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Plasma osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274244/intracellular-potassium-under-osmotic-stress-determines-the-dielectrophoresis-cross-over-frequency-of-murine-myeloma-cells-in-the-mhz-range
#1
Colin Chung, Ronald Pethig, Stewart Smith, Martin Waterfall
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely studied for its potential as a biomarker-free method of sorting and characterizing cells based upon their dielectric properties. Most studies have employed voltage signals from ∼1 kHz to no higher than ∼30 MHz. Within this range a transition from negative to positive DEP can be observed at the cross-over frequency fx01 . The value of fx01 is determined by the conductivity of the suspending medium, as well as the size and shape of the cell and the dielectric properties (capacitance, conductivity) of its plasma membrane...
December 23, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215563/response-of-ustilago-maydis-against-the-stress-caused-by-three-polycationic-chitin-derivatives
#2
Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Juan Pablo Pardo, Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez
Chitosan is a stressing molecule that affects the cells walls and plasma membrane of fungi. For chitosan derivatives, the action mode is not clear. In this work, we used the yeast Ustilago maydis to study the effects of these molecules on the plasma membrane, focusing on physiologic and stress responses to chitosan (CH), oligochitosan (OCH), and glycol-chitosan (GCH). Yeasts were cultured with each of these molecules at 1 mg·mL-1 in minimal medium. To compare plasma membrane damage, cells were cultivated in isosmolar medium...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212034/gadd34-function-in-protein-trafficking-promotes-adaptation-to-hyperosmotic-stress-in-human-corneal-cells
#3
Dawid Krokowski, Bo-Jhih Guan, Jing Wu, Yuke Zheng, Padmanabhan P Pattabiraman, Raul Jobava, Xing-Huang Gao, Xiao-Jing Di, Martin D Snider, Ting-Wei Mu, Shijie Liu, Brian Storrie, Eric Pearlman, Anna Blumental-Perry, Maria Hatzoglou
GADD34, a stress-induced regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1, is known to function in hyperosmotic stress through its well-known role in the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway. Adaptation to hyperosmotic stress is important for the health of corneal epithelial cells exposed to changes in extracellular osmolarity, with maladaptation leading to dry eye syndrome. This adaptation includes induction of SNAT2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi-processed protein, which helps to reverse the stress-induced loss of cell volume and promote homeostasis through amino acid uptake...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211994/membrane-tension-inhibits-rapid-and-slow-endocytosis-in-secretory-cells
#4
Xin-Sheng Wu, Sharon Elias, Huisheng Liu, Johanna Heureaux, Peter J Wen, Allen P Liu, Michael M Kozlov, Ling-Gang Wu
Endocytosis generates spherical or ellipsoid-like vesicles from the plasma membrane, which recycles vesicles that fuse with the plasma member during exocytosis in neurons and endocrine secretory cells. Although tension in the plasma membrane is generally considered to be an important factor in regulating endocytosis, whether membrane tension inhibits or facilitates endocytosis remains debated in the endocytosis field, and has been rarely studied for vesicular endocytosis in secretory cells. Here we report that increasing membrane tension by adjusting osmolarity inhibited both the rapid (a few seconds) and slow (tens of seconds) endocytosis in calyx-type nerve terminals containing conventional active zones and in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165723/the-impact-of-hyperosmolarity-on-long-term-outcome-in-patients-presenting-with-severe-hyperglycemic-crisis-a-population-based-study
#5
Ivan Kruljac, Miroslav Ćaćić, Petra Ćaćić, Lora Stanka Kirigin Biloš, Davor Kust, Božidar Perić, Maja Filipović-Grčić, Gorana Mirošević, Vedran Ostojić, Mario Štefanović, Milan Vrkljan
Aims We compared characteristics of patients with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and patients with severe hyperglycemia without the signs of hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis; analyzed long-term all-cause mortality and potential prognostic factors. Methods The studied population included 261 749 adults. HHS was diagnosed in patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+, and serum osmolarity >320 mmol/L. Patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+ and serum osmolarity <320 mmol/L were considered as controls (nHHS)...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126968/jnk-signaling-pathway-regulates-sorbitol-induced-tau-proteolysis-and-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-cells-by-targeting-caspase-3
#6
Marta Olivera Santa-Catalina, Montaña Caballero Bermejo, Ricardo Argent, Juan C Alonso, Francisco Centeno, María J Lorenzo
Growing evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It is well known that hyperglycemia, a key feature of Diabetes Mellitus, may induce plasma osmolarity disturbances. Both hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity promote the altered post-translational regulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau. Interestingly, abnormal hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of Tau have been proven to lead to the genesis of filamentous structures referred to as neurofibrillary tangles, the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958415/estimating-basal-tear-osmolarity-in-normal-and-dry-eye-subjects
#7
Catherine Willshire, Roger J Buckley, Anthony J Bron
PURPOSE: Tear osmolarity (tOsm) is used as a measure of severity in dry eye disease (DED) and has been proposed as an index of body hydration. In DED the level of tear hyperosmolarity is compared with that of a control population. It is proposed here that a better index of body hydration and a more valid reference point in DED can be acquired by measuring the tOsm after a period of evaporative suppression. METHOD: 8 normal and DED subjects were recruited, their tOsm measured in uncontrolled environmental 'clinic conditions'...
September 22, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928059/garlic-extract-increases-non-clipped-kidney-tubular-natriuresis-and-diuresis-in-the-2-kidney-1-clip-rat-model-significance-in-hypertension
#8
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
September 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#9
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
October 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853743/evaluation-and-review-of-body-fluids-saliva-sweat-and-tear-compared-to-biochemical-hydration-assessment-markers-within-blood-and-urine
#10
REVIEW
M Villiger, R Stoop, T Vetsch, E Hohenauer, M Pini, P Clarys, F Pereira, R Clijsen
Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812943/tear-osmolarity-is-sensitive-to-exercise-induced-fluid-loss-but-is-not-associated-with-common-hydration-measures-in-a-field-setting
#11
Justin J Holland, Michelle Ray, Christopher Irwin, Tina L Skinner, Michael Leveritt, Ben Desbrow
This investigation (i) examined changes in tear osmolarity in response to fluid loss that occurs with exercise in a field setting, and (ii) compared tear osmolarity with common field and laboratory hydration measures.  Sixty-three participants [age 27.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass 72.15 ± 10.61 kg] completed a self-paced 10 km run outside on a predetermined course. Body mass, tear fluid, venous blood and urine samples were collected immediately before and after exercise.  Significant (p < 0.001) reductions in body mass (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809443/characterisation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-valproic-acid-loaded-nanoemulsion-for-improved-brain-bioavailability
#12
Suk Fei Tan, Brian P Kirby, Johnson Stanslas, Hamidon Bin Basri
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to investigate the potential of formulated valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsion (VANE) to improve the brain bioavailability of valproic acid (VPA). METHODS: Valproic acid-encapsulated nanoemulsions were formulated and physically characterised (osmolarity, viscosity, drug content, drug encapsulation efficiency). Further investigations were also conducted to estimate the drug release, cytotoxic profile, in-vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, pharmacokinetic parameter and the concentration of VPA and VANE in blood and brain...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614813/polycystic-kidney-disease-and-the-vasopressin-pathway
#13
Maatje D A van Gastel, Vicente E Torres
Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and in experimental studies vasopressin has been shown to directly regulate cyst growth. Blocking vasopressin effects on the kidney via the vasopressin V2-receptor and lower circulating vasopressin concentration are potential treatment opportunities that have been the subject of study in PKD in recent years...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580363/targeted-metabolomics-in-colorectal-cancer-a-strategic-approach-using-standardized-laboratory-tests-of-the-blood-and-urine
#14
Katarzyna J Jerzak, Marissa Laureano, Radwa Elsharawi, Peter Kavsak, Kelvin Kw Chan, Sukhbinder K Dhesy-Thind, Kevin Zbuk
BACKGROUND: Glycolytic markers have been detected in colorectal cancer (CRC) using advanced analytical methods. METHODS: Using commercially available assays, by-products of anaerobic metabolism were prospectively measured in the blood and urine of 20 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and 20 patients with local disease. Twenty-four-hour urine citrate, plasma lactate, ketones, venous blood gas, anion gap, and osmolar gap were investigated. Results of patients with metastatic and local CRC were compared using two-sample t-tests or equivalent nonparametric tests...
2017: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452574/water-transport-through-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-under-different-osmotic-conditions-is-dependent-on-li-cadherin-trans-interaction
#15
Agnes Weth, Carsten Dippl, Yasmin Striedner, Irene Tiemann-Boege, Yana Vereshchaga, Nikola Golenhofen, Britta Bartelt-Kirbach, Werner Baumgartner
In the intestine water has to be reabsorbed from the chymus across the intestinal epithelium. The osmolarity within the lumen is subjected to high variations meaning that water transport often has to take place against osmotic gradients. It has been hypothesized that LI-cadherin is important in this process by keeping the intercellular cleft narrow facilitating the buildup of an osmotic gradient allowing water reabsorption. LI-cadherin is exceptional among the cadherin superfamily with respect to its localization along the lateral plasma membrane of epithelial cells being excluded from adherens junction...
April 3, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430937/high-sugar-but-not-high-fat-food-activates-supraoptic-nucleus-neurons-in-the-male-rat
#16
Catherine Hume, Nancy Sabatier, John Menzies
Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signaling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurons in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology. Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurons expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anesthetized rats with SCM...
July 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395333/ovine-uterine-space-restriction-causes-dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-fetal-kidneys%C3%A2
#17
Rachel A Kranch-Shorthouse, Adam S Bauer, Ronald R Magness, Gladys E Lopez, Jeffrey L Segar, Sharon E Blohowiak, Pamela J Kling
In ovine pregnancy, uterine space restriction (USR) resulting from decreased space for placental attachment caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired nephrogenesis. The fetal kidney renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in nephrogenesis, fluid balance, and iron deposition. Angiotensin II exerts its effects via multiple receptors: angiotensin II 1-8 receptor type 1 (AT 1 R) and type 2 (AT 2 R), and angiotensin II 1-7 Mas receptor (MASR). Objective: : To test the hypothesis that ovine USR is associated with dysregulation of the fetal renal RAS...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#18
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332474/brain-swelling-during-dialysis-a-randomized-trial-comparing-low-flux-hemodialysis-with-pre-dilution-hemodiafiltration%C3%A2
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Niels Johansen, Krista Dybtved Kjaergaard, Christian Daugaard Peters, Michael Pedersen, Bente Jespersen, Jens Dam Jensen
Osmotic changes in plasma are assumed to cause cerebral swelling in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the acute effect of low-flux hemodialysis (HD) (removal of small molecules) and pre-dilution hemodiafiltration (pre-HDF) (additional removal of larger molecules) on cerebral compartment volumes using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic uremic patients. Twelve patients underwent a session of HD and pre-HDF in a randomized crossover study with equal ultrafiltration. MRI was performed immediately before and after dialysis...
May 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255838/the-correlation-between-plasma-osmolarity-and-tear-osmolarity
#20
Maika Kobayashi, Tsutomu Igarashi, Hisatomo Takahashi, Chiaki Fujimoto, Hisaharu Suzuki, Hiroshi Takahashi
PURPOSE: To the correlation between plasma osmolarity (Posm) and tear osmolarity (Tosm) in patients (54 patients, 88 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery was evaluated. METHODS: Before cataract surgery, routine pre-operative biochemical tests were performed, and Posm was determined from blood samples. Also, Tosm was measured using the TearLab system, and objective signs including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining, and Schirmer's test were evaluated...
March 2, 2017: International Ophthalmology
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