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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100735/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-6-year-old-children
#1
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that children as young as 3-4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087234/interference-from-related-actions-in-spoken-word-production-behavioural-and-fmri-evidence
#2
Greig de Zubicaray, Douglas Fraser, Kori Ramajoo, Katie McMahon
Few investigations of lexical access in spoken word production have investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in action naming. These are likely to be more complex than the mechanisms involved in object naming, due to the ways in which conceptual features of action words are represented. The present study employed a blocked cyclic naming paradigm to examine whether related action contexts elicit a semantic interference effect akin to that observed with categorically related objects. Participants named pictures of intransitive actions to avoid a confound with object processing...
January 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076355/multiple-choice-neurodynamical-model-of-the-uncertain-option-task
#3
Andrea Insabato, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco
The uncertain option task has been recently adopted to investigate the neural systems underlying the decision confidence. Latterly single neurons activity has been recorded in lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys performing an uncertain option task, where the subject is allowed to opt for a small but sure reward instead of making a risky perceptual decision. We propose a multiple choice model implemented in a discrete attractors network. This model is able to reproduce both behavioral and neurophysiological experimental data and therefore provides support to the numerous perspectives that interpret the uncertain option task as a sensory-motor association...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069542/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-transition-from-action-preparation-to-execution
#4
Valentina Sulpizio, Giuliana Lucci, Marika Berchicci, Gaspare Galati, Sabrina Pitzalis, Francesco Di Russo
Flexible and adaptive behavior requires the ability to contextually stop inappropriate actions and select the right one as quickly as possible. Recently, it has been proposed that three brain regions, i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus (iFg), the anterior insula (aIns), and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPs), play an important role in several processing phases of perceptual decision tasks, especially in the preparation, perception and action phases, respectively. However, little is known about hemispheric differences in the activation of these three areas during the transition from perception to action...
January 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038366/brain-networks-underlying-novel-metaphor-production
#5
Roger E Beaty, Paul J Silvia, Mathias Benedek
Metaphors are widely used to convey abstract concepts and emotions in the arts and everyday life. Neuroimaging research suggests that dynamic interactions among large-scale brain networks, including the default and executive control networks, support the production of such creative ideas. However, the extent to which these networks interact to support other forms of creative language production such as metaphor remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored this question by assessing functional interactions between brain regions during novel metaphor production...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034601/the-involvement-of-the-dorsal-stream-in-processing-implied-actions-between-paired-objects-a-tms-study
#6
Shan Xu, Glyn W Humphreys, Carmel Mevorach, Dietmar Heinke
Perceiving and selecting the action possibilities (affordances) provided by objects is an important challenge to human vision, and is not limited to single-object scenarios. Xu et al. (2015) identified two effects of implied actions between paired objects on response selection: an inhibitory effect on responses aligned with the passive object in the pair (e.g. a bowl) and an advantage associated with responses aligned with the active objects (e.g. a spoon). The present study investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms behind these effects by examining the involvement of the ventral (vision for perception) and the dorsal (vision for action) visual streams, as defined in Goodale and Milner's (1992) two visual stream theory...
December 27, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029706/morphological-brain-measures-of-cortico-limbic-inhibition-related-to-resilience
#7
Arpana Gupta, Aubrey Love, Lisa A Kilpatrick, Jennifer S Labus, Ravi Bhatt, Lin Chang, Kirsten Tillisch, Bruce Naliboff, Emeran A Mayer
Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025017/automatic-numerical-spatial-association-in-synaesthesia-an-fmri-investigation
#8
Isabel Arend, Sarit Ashkenazi, Kenneth Yuen, Shiran Ofir, Avishai Henik
A horizontal mental number line (MNL) is used to describe how quantities are represented across space. In humans, the neural correlates associated with such a representation are found in different areas of the posterior parietal cortex, especially, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). In a phenomenon known as number-space synaesthesia, individuals visualise numbers in specific spatial locations. The experience of a MNL for number-space synaesthetes is explicit, idiosyncratic, and highly stable over time. It remains an open question whether the mechanisms underlying numerical-spatial association are shared by synaesthetes and nonsynaesthetes...
December 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017920/common-and-distinct-brain-regions-processing-multisensory-bodily-signals-for-peripersonal-space-and-body-ownership
#9
Petr Grivaz, Olaf Blanke, Andrea Serino
We take the feeling that our body belongs to us for granted. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to alter the subjective sensation of body ownership (BO) by manipulating multisensory bodily inputs. Several frontal and parietal regions are known to specifically process multisensory cues presented close to the body, i.e., within the peripersonal space (PPS). It has been proposed that these PPS fronto-parietal regions also underlie BO. However, most previous studies investigated the brain mechanisms of either BO or of PPS processing separately and by using a variety of paradigms...
December 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999536/cortical-asymmetries-during-hand-laterality-task-vary-with-hand-laterality-a-fmri-study-in-295-participants
#10
Emmanuel Mellet, Bernard Mazoyer, Gaelle Leroux, Marc Joliot, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer
The aim of this study was to characterize, using fMRI, the functional asymmetries of hand laterality task (HLT) in a sample of 295 participants balanced for handedness. During HLT, participants have to decide whether the displayed picture of a hand represent a right or a left hand. Pictures of hands' back view were presented for 150 ms in the right or left hemifield. At the whole hemisphere level, we evidenced that the laterality of the hand and of the hemifield in which the picture was displayed combined their effects on the hemispheric asymmetry in an additive way...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989463/coupling-between-one-dimensional-networks-reconciles-conflicting-dynamics-in-lip-and-reveals-its-recurrent-circuitry
#11
Wujie Zhang, Annegret L Falkner, B Suresh Krishna, Michael E Goldberg, Kenneth D Miller
Little is known about the internal circuitry of the primate lateral intraparietal area (LIP). During two versions of a delayed-saccade task, we found radically different network dynamics beneath similar population average firing patterns. When neurons are not influenced by stimuli outside their receptive fields (RFs), dynamics of the high-dimensional LIP network during slowly varying activity lie predominantly in one multi-neuronal dimension, as described previously. However, when activity is suppressed by stimuli outside the RF, slow LIP dynamics markedly deviate from a single dimension...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986609/the-neural-circuits-for-arithmetic-principles
#12
Jie Liu, Han Zhang, Chuansheng Chen, Hui Chen, Jiaxin Cui, Xinlin Zhou
Arithmetic principles are the regularities underlying arithmetic computation. Little is known about how the brain supports the processing of arithmetic principles. The current fMRI study examined neural activation and functional connectivity during the processing of verbalized arithmetic principles, as compared to numerical computation and general language processing. As expected, arithmetic principles elicited stronger activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus than did language processing, and stronger activation in left middle temporal lobe and left orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus than did computation...
December 14, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966612/sex-differences-in-number-processing-differential-systems-for-subtraction-and-multiplication-were-confirmed-in-men-but-not-in-women
#13
Belinda Pletzer
Neuroimaging studies suggest segregated neuronal systems underlying number magnitude processing (e.g. subtraction) and arithmetic fact retrieval (e.g. multiplication). While number magnitude processing is thought to rely on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) bilaterally, arithmetic fact retrieval is thought to rely on the left angular gyrus (AG). However, evidence from brain damaged patients and brain stimulation challenges this view and suggests considerable overlap between the systems underlying number magnitude processing and arithmetic fact retrieval...
December 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958301/selective-perturbation-of-cognitive-conflict-in-the-human-brain-a-combined-fmri-and-rtms-study
#14
Claudia Peschke, Raphael Köster, Margarethe Korsch, Sascha Frühholz, Christiane M Thiel, Manfred Herrmann, Claus C Hilgetag
We investigated if single and double conflicts are processed separately in different brain regions and if they are differentially vulnerable to TMS perturbation. Fifteen human volunteers performed a single (Flanker or Simon) conflict task or a double (Flanker and Simon) conflict task in a combined functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study. The fMRI approach aimed at localizing brain regions involved in interference resolution induced by single Flanker (stimulus-stimulus, S-S) and Simon (stimulus-response, S-R) conflicts as well as regions involved in the double conflict condition...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931179/structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Chandler Sours, Prashant Raghavan, Alexandre Medina de Jesus, Steven R Roys, Li Jiang, Jiachen Zhuo, Rao P Gullapalli
Severe and Moderate TBI (sTBI) often results in long-term cognitive deficits such as reduced processing speed and attention. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a neocortical structure that plays a crucial role in the deeply interrelated processes of multisensory processing and top down attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that disruptions in the functional and structural connections of the IPS may play a role in the development of such deficits. To examine these connections we used resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in a cohort of 27 sTBI patients (29...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920978/network-interactions-underlying-mirror-feedback-in-stroke-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#16
Soha Saleh, Mathew Yarossi, Thushini Manuweera, Sergei Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is potentially a powerful tool to facilitate recovery of disordered movement and stimulate activation of under-active brain areas due to stroke. The neural mechanisms underlying MVF have therefore been a focus of recent inquiry. Although it is known that sensorimotor areas can be activated via mirror feedback, the network interactions driving this effect remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to fill this gap by using dynamic causal modeling to test the interactions between regions in the frontal and parietal lobes that may be important for modulating the activation of the ipsilesional motor cortex during mirror visual feedback of unaffected hand movement in stroke patients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909099/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-to-6-year-old-children
#17
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that children as young as 3 to 4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909000/distinct-contributions-of-dorsal-and-ventral-streams-to-imitation-of-tool-use-and-communicative-gestures
#18
Andrea Dressing, Kai Nitschke, Dorothee Kümmerer, Tobias Bormann, Lena Beume, Charlotte S M Schmidt, Vera M Ludwig, Irina Mader, Klaus Willmes, Michel Rijntjes, Christoph P Kaller, Cornelius Weiller, Markus Martin
Imitation of tool-use gestures (transitive; e.g., hammering) and communicative emblems (intransitive; e.g., waving goodbye) is frequently impaired after left-hemispheric lesions. We aimed 1) to identify lesions related to deficient transitive or intransitive gestures, 2) to delineate regions associated with distinct error types (e.g., hand configuration, kinematics), and 3) to compare imitation to previous data on pantomimed and actual tool use. Of note, 156 patients (64.3 ± 14.6 years; 56 female) with first-ever left-hemispheric ischemic stroke were prospectively examined 4...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#19
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896064/executive-attention-networks-show-altered-relationship-with-default-mode-network-in-pd
#20
Peter Boord, Tara M Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Thomas J Grabowski
Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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