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Plasma osmolarity

Sajan Pandey, Yi Jin, Liang Gao, Cheng Cheng Zhou, Da Ming Cui
BACKGROUND: Negative-pressure hydrocephalus (NegPH), a very rare condition of unknown etiology and optimal treatment, usually presents postneurosurgery with clinical and imaging features of hydrocephalus, but with negative cerebrospinal fluid pressure. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a NegPH case of -3 mm Hg intracranial pressure that was successfully treated to achieve 5 mm Hg under continuous intracranial pressure monitoring with horizontal positioning, head down and legs elevated to 10°-15°, neck wrapping for controlled venous drainage, chest and abdomen bandages, infusion of 5% dextrose fluid to lower plasma osmolarity (Na(+), 130-135 mmol/L), daily cerebrospinal fluid drainage >200 mL, and arterial blood gas partial pressure of carbon dioxide >40 mm Hg...
December 23, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Mahmoud Sadeghi-Ataabadi, Zohreh Mostafavi-Pour, Zahra Vojdani, Mahsa Sani, Mona Latifi, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), as a rich source of growth factor, can form a fibrin gel that recapitulates the extracellular matrix of the tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of CaCl2 on the PRP scaffold structure which in turn could change the cell's behavior. PRP was mixed with 2.5, 5 and 10% (w/v) CaCl2. Then, the tensile strength, biodegradability and water content of the scaffolds were evaluated. We also performed immunostaining for assessment of the actin stress fiber orientation and SEM for detecting the cell phenotype and physical properties of the fibers...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Fidèle Ntchapda, Christian Bonabe, David Romain Kemeta Azambou, Emmanuel Talla, Théophile Dimo
BACKGROUND: Vepris heterophylla (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant used empirically in African traditional medicine for many clinical conditions including edematous disorders and hypertension. V. heterophylla aqueous extract has been used in northern part of Cameroon by traditional healers for the treatment of arterial hypertension. The study aim was to assess the putative diuretic and antioxidant properties of V. heterophylla leaves aqueous extract. METHODS: Adult rats were administered with V...
December 13, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
December 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Sofia Rubinstein, Rafael Franjul, Sikander Surana, Joshua Fogel
The 7.5% icodextrin solution is widely used for long-dwell in peritoneal dialysis (PD) regimens as an alternative osmotic agent to glucose. It has been defined as a biocompatible agent because of its iso-osmolarity and is generally safe and well tolerated. Icodextrin and its hydrolyzed metabolites are found in systemic circulation. In serum, icodextrin interferes with amylase determination causing a significantly decreased plasma amylase level making it unreliable for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Lipase measurement provides an alternative and accurate method for diagnosing acute pancreatitis (AP) in patients using icodextrin...
November 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Xin Chen, Wan-Ting He, Lichen Hu, Jingxian Li, Yuan Fang, Xin Wang, Xiaozheng Xu, Zhuo Wang, Kai Huang, Jiahuai Han
Necroptosis and pyroptosis are two forms of programmed cell death with a common feature of plasma membrane rupture. Here we studied the morphology and mechanism of pyroptosis in comparison with necroptosis. Different from necroptosis, pyroptosis undergoes membrane blebbing and produces apoptotic body-like cell protrusions (termed pyroptotic bodies) prior to plasma membrane rupture. The rupture in necroptosis is explosion-like, whereas in pyroptosis it leads to flattening of cells. It is known that the execution of necroptosis is mediated by mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) oligomers in the plasma membrane, whereas gasdermin-D (GSDMD) mediates pyroptosis after its cleavage by caspase-1 or caspase-11...
September 2016: Cell Research
Aaron B Stephan, Hans-Henning Kunz, Eric Yang, Julian I Schroeder
Plants experience hyperosmotic stress when faced with saline soils and possibly with drought stress, but it is currently unclear how plant roots perceive this stress in an environment of dynamic water availabilities. Hyperosmotic stress induces a rapid rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in plants, and this Ca(2+) response may reflect the activities of osmo-sensory components. Here, we find in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana that the rapid hyperosmotic-induced Ca(2+) response exhibited enhanced response magnitudes after preexposure to an intermediate hyperosmotic stress...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
V I Ershov, A N Chirkov
AIM: To study the prognostic value of disturbances of the water and electrolyte homeostasis in the acute stage of ischemic stroke (II) and their impact on the course and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disturbances of the water and electrolyte homeostasis associated with plasma sodium fluctuations were studied in 150 patients with severe II. RESULTS: The poor outcome was associated with plasma osmolarity >297 mOsmol/L and plasma sodium concentration >155 mOsmol/L in the first day of severe II and with >303 mOsmol/L and >161 mOsmol/L, respectively, in the 3rd and 5th days...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Catherine L Jarrett, Zoha Ahmed, James J Faust, Karen L Sweazea
Normal avian plasma glucose levels are 1.5-2 times greater than mammals of similar size. In mammals, hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Prior work has shown that mourning doves have high levels of antioxidants and isolated vessels have low endogenous oxidative stress. Therefore, the hypothesis was that endothelium-dependent vasodilation of isolated avian arteries would not be impaired following acute exposure to high glucose. Isolated small resistance cranial tibial arteries (c...
November 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
A Grill, I M Schießl, B Gess, K Fremter, A Hammer, H Castrop
AIM: The basolateral chloride channel ClC-Kb facilitates Cl reabsorption in the distal nephron of the human kidney. Functional mutations in CLCNKB are associated with Bartter's syndrome type 3, a hereditary salt-losing nephropathy. To address the function of ClC-K2 in vivo, we generated ClC-K2-deficient mice. METHODS: ClC-K2-deficient mice were generated using TALEN technology. RESULTS: ClC-K2-deficient mice were viable and born in a Mendelian ratio...
July 16, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Mehdi Rasouli
The terms osmotic pressure, osmotic coefficient, osmole, osmolarity, osmolality, effective osmolality and delta osmolality are formally defined. Osmole is unit of the amount of substance, one mole of nonionized impermeant solute is one osmole. Assuming an ideal solution, osmotic pressure (π) in mmHg is 19.3 times the osmolarity. Osmolarity is defined as the number of milliosmoles of the solutes per liter of solution. Suitable equations are presented for the rapid calculation of the osmolarity of different solutions...
August 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Feifei Xu, Xiaoan Wu, Lin-Hua Jiang, Hucheng Zhao, Junmin Pan
Fresh water protozoa and algae face hypotonic challenges in their living environment. Many of them employ a contractile vacuole system to uptake excessive water from the cytoplasm and expel it to the environment to achieve cellular homeostasis. K(+), a major osmolyte in contractile vacuole, is predicted to create higher osmolarity for water influx. Molecular mechanisms for K(+) permeation through the plasma membrane have been well studied. However, how K(+) permeates organelles such as the contractile vacuole is not clear...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Roberta Squecco, Paola Luciani, Eglantina Idrizaj, Cristiana Deledda, Susanna Benvenuti, Corinna Giuliani, Benedetta Fibbi, Alessandro Peri, Fabio Francini
What is the central question of this study? Hyponatraemia, an electrolyte disorder encountered in hospitalized patients, can cause neurological symptoms usually attributed to a reduction in plasma osmolarity. Here, we investigated whether low [Na(+) ] per se can cause neuronal changes independent of osmolarity, focusing on involvement of the Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that hyponatraemia per se causes alterations of neuronal properties. The novel finding of Na(+) -Ca(2+) exchanger involvement helps us to elucidate the volume regulation following hyponatraemia...
August 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Teresa Genoni, Rossana Tenconi, Giuseppe Bertolozzi, Emanuela Anna Laicini, Giacomo Tardini, Federica Vianello, Ernesto Leva, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Emilio Filippo Fossali
A 21-month-old boy came to our attention because of pneumonia. His weight increased before presentation, and his blood test results showed hyponatremia (116 mEq/L), low plasma osmolarity (241 mOsm/L), and high urine osmolarity (435 mOsm/L). He was treated with 0.9% sodium chloride solution and intravenous furosemide, and sodium levels rose up to 135 mEq/L in 36 hours. No standard treatment is available for severe hyponatremia in children. The use of vaptans in pediatric patients is described in literature, but it lacks evidence about safety and effectiveness...
June 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ulf Nyman, Olle Ekberg, Peter Aspelin
The Swedish radiologist Torsten Almén is the first clinical radiologist ever to have made a fundamental contribution to intravascular contrast medium design, the development of non-ionic contrast media. He became emotionally triggered by the patients' severe pain each time he injected the ionic "high-osmolar" contrast media when performing peripheral arteriographies in the early 1960s. One day he got a flash of genius that combined the observation of pain, a pathophysiological theory and how to eliminate it with suitable contrast media chemistry...
September 2016: Acta Radiologica
Mélodie Schmitz, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Jessica Douxfils, Tamar Ziv, Arie Admon, Patrick Kestemont
UNLABELLED: Hyperosmotic stress has often been investigated from osmoregulation perspectives while the effects of such stress on the immune capacity remain largely unexplored. In this study, striped catfish were submitted to a gradual hyperosmotic stress (up to 20ppt), followed by an infection with a virulent strain of an intracellular bacteria, Edwardsiella ictaluri. Physiological parameters (plasma osmolarity, gill NaK ATPase) have been investigated. Moreover, a label free quantitative proteomics workflow was used to study how salinity affects the proteome of kidney of no infected and infected fish...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Fernando E García-Arroyo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Abraham S Arellano-Buendía, Horacio Osorio, Edilia Tapia, Virgilia Soto, Magdalena Madero, Miguel A Lanaspa, Carlos Roncal-Jiménez, Lise Bankir, Richard J Johnson, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada
Recurrent dehydration, such as commonly occurs with manual labor in tropical environments, has been recently shown to result in chronic kidney injury, likely through the effects of hyperosmolarity to activate both vasopressin and aldose reductase-fructokinase pathways. The observation that the latter pathway can be directly engaged by simple sugars (glucose and fructose) leads to the hypothesis that soft drinks (which contain these sugars) might worsen rather than benefit dehydration associated kidney disease...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Lennart Tonneijck, Mark M Smits, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mark H H Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Michaela Diamant, Jaap A Joles, Daniël H van Raalte
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to investigate the acute renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) exenatide in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: We included overweight (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) men and postmenopausal women, aged 35-75 years with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 48-75 mmol/mol; 6.5-9.0%) and estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2). Exenatide or placebo (NaCl solution, 154 mmol/l) was administrated intravenously in an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Diabetes Center VU University Medical Center (VUMC)...
July 2016: Diabetologia
L V Gerasimov, Yu V Marchenkov, D P Volkov, E P Rodionov, V V Izmajlov
56 patients at the age of 18-60 years with severe trauma were examined. Influence of the polyelectrolytic (Reamberin)solution on an acid-base state, osmolarity and electrolytic composition of plasma in the acute posttraumatic period was evaluated. It was found that patients, who was treated by isotonic sodium chloride solution and Ringer's solution, had metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In contrast, in the reamberin group 82% of patients had lower concentrations of chloride and had nothing acid-base disturbances on the second day after trauma...
November 2015: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
E A Krieger, O V Samodova, N N Gulakova, A B Aruiev, L A Krylova, L V Titova
Every year about 800,000 cases of intestinal infections end in lethal outcome due to dehydration. The different types of dehydration acquire differential approach to correction. Everywhere there is no application of routine detection of osmolarity of blood plasma under exicosis in children in view of absence of possibility of instrumental measurement. The search of techniques is needed to make it possible to indirectly detect types of dehydration in children hospitalized because of acute intestinal infection with purpose to apply rationale therapy of water-electrolyte disorders...
November 2015: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
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