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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910748/local-functional-connectivity-density-is-closely-associated-with-the-response-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Jiaojian Wang, Qiang Wei, Xinru Yuan, Xiaoyan Jiang, Jinping Xu, Xiaoqin Zhou, Yanghua Tian, Kai Wang
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neuroanatomical basis of response to ECT is still largely unknown. METHODS: In present study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) to identify the relationship between the changes of resting-state activities and ECT responses in 23 MDD patients before and after ECT...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901676/neural-mechanisms-of-motion-perceptual-learning-in-noise
#2
Nihong Chen, Junshi Lu, Hanyu Shao, Xuchu Weng, Fang Fang
Practice improves our perceptual ability. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this experience-dependent plasticity in adult brain remain unclear. Here, we studied the long-term neural correlates of motion perceptual learning. Subjects' behavioral performance and BOLD signals were tracked before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after practicing a motion direction discrimination task in noise over six daily sessions. Parallel to the specificity and persistency of the behavioral learning effect, we found that training sharpened the cortical tuning in MT, and enhanced the connectivity strength from MT to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a motion decision-making area)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889002/mapping-the-complex-topological-organization-of-the-human-parietal-face-area
#3
Ruey-Song Huang, Ching-Fu Chen, Martin I Sereno
The macaque monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP) contains neurons with aligned visual-tactile receptive fields anchored to the face and upper body. Our previous fMRI studies using standard head coils found a human parietal face area (VIP + complex; putative macaque VIP homologue) containing superimposed topological maps of the face and near-face visual space. Here, we construct high signal-to-noise surface coils and used phase-encoded air puffs and looming stimuli to map topological organization of the parietal face area at higher resolution...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885740/preferential-encoding-of-movement-amplitude-and-speed-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum
#4
Alit Stark-Inbar, Eran Dayan
Voluntary movements require control of multiple kinematic parameters, a task carried out by a distributed brain architecture. However, it remains unclear whether regions along the motor system encode single, or rather a mixture of, kinematic parameters during action execution. Here, rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate brain activity along the motor system during the encoding of movement amplitude, duration, and speed. We present cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system, based on blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal recorded in a well-controlled single-joint wrist-flexion task...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871500/computational-neuroanatomy-of-human-stratum-proprium-of-interparietal-sulcus
#5
Maiko Uesaki, Hiromasa Takemura, Hiroshi Ashida
Recent advances in diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) and tractography have enabled identification of major long-range white matter tracts in the human brain. Yet, our understanding of shorter tracts, such as those within the parietal lobe, remains limited. Over a century ago, a tract connecting the superior and inferior parts of the parietal cortex was identified in a post-mortem study: stratum proprium of interparietal sulcus (SIPS; Sachs, Das hemisphärenmark des menschlichen grosshirns. Verlag von georg thieme, Leipzig, 1892)...
September 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844701/gestural-apraxia
#6
REVIEW
F Etcharry-Bouyx, D Le Gall, C Jarry, F Osiurak
Gestural apraxia was first described in 1905 by Hugo Karl Liepmann. While his description is still used, the actual terms are often confusing. The cognitive approach using models proposes thinking of the condition in terms of production and conceptual knowledge. The underlying cognitive processes are still being debated, as are also the optimal ways to assess them. Several neuroimaging studies have revealed the involvement of a left-lateralized frontoparietal network, with preferential activation of the superior parietal lobe, intraparietal sulcus and inferior parietal cortex...
August 24, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838104/approaching-the-atrium-through-the-intraparietal-sulcus-mapping-the-sulcal-morphology-and-correlating-the-surgical-corridor-to-underlying-fiber-tracts
#7
Christos Koutsarnakis, Faidon Liakos, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Evangelia Liouta, John Emelifeonwu, Theodosis Kalamatianos, Damianos E Sakas, Elizabeth Johnson, George Stranjalis
BACKROUND: Although the operative corridor used during the intraparietal transsulcal approach to the atrium has been previously investigated, most anatomical studies focus on its relationship to the optic radiations. OBJECTIVE: To study the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) morphology and to explore the subcortical anatomy with regard to the surgical trajectory used during the intraparietal transsulcal tranventricular approach. METHODS: Twenty-five adult, formalin fixed, cerebral hemispheres were investigated...
August 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821662/visual-receptive-field-heterogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-of-adjacent-neurons-in-primate-fronto-parietal-association-cortices
#8
Pooja Viswanathan, Andreas Nieder
The basic organization principles of the primary visual cortex (V1) are commonly assumed to also hold in the association cortex such that neurons within a cortical column share functional connectivity patterns and represent the same region of the visual field. We mapped the visual receptive fields (RFs) of neurons recorded at the same electrode in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rhesus monkeys. We report that the spatial characteristics of visual receptive fields between adjacent neurons differed considerably, with increasing heterogeneity from VIP to PFC...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802806/comparing-parietal-quantity-processing-mechanisms-between-humans-and-macaques
#9
REVIEW
Ben M Harvey, Stefania Ferri, Guy A Orban
Quantity processing studies typically assume functional homology between regions within macaque and human intraparietal sulcus (IPS), where apparently similar locations respond to broadly similar tasks. However, macaque single cell neurophysiology is difficult to compare to human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); particularly in multivoxel pattern analysis and adaptation paradigms, or where different tasks are used. fMRI approaches incorporating neural tuning models allow closer comparison, revealing human numerosity-selective responses only outside the IPS...
August 9, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801254/the-effect-of-visual-parameters-on-neural-activation-during-nonsymbolic-number-comparison-and-its-relation-to-math-competency
#10
Eric D Wilkey, Jordan C Barone, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Stephan E Vogel, Gavin R Price
Nonsymbolic numerical comparison task performance (whereby a participant judges which of two groups of objects is numerically larger) is thought to index the efficiency of neural systems supporting numerical magnitude perception, and performance on such tasks has been related to individual differences in math competency. However, a growing body of research suggests task performance is heavily influenced by visual parameters of the stimuli (e.g. surface area and dot size of object sets) such that the correlation with math is driven by performance on trials in which number is incongruent with visual cues...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794195/object-comparison-in-the-lateral-intraparietal-area
#11
Wei Song Ong, Koorosh Mirpour, James W Bisley
We can search for and locate specific objects in our environment by looking for objects with similar features. Object recognition involves stimulus similarity responses in ventral visual areas and task related responses in prefrontal cortex. We tested whether neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of posterior parietal cortex could form an intermediary representation, collating information from object specific similarity map representations to allow general decisions about whether a stimulus matches the object being looked for...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793351/characterization-of-neurons-in-the-primate-medial-intraparietal-area-reveals-a-joint-representation-of-intended-reach-direction-and-amplitude
#12
Rishi Rajalingham, Sam Musallam
To support accurate memory-guided reaching, the brain must represent both the direction and amplitude of reaches in a movement plan. Several cortical areas have been shown to represent the direction of a planned reaching movement, but the neuronal representation of reach amplitude is still unclear, especially in sensory-motor integration areas. To investigate this, we recorded from neurons in the medial intraparietal area (MIP) of monkeys performing a variable amplitude memory reach task. In one monkey, we additionally recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) for direct cross-area comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790906/neurophysiological-correlates-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion-in-late-evoked-and-alpha-beta-band-activity
#13
Isa S Rao, Christoph Kayser
The rubber hand illusion (RHI) allows insights into how the brain resolves conflicting multisensory information regarding body position and ownership. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a variety of neurophysiological correlates of illusory hand ownership, with conflicting results likely originating from differences in experimental parameters and control conditions. Here, we overcome these limitations by using a fully automated and precisely-timed visuo-tactile stimulation setup to record evoked responses and oscillatory responses in participants who felt the RHI...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772104/the-role-of-the-lateral-intraparietal-area-in-the-study-of-decision-making
#14
Alexander C Huk, Leor N Katz, Jacob L Yates
Over the past two decades, neurophysiological responses in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) have received extensive study for insight into decision making. In a parallel manner, inferred cognitive processes have enriched interpretations of LIP activity. Because of this bidirectional interplay between physiology and cognition, LIP has served as fertile ground for developing quantitative models that link neural activity with decision making. These models stand as some of the most important frameworks for linking brain and mind, and they are now mature enough to be evaluated in finer detail and integrated with other lines of investigation of LIP function...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758998/functional-dissection-of-signal-and-noise-in-mt-and-lip-during-decision-making
#15
Jacob L Yates, Il Memming Park, Leor N Katz, Jonathan W Pillow, Alexander C Huk
During perceptual decision-making, responses in the middle temporal (MT) and lateral intraparietal (LIP) areas appear to map onto theoretically defined quantities, with MT representing instantaneous motion evidence and LIP reflecting the accumulated evidence. However, several aspects of the transformation between the two areas have not been empirically tested. We therefore performed multistage systems identification analyses of the simultaneous activity of MT and LIP during individual decisions. We found that monkeys based their choices on evidence presented in early epochs of the motion stimulus and that substantial early weighting of motion was present in MT responses...
September 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751636/increased-functional-connectivity-after-stroke-correlates-with-behavioral-scores-in-non-human-primate-model
#16
Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Joseph Y Nashed, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Justin Wang, Jason Gallivan, Douglas J Cook
Here we characterized the functional connectivity (FC) changes occurring after a controlled MCA stroke in a primate model. We hypothesize that if FC can inform about the neural changes after a stroke in the non-human primate (NHP) stroke model, then significant FC changes after the stroke would have to correlate with the remaining behavioral capacities. Eleven cynomolgus monkeys underwent an experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion while five monkeys remained as the control group. One month later the neurological function was assessed with a set of fine motor tasks and the Nonhuman Primate Stroke Scale (NHPSS)...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748095/the-origin-of-mathematics-and-number-sense-in-the-cerebellum-with-implications-for-finger-counting-and-dyscalculia
#17
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740249/neanderthal-derived-genetic-variation-shapes-modern-human-cranium-and-brain
#18
Michael D Gregory, J Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P Eisenberg, Philip D Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Ziad S Saad, Karen F Berman
Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735750/partially-mixed-selectivity-in-human-posterior-parietal-association-cortex
#19
Carey Y Zhang, Tyson Aflalo, Boris Revechkis, Emily R Rosario, Debra Ouellette, Nader Pouratian, Richard A Andersen
To clarify the organization of motor representations in posterior parietal cortex, we test how three motor variables (body side, body part, cognitive strategy) are coded in the human anterior intraparietal cortex. All tested movements were encoded, arguing against strict anatomical segregation of effectors. Single units coded for diverse conjunctions of variables, with different dimensions anatomically overlapping. Consistent with recent studies, neurons encoding body parts exhibited mixed selectivity. This mixed selectivity resulted in largely orthogonal coding of body parts, which "functionally segregate" the effector responses despite the high degree of anatomical overlap...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701531/differential-contributions-to-the-interception-of-occluded-ballistic-trajectories-by-the-temporoparietal-junction-area-hmt-v5-and-the-intraparietal-cortex
#20
Sergio Delle Monache, Francesco Lacquaniti, Gianfranco Bosco
The ability to catch objects when transiently occluded from view suggests their motion can be extrapolated. Intraparietal cortex (IPS) plays a major role in this process along with other brain structures, depending on the task. For example, interception of objects under Earth's gravity effects may depend on time-to-contact predictions derived from integration of visual signals processed by hMT/V5+ with a priori knowledge of gravity residing in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To investigate this issue further, we disrupted TPJ, hMT/V5+, and IPS activities with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects intercepted computer-simulated projectile trajectories perturbed randomly with either hypo- or hypergravity effects...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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