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Plasma osmolarity

Adelaide S M Dennis, Adele M Lehane, Melanie C Ridgway, John P Holleran, Kiaran Kirk
For an increasing number of antimalarial agents identified in high throughput phenotypic screens there is evidence that they target PfATP4, a putative Na+ efflux transporter on the plasma membrane of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum For several such 'PfATP4-associated' compounds it has been noted that their addition to parasitised erythrocytes results in cell swelling. Here we show that six structurally diverse PfATP4-associated compounds, including the clinical candidate KAE609 (cipargamin), induce swelling both of isolated blood-stage parasites and of intact parasitised erythrocytes...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
C Willshire, A J Bron, E A Gaffney, E Ian Pearce
The osmolarities of various bodily fluids, including tears, saliva and urine, have been used as indices of plasma osmolality, a measure of body hydration, while tear osmolarity is used routinely in dry eye diagnosis, the degree of tear hyperosmolarity providing an index of disease severity. Systemic dehydration, due to inadequate water intake or excessive water loss is common in the elderly population, has a high morbidity and may cause loss of life. Its diagnosis is often overlooked and there is a need to develop a simple, bedside test to detect dehydration in this population...
February 21, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Nastaran Sabetkish, Shabnam Sabetkish
BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for patients suffering with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has several disadvantages, highlighting the importance of other reproducible modalities such as colonic dialysis (CD). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to establish a CD model in uremic rats and evaluate the effect of two different peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. After right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy, a Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) stoma was created...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Shin Han Song, Gyeong Ah Sim, Seon Ha Baek, Jang Won Seo, Jung Weon Shim, Ja Ryong Koo
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hypo-osmotic hyponatremia. There are several etiologies of SIADH including neuroendocrine tumor, pulmonary disease, infection, trauma, and medications. Here, we report a case of SIADH associated with a schwannoma involving the mediastinum in a 75-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Laboratory testing showed hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 102mmol/L, serum osmolality of 221mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 382mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 55 mmol/L, and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of 4...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
Joseph Sugie, Marcos Intaglietta, Lanping Amy Sung
Erythrocytes have long been known to change volumes and shapes in response to different salt concentrations. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was discovered in their membranes more than 20 years ago. The physiological roles of volume changes and AQP1 expression, however, have remained unclear. We propose that rapid water exchange through AQP1 coupled with large capacity for volume change may allow erythrocytes to play an important role in water regulation. In this study, we showed that erythrocytes in situ gradually reduced their volumes by 39% in response to the hyperosmotic corticomedullary gradient within mouse kidneys...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ashley Jahn, Charlie Bodreau, Kate Farthing, Fawzy Elbarbry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While some case reports indicate that high doses of propylene glycol (PG) may result in metabolic acidosis, there has been no large-scale study that evaluated the risk of metabolic acidosis in patients receiving PG-containing benzodiazepines for acute alcohol withdrawal. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential toxicity of PG in patients with acute alcohol withdrawal treated with intermittent intravenous bolus doses of diazepam and/or lorazepam. METHODS: This is a retrospective case study using data collected from 18 randomly selected patients receiving one or both of these medications per a modified Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA) Class 3 protocol...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Eilon Krashin, Martin Ellis, Keren Cohen, Maya Viner, Eran Neumark, Gloria Rashid, Osnat Ashur-Fabian
Bone marrow interstitial fluid (BMIF) has not been well characterized. BMIF was isolated from 60 patients including plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD, n = 33), other primary hematologic disorders (OHD, n = 15), and patients with secondary or nonhemtologic disorders (NHD, n = 12) and analyzed for an array of chemical constituents. These included total cholesterol, glucose, phosphate, creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, osmolarity, free triiodothyronine (free T3), total triiodothyronine (total T3), and free tetraiodothyronine (free T4)...
January 30, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Juana Carretero-Gómez, Jose Carlos Arévalo Lorido, Ricardo Gómez Huelgas, Begoña De Escalante Yangüela, Borja Gracia Tello, Luis Pérez Belmonte, Javier Ena Muñoz
Recent evidence suggests that obese people are hypohydrated and that water consumption may be a useful indicator for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Nevertheless, there is no agreement regarding the best hydration status indicators and there are few data about the relationship between hydration and body weight. In the present study, we aim to analyze the correlation among hydration status with obesity measured by three different methods (plasma osmolarity, urinary specific gravity (USG) and urinary osmolarity) in a hospital-based outpatient population...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Maguelonne Roux, Claire Perret, Eva Feigerlova, Badreddine Mohand Oumoussa, Pierre-Jean Saulnier, Carole Proust, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Samy Hadjadj
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs participating in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Their key role in modulating the susceptibility to human diseases is now widely recognized, in particular in the context of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify miRNAs associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: A next-generation sequencing-based miRNA profiling was performed in a case-control study for DN in plasma samples of 23 T2D patients with DN (cases) and 23 T2D without (controls)...
January 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Saeed Hajihashemi, Tahereh Jafarian, Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Ali Rahbari, Fatemeh Ghanbari
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Z.multiflora (ZM) hydroalcoholic extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats categorized into four groups: 1) the control group without injection, 2) the gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg, i.p) 3) the gentamicin and Z. Multiflora treated group; Z. Multiflora extract(0...
January 16, 2018: Drug Research
Anirudh Chandrashekar, Gurtej Singh, Jonah Garry, Nicholas Sikalas, Nicos Labropoulos
BACKGROUND: The physical properties of a venous thrombus are derived from molecular characteristics, including fibrin polymer diameter, density, branching, and cross-linking. Dense thrombi with thin, highly branched fibrin fibres and small pores in the meshwork have been observed to be more rigid, less permeable, and more resistant to lysis. The three dimensional fibrin meshwork acts as the main structure to entrap and capture erythrocytes, platelets and plasma components. Attached factors become integrated into the developing thrombus, co-localise with fibrin deposition and act in either a pro- or anticoagulant capacity...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Colin Chung, Ronald Pethig, Stewart Smith, Martin Waterfall
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely studied for its potential as a biomarker-free method of sorting and characterizing cells based upon their dielectric properties. Most studies have employed voltage signals from ∼1 kHz to no higher than ∼30 MHz. Within this range a transition from negative to positive DEP can be observed at the cross-over frequency fx01 . The value of fx01 is determined by the conductivity of the suspending medium, as well as the size and shape of the cell and the dielectric properties (capacitance, conductivity) of its plasma membrane...
December 23, 2017: Electrophoresis
Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Juan Pablo Pardo, Guadalupe Guerra-Sánchez
Chitosan is a stressing molecule that affects the cells walls and plasma membrane of fungi. For chitosan derivatives, the action mode is not clear. In this work, we used the yeast Ustilago maydis to study the effects of these molecules on the plasma membrane, focusing on physiologic and stress responses to chitosan (CH), oligochitosan (OCH), and glycol-chitosan (GCH). Yeasts were cultured with each of these molecules at 1 mg·mL-1 in minimal medium. To compare plasma membrane damage, cells were cultivated in isosmolar medium...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Dawid Krokowski, Bo-Jhih Guan, Jing Wu, Yuke Zheng, Padmanabhan P Pattabiraman, Raul Jobava, Xing-Huang Gao, Xiao-Jing Di, Martin D Snider, Ting-Wei Mu, Shijie Liu, Brian Storrie, Eric Pearlman, Anna Blumental-Perry, Maria Hatzoglou
GADD34, a stress-induced regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1, is known to function in hyperosmotic stress through its well-known role in the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway. Adaptation to hyperosmotic stress is important for the health of corneal epithelial cells exposed to changes in extracellular osmolarity, with maladaptation leading to dry eye syndrome. This adaptation includes induction of SNAT2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi-processed protein, which helps to reverse the stress-induced loss of cell volume and promote homeostasis through amino acid uptake...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
Xin-Sheng Wu, Sharon Elias, Huisheng Liu, Johanna Heureaux, Peter J Wen, Allen P Liu, Michael M Kozlov, Ling-Gang Wu
Endocytosis generates spherical or ellipsoid-like vesicles from the plasma membrane, which recycles vesicles that fuse with the plasma member during exocytosis in neurons and endocrine secretory cells. Although tension in the plasma membrane is generally considered to be an important factor in regulating endocytosis, whether membrane tension inhibits or facilitates endocytosis remains debated in the endocytosis field, and has been rarely studied for vesicular endocytosis in secretory cells. Here we report that increasing membrane tension by adjusting osmolarity inhibited both the rapid (a few seconds) and slow (tens of seconds) endocytosis in calyx-type nerve terminals containing conventional active zones and in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Ivan Kruljac, Miroslav Ćaćić, Petra Ćaćić, Lora Stanka Kirigin Biloš, Davor Kust, Božidar Perić, Maja Filipović-Grčić, Gorana Mirošević, Vedran Ostojić, Mario Štefanović, Milan Vrkljan
Aims We compared characteristics of patients with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and patients with severe hyperglycemia without the signs of hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis; analyzed long-term all-cause mortality and potential prognostic factors. Methods The studied population included 261 749 adults. HHS was diagnosed in patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+, and serum osmolarity >320 mmol/L. Patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+ and serum osmolarity <320 mmol/L were considered as controls (nHHS)...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Marta Olivera Santa-Catalina, Montaña Caballero Bermejo, Ricardo Argent, Juan C Alonso, Francisco Centeno, María J Lorenzo
Growing evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It is well known that hyperglycemia, a key feature of Diabetes Mellitus, may induce plasma osmolarity disturbances. Both hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity promote the altered post-translational regulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau. Interestingly, abnormal hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of Tau have been proven to lead to the genesis of filamentous structures referred to as neurofibrillary tangles, the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease...
December 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Catherine Willshire, Roger J Buckley, Anthony J Bron
PURPOSE: Tear osmolarity (tOsm) is used as a measure of severity in dry eye disease (DED) and has been proposed as an index of body hydration. In DED the level of tear hyperosmolarity is compared with that of a control population. It is proposed here that a better index of body hydration and a more valid reference point in DED can be acquired by measuring the tOsm after a period of evaporative suppression. METHOD: 8 normal and DED subjects were recruited, their tOsm measured in uncontrolled environmental 'clinic conditions'...
September 22, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Khaled K Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Muslim Ali
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII) is a potent modulator of vascular tone and renal clearance function. Raw garlic aqueous extract (RGAE) inhibits angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) dipeptidase activity and therefore AngII generation in the 2-kidney, 1-clip rat model (2K-1Cr). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of RGAE on the non-clipped kidney clearance function and blood pressure (BP) in the 2 K-1Cr. METHOD: 2K-1Cr were anesthetized, cannulated and instrumentalized and the acute effect during the first hour post-administration of a single intravenous dose of RGAE (30mg/100gb...
December 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
October 2017: Endocrine
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