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Plasma osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430937/high-sugar-but-not-high-fat-food-activates-supraoptic-oxytocin-neurones-in-the-male-rat
#1
Catherine Hume, Nancy Sabatier, John Menzies
Oxytocin is a potent anorexigen and is believed to have a role in satiety signalling. We developed rat models to study the activity of oxytocin neurones in response to voluntary consumption or oral gavage of foods using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and in vivo electrophysiology.Using c-Fos expression as an indirect marker of neural activation, we showed that the percentage of magnocellular oxytocin neurones expressing c-Fos increased with voluntary consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM). To model the effect of food in the stomach, we gavaged anaesthetised rats with SCM...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395333/ovine-uterine-space-restriction-causes-dysregulation-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-fetal-kidneys%C3%A2
#2
Rachel A Kranch-Shorthouse, Adam S Bauer, Ronald R Magness, Gladys E Lopez, Jeffrey L Segar, Sharon E Blohowiak, Pamela J Kling
In ovine pregnancy, uterine space restriction (USR) resulting from decreased space for placental attachment caused intrauterine growth restriction and impaired nephrogenesis. The fetal kidney renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in nephrogenesis, fluid balance, and iron deposition. Angiotensin II exerts its effects via multiple receptors: angiotensin II 1-8 receptor type 1 (AT 1 R) and type 2 (AT 2 R), and angiotensin II 1-7 Mas receptor (MASR). Objective: : To test the hypothesis that ovine USR is associated with dysregulation of the fetal renal RAS...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333108/the-biology-of-pichia-membranifaciens-killer-toxins
#3
REVIEW
Ignacio Belda, Javier Ruiz, Alejandro Alonso, Domingo Marquina, Antonio Santos
The killer phenomenon is defined as the ability of some yeast to secrete toxins that are lethal to other sensitive yeasts and filamentous fungi. Since the discovery of strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of secreting killer toxins, much information has been gained regarding killer toxins and this fact has substantially contributed knowledge on fundamental aspects of cell biology and yeast genetics. The killer phenomenon has been studied in Pichia membranifaciens for several years, during which two toxins have been described...
March 23, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332474/brain-swelling-during-dialysis-a-randomized-trial-comparing-low-flux-hemodialysis-with-pre-dilution-hemodiafiltration%C3%A2
#4
Niels Johansen, Krista Dybtved Kjaergaard, Christian Daugaard Peters, Michael Pedersen, Bente Jespersen, Jens Dam Jensen
Osmotic changes in plasma are assumed to cause cerebral swelling in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the acute effect of low-flux hemodialysis (HD) (removal of small molecules) and pre-dilution hemodiafiltration (pre-HDF) (additional removal of larger molecules) on cerebral compartment volumes using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronic uremic patients. Twelve patients underwent a session of HD and pre-HDF in a randomized crossover study with equal ultrafiltration. MRI was performed immediately before and after dialysis...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255838/the-correlation-between-plasma-osmolarity-and-tear-osmolarity
#5
Maika Kobayashi, Tsutomu Igarashi, Hisatomo Takahashi, Chiaki Fujimoto, Hisaharu Suzuki, Hiroshi Takahashi
PURPOSE: To the correlation between plasma osmolarity (Posm) and tear osmolarity (Tosm) in patients (54 patients, 88 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery was evaluated. METHODS: Before cataract surgery, routine pre-operative biochemical tests were performed, and Posm was determined from blood samples. Also, Tosm was measured using the TearLab system, and objective signs including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining, and Schirmer's test were evaluated...
March 2, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017745/negative-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-case-report-on-successful-treatment-under-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-with-bilateral-ventriculoperitoneal-shunts
#6
Sajan Pandey, Yi Jin, Liang Gao, Cheng Cheng Zhou, Da Ming Cui
BACKGROUND: Negative-pressure hydrocephalus (NegPH), a very rare condition of unknown etiology and optimal treatment, usually presents postneurosurgery with clinical and imaging features of hydrocephalus, but with negative cerebrospinal fluid pressure. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a NegPH case of -3 mm Hg intracranial pressure that was successfully treated to achieve 5 mm Hg under continuous intracranial pressure monitoring with horizontal positioning, head down and legs elevated to 10°-15°, neck wrapping for controlled venous drainage, chest and abdomen bandages, infusion of 5% dextrose fluid to lower plasma osmolarity (Na(+), 130-135 mmol/L), daily cerebrospinal fluid drainage >200 mL, and arterial blood gas partial pressure of carbon dioxide >40 mm Hg...
March 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987720/fabrication-and-characterization-of-platelet-rich-plasma-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#7
Mahmoud Sadeghi-Ataabadi, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Zahra Vojdani, Mahsa Sani, Mona Latifi, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), as a rich source of growth factor, can form a fibrin gel that recapitulates the extracellular matrix of the tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of CaCl2 on the PRP scaffold structure which in turn could change the cell's behavior. PRP was mixed with 2.5, 5 and 10% (w/v) CaCl2. Then, the tensile strength, biodegradability and water content of the scaffolds were evaluated. We also performed immunostaining for assessment of the actin stress fiber orientation and SEM for detecting the cell phenotype and physical properties of the fibers...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964714/diuretic-and-antioxidant-activities-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-leaves-of-vepris-heterophylla-engl-r-let-rutaceae-in-rats
#8
Fidèle Ntchapda, Christian Bonabe, David Romain Kemeta Azambou, Emmanuel Talla, Théophile Dimo
BACKGROUND: Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant used empirically in African traditional medicine for many clinical conditions including edematous disorders and hypertension. V. heterophylla aqueous extract has been used in northern part of Cameroon by traditional healers for the treatment of arterial hypertension. The study aim was to assess the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of V. heterophylla leaves aqueous extract. METHODS: Adult rats were administered with V...
December 13, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663039/low-osmolar-diet-and-adjusted-water-intake-for-vasopressin-reduction-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-a%C3%A2-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
December 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616762/icodextrin-induced-acute-pancreatitis-in-a-peritoneal-dialysis-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review%C3%A2
#10
REVIEW
Sofia Rubinstein, Rafael Franjul, Sikander Surana, Joshua Fogel
The 7.5% icodextrin solution is widely used for long-dwell in peritoneal dialysis (PD) regimens as an alternative osmotic agent to glucose. It has been defined as a biocompatible agent because of its iso-osmolarity and is generally safe and well tolerated. Icodextrin and its hydrolyzed metabolites are found in systemic circulation. In serum, icodextrin interferes with amylase determination causing a significantly decreased plasma amylase level making it unreliable for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Lipase measurement provides an alternative and accurate method for diagnosing acute pancreatitis (AP) in patients using icodextrin...
November 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573174/pyroptosis-is-driven-by-non-selective-gasdermin-d-pore-and-its-morphology-is-different-from-mlkl-channel-mediated-necroptosis
#11
Xin Chen, Wan-Ting He, Lichen Hu, Jingxian Li, Yuan Fang, Xin Wang, Xiaozheng Xu, Zhuo Wang, Kai Huang, Jiahuai Han
Necroptosis and pyroptosis are two forms of programmed cell death with a common feature of plasma membrane rupture. Here we studied the morphology and mechanism of pyroptosis in comparison with necroptosis. Different from necroptosis, pyroptosis undergoes membrane blebbing and produces apoptotic body-like cell protrusions (termed pyroptotic bodies) prior to plasma membrane rupture. The rupture in necroptosis is explosion-like, whereas in pyroptosis it leads to flattening of cells. It is known that the execution of necroptosis is mediated by mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) oligomers in the plasma membrane, whereas gasdermin-D (GSDMD) mediates pyroptosis after its cleavage by caspase-1 or caspase-11...
September 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528686/rapid-hyperosmotic-induced-ca2-responses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-exhibit-sensory-potentiation-and-involvement-of-plastidial-kea-transporters
#12
Aaron B Stephan, Hans-Henning Kunz, Eric Yang, Julian I Schroeder
Plants experience hyperosmotic stress when faced with saline soils and possibly with drought stress, but it is currently unclear how plant roots perceive this stress in an environment of dynamic water availabilities. Hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in plants, and this Ca(2+) response may reflect the activities of osmo-sensory components. Here, we find in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana that the rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca(2+) response exhibited enhanced response magnitudes after preexposure to an intermediate hyperosmotic stress...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456897/-hypovolemic-hyponatremia-at-the-onset-of-severe-ischemic-stroke-as-a-predictor-of-adverse-outcome
#13
V I Ershov, A N Chirkov
AIM: To study the prognostic value of disturbances of the water and electrolyte homeostasis in the acute stage of ischemic stroke (II) and their impact on the course and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disturbances of the water and electrolyte homeostasis associated with plasma sodium fluctuations were studied in 150 patients with severe II. RESULTS: The poor outcome was associated with plasma osmolarity >297 mOsmol/L and plasma sodium concentration >155 mOsmol/L in the first day of severe II and with >303 mOsmol/L and >161 mOsmol/L, respectively, in the 3rd and 5th days...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445008/high-glucose-impairs-acetylcholine-mediated-vasodilation-in-isolated-arteries-from-mourning-doves-z-macroura
#14
Catherine L Jarrett, Zoha Ahmed, James J Faust, Karen L Sweazea
Normal avian plasma glucose levels are 1.5-2 times greater than mammals of similar size. In mammals, hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Prior work has shown that mourning doves have high levels of antioxidants and isolated vessels have low endogenous oxidative stress. Therefore, the hypothesis was that endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated avian arteries would not be impaired following acute exposure to high glucose. Isolated small resistance cranial tibial arteries (c...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421685/salt-losing-nephropathy-in-mice-with-a-null-mutation-of-the-clcnk2-gene
#15
A Grill, I M Schießl, B Gess, K Fremter, A Hammer, H Castrop
AIM: The basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb facilitates Cl reabsorption in the distal nephron of the human kidney. Functional mutations in CLCNKB are associated with Bartter's syndrome type 3, a hereditary salt-losing nephropathy. To address the function of ClC-K2 in vivo, we generated ClC-K2-deficient mice. METHODS: ClC-K2-deficient mice were generated using TALEN technology. RESULTS: ClC-K2-deficient mice were viable and born in a Mendelian ratio...
November 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343561/basic-concepts-and-practical-equations-on-osmolality-biochemical-approach
#16
REVIEW
Mehdi Rasouli
The terms osmotic pressure, osmotic coefficient, osmole, osmolarity, osmolality, effective osmolality and delta osmolality are formally defined. Osmole is unit of the amount of substance, one mole of nonionized impermeant solute is one osmole. Assuming an ideal solution, osmotic pressure (π) in mmHg is 19.3 times the osmolarity. Osmolarity is defined as the number of milliosmoles of the solutes per liter of solution. Suitable equations are presented for the rapid calculation of the osmolarity of different solutions...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311484/an-organelle-k-channel-is-required-for-osmoregulation-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#17
Feifei Xu, Xiaoan Wu, Lin-Hua Jiang, Hucheng Zhao, Junmin Pan
Fresh water protozoa and algae face hypotonic challenges in their living environment. Many of them employ a contractile vacuole system to uptake excessive water from the cytoplasm and expel it to the environment to achieve cellular homeostasis. K(+), a major osmolyte in contractile vacuole, is predicted to create higher osmolarity for water influx. Molecular mechanisms for K(+) permeation through the plasma membrane have been well studied. However, how K(+) permeates organelles such as the contractile vacuole is not clear...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307205/hyponatraemia-alters-the-biophysical-properties-of-neuronal-cells-independently-of-osmolarity-a-study-on-ni-2-sensitive-current-involvement
#18
Roberta Squecco, Paola Luciani, Eglantina Idrizaj, Cristiana Deledda, Susanna Benvenuti, Corinna Giuliani, Benedetta Fibbi, Alessandro Peri, Fabio Francini
What is the central question of this study? Hyponatraemia, an electrolyte disorder encountered in hospitalized patients, can cause neurological symptoms usually attributed to a reduction in plasma osmolarity. Here, we investigated whether low [Na(+) ] per se can cause neuronal changes independent of osmolarity, focusing on involvement of the Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that hyponatraemia per se causes alterations of neuronal properties. The novel finding of Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger involvement helps us to elucidate the volume regulation following hyponatraemia...
August 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253356/treatment-of-severe-hypervolemic-hyponatremia-in-a-child-with-pneumonia
#19
Teresa Genoni, Rossana Tenconi, Giuseppe Bertolozzi, Emanuela Anna Laicini, Giacomo Tardini, Federica Vianello, Ernesto Leva, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Emilio Filippo Fossali
A 21-month-old boy came to our attention because of pneumonia. His weight increased before presentation, and his blood test results showed hyponatremia (116 mEq/L), low plasma osmolarity (241 mOsm/L), and high urine osmolarity (435 mOsm/L). He was treated with 0.9% sodium chloride solution and intravenous furosemide, and sodium levels rose up to 135 mEq/L in 36 hours. No standard treatment is available for severe hyponatremia in children. The use of vaptans in pediatric patients is described in literature, but it lacks evidence about safety and effectiveness...
June 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225455/torsten-alm%C3%A3-n-1931-2016-the-father-of-non-ionic-iodine-contrast-media
#20
Ulf Nyman, Olle Ekberg, Peter Aspelin
The Swedish radiologist Torsten Almén is the first clinical radiologist ever to have made a fundamental contribution to intravascular contrast medium design, the development of non-ionic contrast media. He became emotionally triggered by the patients' severe pain each time he injected the ionic "high-osmolar" contrast media when performing peripheral arteriographies in the early 1960s. One day he got a flash of genius that combined the observation of pain, a pathophysiological theory and how to eliminate it with suitable contrast media chemistry...
September 2016: Acta Radiologica
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