpal joint of adult healthy horses (n = 6), and drug concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Local tolerance was also studied based on the modification of different joint physiopathological parameters (pH, cellular, and protein concentration in synovial fluid)...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196538/colonic-overexpression-of-the-t-type-calcium-channel-cav-3-2-in-a-mouse-model-of-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#8
J Scanzi, A Accarie, E Muller, B Pereira, Y Aissouni, M Goutte, J Joubert-Zakeyh, E Picard, L Boudieu, C Mallet, A Gelot, D Ardid, F A Carvalho, M Dapoigny
BACKGROUND: Among the different mechanisms involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) physiopathology, visceral hypersensitivity seems to play a key role. It involves sensitization of the colonic primary afferent fibers, especially through an overexpression of ion channels. The aims of this translational study were to investigate the colonic expression of Cav 3.2 calcium channels and their involvement in an animal model of colonic hypersensitivity, and to assess their expression in the colonic mucosa of symptomatic IBS patients...
May 15, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27039330/myoclonus-pathophysiology-and-treatment-options
#9
REVIEW
Ariel Levy, Robert Chen
Treatment of myoclonus requires an understanding of the physiopathology of the condition. The first step in treatment is to determine if there is an epileptic component to the myoclonus and treat accordingly. Secondly, a review of medications (e.g., opiates) and comorbidities (e.g., hepatic or renal failure) is required to establish the possibility of iatrogenic and reversible conditions. Once those are eliminated, delineation between cortical, cortico-subcortical, subcortical, brainstem, and spinal generators can determine the first-line treatment...
May 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26553121/hyponatremia-in-the-intensive-care-unit-how-to-avoid-a-zugzwang-situation
#10
Cédric Rafat, Martin Flamant, Stéphane Gaudry, Emmanuelle Vidal-Petiot, Jean-Damien Ricard, Didier Dreyfuss
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte derangement in the setting of the intensive care unit. Life-threatening neurological complications may arise not only in case of a severe (<120 mmol/L) and acute fall of plasma sodium levels, but may also stem from overly rapid correction of hyponatremia. Additionally, even mild hyponatremia carries a poor short-term and long-term prognosis across a wide range of conditions. Its multifaceted and intricate physiopathology may seem deterring at first glance, yet a careful multi-step diagnostic approach may easily unravel the underlying mechanisms and enable physicians to adopt the adequate measures at the patient's bedside...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26549152/-why-is-it-important-to-achieve-the-goals-of-treatment-of-hypertension%C3%A2-about-a-case-that-began-as-ischemic-stroke
#11
Julio César Sauza-Sosa, José Antonio Romero-Figueroa, Lilia Mercedes Sierra-Galán, Sergio Mario Ferez-Santander
Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is one of the most common conditions seen in primary care of cardiovascular disease and whose consequences; depending on the "target organ" affecting produce ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease or chronic kidney disease. In the pathogenesis of HAS are several physiopathological mechanisms involved; of which currently, to name the most important and frequent play a role in increasing adrenaline levels, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and recently, much the participation of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia mentioned...
April 2016: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26417991/synthetic-double-stranded-rna-poly-i-c-aggravates-iga-nephropathy-by-triggering-iga-class-switching-recombination-through-the-tlr3-baff-axis
#12
Liyu He, Xiaofei Peng, Jiayi Wang, Chengyuan Tang, Xun Zhou, Hong Liu, Fuyou Liu, Lin Sun, Youming Peng
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) is crucial for the expression of IgA, and it plays a vital role in the physiopathology of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) in modulating toll-like receptor (TLR) 3-B-cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) axis activation, which in turn promotes IgA CSR of IgAN patients and the IgAN rat model. METHODS: Blood samples and tonsillar tissue specimens were obtained from 24 patients with IgAN and 26 patients with chronic tonsillitis as control...
2015: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26402162/sodium-selenite-supplementation-does-not-fully-restore-oxidative-stress-induced-deiodinase-dysfunction-implications-for-the-nonthyroidal-illness-syndrome
#13
Simone Magagnin Wajner, Helena Cecin Rohenkohl, Tulio Serrano, Ana Luiza Maia
UNLABELLED: Nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is marked by low T3 and high reverse T3 levels. The physiopathology is poorly understood but involves oxidative stress-induced disruption of the iodothyronine deiodinases, which activate or inactivate thyroid hormones. Selenium, an essential trace element, exerts antioxidant function mainly through the thioredoxin reductase (TRx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) redox-regulating systems. We evaluated the effect of sodium selenite on IL6-induced disruption on deiodinase function...
December 2015: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26237602/physiopathological-epidemiological-clinical-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-exercise-associated-hyponatremia
#14
REVIEW
Caterina Urso, Salvatore Brucculeri, Gregorio Caimi
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (<6 hours) and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration), in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to non osmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures...
2014: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25806051/functional-proteomics-of-adenosine-triphosphatase-system-in-the-rat-striatum-during-aging
#15
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini
The maximum rates of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) systems related to energy consumption were systematically evaluated in synaptic plasma membranes isolated from the striata of male Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, because of their key role in presynaptic nerve ending homeostasis. The following enzyme activities were evaluated: sodium-potassium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+)-ATPase); ouabain-insensitive magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Mg(2+)-ATPase); sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase); direct magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Mg(2+)-ATPase); calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)-ATPase); and acetylcholinesterase...
January 5, 2012: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25540037/natural-history-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Katrin Busch, Robert Thimme
Hepatitis B virus infection represents a major global health problem. Currently, there are more than 240 million chronically infected people worldwide. The development of chronic hepatitis B virus-mediated liver disease may lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, the discovery of the viral entry receptor sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide has facilitated new approaches for a better understanding of viral physiopathology. Hopefully, these novel insights may give rise to the development of more effective antiviral therapy concepts during the next years...
February 2015: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25311718/-contributions-of-sglt-2-and-new-drugs-under-investigation
#17
J J Mediavilla Bravo
DeFronzo spoke of the "ominous octet", in which he referred to the existence of distinct pathways and organs related to the physiopathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). One of these key organs is the kidney, which plays an important role in regulating glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and through glomerular filtration and glucose reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules. Approximately 180 g of glucose are filtered to the renal tubule from the blood stream through the glomerulus. The filtrate is subsequently reabsorbed from the tubules to the peritubular capillaries through the action of sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLT)...
July 2014: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25024004/-role-of-renal-inflammation-in-the-physiopathology-of-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Yaniel Castro Torres, Alejandro Emilio Santos Portela, Ildiko María Garrido Bősze
Salt-sensitive hypertension is produced by a decrease in salt renal excretion after a salt overload. Over the last few years, a new theory has been developed to explain this condition based on renal tissue inflammation. This process begins with free radicals production in renal tissue due to oxidative metabolism. Then they favor a renal inflammation mechanism with T-lymphocytes infiltration and other immune cells. Essentially, T-lymphocytes determine an increase in angiotensin ii production which raises sodium and water retention...
July 2014: Archivos de Cardiología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25007996/a-century-old-renin-angiotensin-system-still-grows-with-endless-possibilities-at1-receptor-signaling-cascades-in-cardiovascular-physiopathology
#19
REVIEW
Pitchai Balakumar, Gowraganahalli Jagadeesh
Ang II, the primary effector pleiotropic hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade, mediates physiological control of blood pressure and electrolyte balance through its action on vascular tone, aldosterone secretion, renal sodium absorption, water intake, sympathetic activity and vasopressin release. It affects the function of most of the organs far beyond blood pressure control including heart, blood vessels, kidney and brain, thus, causing both beneficial and deleterious effects. However, the protective axis of the RAS composed of ACE2, Ang (1-7), alamandine, and Mas and MargD receptors might oppose some harmful effects of Ang II and might promote beneficial cardiovascular effects...
October 2014: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24976114/main-ion-channels-and-receptors-associated-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Heraldo Arcela de Carvalho Rocha, Bruna Priscilla Vasconcelos Dantas, Thaísa Leite Rolim, Bagnólia Araújo Costa, Arnaldo Correia de Medeiros
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a very frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort and alteration of bowel habits. The IBS physiopathology is extremely complex. Visceral hypersensitivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in both in vitro and in vivo models of this functional disorder. In order to obtain a general view of the participation of the main ion channels and receptors regarding the visceral hypersensitivity in the IBS and to describe their chemical structure, a literature review was carried out...
2014: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
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