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Plasma osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700692/mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-reduce-swelling-and-modulate-inflammatory-markers-in-a-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
David L Schreibman, Caron M Hong, Kaspar Keledjian, Svetlana Ivanova, Solomiya Tsymbalyuk, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) leaves most survivors dependent at follow-up. The importance of promoting M2-like microglial responses is increasingly recognized as a key element to ameliorate brain injury following ICH. The osmotherapeutic agents, mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS), which are routinely used to reduce intracranial pressure, have been shown to reduce neuroinflammation in experimental ischemic and traumatic brain injury, but anti-inflammatory effects of osmotherapies have not been investigated in ICH...
April 26, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691001/dissociation-of-chitosan-tripolyphosphate-complexes-into-separate-components-upon-ph-elevation
#2
Petra Mazancová, Veronika Némethová, Dušana Treľová, Lucia Kleščíková, Igor Lacík, Filip Rázga
Ionically crosslinked chitosan/tripolyphosphate (Chit/TPP) particles have been widely tested in biomedical applications, particularly as potential carriers for controlled drug delivery. Since Chit/TPP particles are typically prepared under acidic conditions, their application in physiological environment and correct evaluation of biological data ultimately require knowledge on their physico-chemical properties and overall behaviour at physiological pH, as they may differ substantially from those exhibited after preparation...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671960/renal-potassium-handling-in-carriers-of-the-gly40ser-mutation-of-the-glucagon-receptor-suggests-a-role-for-glucagon-in-potassium-homeostasis
#3
Lise Bankir, Antonio Barbato, Ornella Russo, Gilles Crambert, Roberto Iacone, Nadine Bouby, Ludovica Perna, Pasquale Strazzullo
Plasma potassium concentration (PK ) is tightly regulated. Insulin is known to favor potassium entry into cells. But how potassium leaves the cells later on is not often considered. Previous studies in rats showed that glucagon infusion increased urinary potassium excretion dose-dependently and reversibly. This prompted us to investigate the possible influence of glucagon on potassium handling in humans. We took advantage of the Gly40Ser mutation of the glucagon receptor (GR) that results in a partial loss of function of the GR...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659365/-association-between-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-acromegaly
#4
Paloma Ocampo, Juan Manuel Duarte, Ricardo Barcia, Cecilia Arévalo
Diabetes mellitus occurs in nearly 10% of patients with acromegaly and is secondary to insulin resistance caused by high levels of growth hormone. Diabetes ketoacidosis has been described as a rare complication of acromegaly, resulting from a relative insulin deficiency caused by growth hormone excess. We described the case of a 38 year-old man who presented to the emergency room with a 6-week history of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weight loss. He also had nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain from two days before admission...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659364/-association-between-central-diabetes-insipidus-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Claudia Palumbo, Nora Nicolaci, Andrés A La Manna, Natalia Branek, María N Pissano
Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disease of the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. It is very unusually found in the adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is manifested by a polydipsic polyuric syndrome, which must be distinguished from the poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the similarity of both entities and the unusual nature of their coexistence, their suspicion is difficult. The case of a 72-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor insulin control (fasting hyperglycemia greater than 180 mg/dl) who had a long-standing polyuric syndrome is here presented...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623580/management-and-consequences-of-postoperative-fluctuations-in-plasma-sodium-concentration-after-pediatric-brain-tumor-surgery-in-the-sellar-region-a-national-cohort-analysis
#6
R W J Kruis, A Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, M J J Finken, W Oostdijk, A S P van Trotsenburg, A M Boot, H L Claahsen-van der Grinten, E J van Lindert, K S Han, E W Hoving, E M C Michiels, H M van Santen
PURPOSE: Severe fluctuations in plasma sodium concentration and plasma osmolarity, including central diabetes insipidus (CDI), may have significant influence on postoperative morbidity and mortality after pediatric brain tumor surgery.The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, severity and neurological consequences of these fluctuations in pediatric brain tumor survivors. METHODS: A retrospective, multi-institutional chart review was conducted among all children who underwent brain tumor surgery in the sellar or suprasellar region in seven university hospitals in the Netherlands between January 2004 and December 2013...
April 5, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602293/swimming-exercise-demonstrates-advantages-over-running-exercise-in-reducing-proteinuria-and-glomerulosclerosis-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
N L Totou, S S Moura, D B Coelho, E C Oliveira, L K Becker, W G Lima
Experimental studies in animal models have described the benefits of physical exercise (PE) to kidney diseases associated with hypertension. Land- and water-based exercises induce different responses in renal function. Our aim was to evaluate the renal alterations induced by different environments of PE in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were divided into sedentary (S), swimming exercise (SE), and running exercise (RE) groups, and were trained for 8 weeks under similar intensities (60 min/day)...
March 1, 2018: Physiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562489/monitoring-of-pre-competition-dehydration-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-and-inflammation-levels-among-elite-wrestlers
#8
Ozkan Isik, Irfan Yildirim, Yasin Ersoz, Halit Bugra Koca, Ilkay Dogan, Elmas Ulutas
BACKGROUND: Weight loss practice before competitions is a common method in weight sports. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to monitor Plasma Osmolarity (POsm), skeletal muscle damage and inflammation levels induced by pre-competition dehydration among elite wrestlers. METHODS: Twenty-four male elite wrestlers participated in the study. A survey information form that assessed pre-competition weight loss practices were administered to the wrestlers...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555632/cell-swelling-induced-by-the-antimalarial-kae609-cipargamin-and-other-pfatp4-associated-antimalarials
#9
Adelaide S M Dennis, Adele M Lehane, Melanie C Ridgway, John P Holleran, Kiaran Kirk
For an increasing number of antimalarial agents identified in high throughput phenotypic screens there is evidence that they target PfATP4, a putative Na+ efflux transporter on the plasma membrane of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum For several such 'PfATP4-associated' compounds it has been noted that their addition to parasitised erythrocytes results in cell swelling. Here we show that six structurally diverse PfATP4-associated compounds, including the clinical candidate KAE609 (cipargamin), induce swelling both of isolated blood-stage parasites and of intact parasitised erythrocytes...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476817/basal-tear-osmolarity-as-a-metric-to-estimate-body-hydration-and-dry-eye-severity
#10
REVIEW
C Willshire, A J Bron, E A Gaffney, E Ian Pearce
The osmolarities of various bodily fluids, including tears, saliva and urine, have been used as indices of plasma osmolality, a measure of body hydration, while tear osmolarity is used routinely in dry eye diagnosis, the degree of tear hyperosmolarity providing an index of disease severity. Systemic dehydration, due to inadequate water intake or excessive water loss is common in the elderly population, has a high morbidity and may cause loss of life. Its diagnosis is often overlooked and there is a need to develop a simple, bedside test to detect dehydration in this population...
February 21, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456121/establishment-of-colonic-dialysis-model-in-uremic-rats-by-right-nephrectomy-and-left-partial-nephrectomy
#11
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Nastaran Sabetkish, Shabnam Sabetkish
BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for patients suffering with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has several disadvantages, highlighting the importance of other reproducible modalities such as colonic dialysis (CD). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to establish a CD model in uremic rats and evaluate the effect of two different peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. METHODS: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. After right nephrectomy and left partial nephrectomy, a Malone antegrade continence enema (MACE) stoma was created...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399023/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-siadh-associated-with-mediastinal-schwannoma
#12
Shin Han Song, Gyeong Ah Sim, Seon Ha Baek, Jang Won Seo, Jung Weon Shim, Ja Ryong Koo
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of euvolemic hypo-osmotic hyponatremia. There are several etiologies of SIADH including neuroendocrine tumor, pulmonary disease, infection, trauma, and medications. Here, we report a case of SIADH associated with a schwannoma involving the mediastinum in a 75-year-old woman who presented with nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Laboratory testing showed hypo-osmolar hyponatremia, with a serum sodium level of 102mmol/L, serum osmolality of 221mOsm/kg, urine osmolality of 382mOsm/kg, urine sodium of 55 mmol/L, and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) of 4...
December 2017: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393658/water-transport-and-homeostasis-as-a-major-function-of-erythrocytes
#13
Joseph Sugie, Marcos Intaglietta, Lanping Amy Sung
Erythrocytes have long been known to change volumes and shapes in response to different salt concentrations. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was discovered in their membranes more than 20 years ago. The physiological roles of volume changes and AQP1 expression, however, have remained unclear. We propose that rapid water exchange through AQP1 coupled with large capacity for volume change may allow erythrocytes to play an important role in water regulation. In this study, we showed that erythrocytes in situ gradually reduced their volumes by 39% in response to the hyperosmotic corticomedullary gradient within mouse kidneys...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392569/assessing-propylene-glycol-toxicity-in-alcohol-withdrawal-patients-receiving-intravenous-benzodiazepines-a-one-compartment-pharmacokinetic-model
#14
Ashley Jahn, Charlie Bodreau, Kate Farthing, Fawzy Elbarbry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While some case reports indicate that high doses of propylene glycol (PG) may result in metabolic acidosis, there has been no large-scale study that evaluated the risk of metabolic acidosis in patients receiving PG-containing benzodiazepines for acute alcohol withdrawal. This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential toxicity of PG in patients with acute alcohol withdrawal treated with intermittent intravenous bolus doses of diazepam and/or lorazepam. METHODS: This is a retrospective case study using data collected from 18 randomly selected patients receiving one or both of these medications per a modified Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA) Class 3 protocol...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380910/chemical-and-thyroid-hormone-profile-of-the-bone-marrow-interstitial-fluid-in-hematologic-disorders-and-patients-without-primary-hematologic-disorders
#15
Eilon Krashin, Martin Ellis, Keren Cohen, Maya Viner, Eran Neumark, Gloria Rashid, Osnat Ashur-Fabian
Bone marrow interstitial fluid (BMIF) has not been well characterized. BMIF was isolated from 60 patients including plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD, n = 33), other primary hematologic disorders (OHD, n = 15), and patients with secondary or nonhemtologic disorders (NHD, n = 12) and analyzed for an array of chemical constituents. These included total cholesterol, glucose, phosphate, creatinine, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium, osmolarity, free triiodothyronine (free T3), total triiodothyronine (total T3), and free tetraiodothyronine (free T4)...
April 2018: Hematological Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367255/hydration-and-obesity-among-outpatient-based-population-h2ob-study
#16
Juana Carretero-Gómez, Jose Carlos Arévalo Lorido, Ricardo Gómez Huelgas, Begoña De Escalante Yangüela, Borja Gracia Tello, Luis Pérez Belmonte, Javier Ena Muñoz
Recent evidence suggests that obese people are hypohydrated and that water consumption may be a useful indicator for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Nevertheless, there is no agreement regarding the best hydration status indicators and there are few data about the relationship between hydration and body weight. In the present study, we aim to analyze the correlation among hydration status with obesity measured by three different methods (plasma osmolarity, urinary specific gravity (USG) and urinary osmolarity) in a hospital-based outpatient population...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361146/plasma-levels-of-hsa-mir-152-3p-are-associated-with-diabetic-nephropathy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Maguelonne Roux, Claire Perret, Eva Feigerlova, Badreddine Mohand Oumoussa, Pierre-Jean Saulnier, Carole Proust, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Samy Hadjadj
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs participating in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Their key role in modulating the susceptibility to human diseases is now widely recognized, in particular in the context of cardiometabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify miRNAs associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: A next-generation sequencing-based miRNA profiling was performed in a case-control study for DN in plasma samples of 23 T2D patients with DN (cases) and 23 T2D without (controls)...
January 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341028/ameliorative-effects-of-zataria-multiflora-hydro-alcoholic-extract-on-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#18
Saeed Hajihashemi, Tahereh Jafarian, Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Ali Rahbari, Fatemeh Ghanbari
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxicity is the major side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Z.multiflora (ZM) hydroalcoholic extract on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats categorized into four groups: 1) the control group without injection, 2) the gentamicin treated group (100 mg/kg, i.p) 3) the gentamicin and Z. Multiflora treated group; Z. Multiflora extract(0...
January 16, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336975/mechanical-and-biochemical-role-of-fibrin-within-a-venous-thrombus
#19
REVIEW
Anirudh Chandrashekar, Gurtej Singh, Jonah Garry, Nicholas Sikalas, Nicos Labropoulos
BACKGROUND: The physical properties of a venous thrombus are derived from molecular characteristics, including fibrin polymer diameter, density, branching, and cross-linking. Dense thrombi with thin, highly branched fibrin fibres and small pores in the meshwork have been observed to be more rigid, less permeable, and more resistant to lysis. The three dimensional fibrin meshwork acts as the main structure to entrap and capture erythrocytes, platelets and plasma components. Attached factors become integrated into the developing thrombus, co-localise with fibrin deposition and act in either a pro- or anticoagulant capacity...
March 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274244/intracellular-potassium-under-osmotic-stress-determines-the-dielectrophoresis-cross-over-frequency-of-murine-myeloma-cells-in-the-mhz-range
#20
Colin Chung, Ronald Pethig, Stewart Smith, Martin Waterfall
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely studied for its potential as a biomarker-free method of sorting and characterizing cells based upon their dielectric properties. Most studies have employed voltage signals from ∼1 kHz to no higher than ∼30 MHz. Within this range a transition from negative to positive DEP can be observed at the cross-over frequency fx01 . The value of fx01 is determined by the conductivity of the suspending medium, as well as the size and shape of the cell and the dielectric properties (capacitance, conductivity) of its plasma membrane...
December 23, 2017: Electrophoresis
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