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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488352/how-do-individual-differences-in-children-s-domain-specific-and-domain-general-abilities-relate-to-brain-activity-within-the-intraparietal-sulcus-during-arithmetic-an-fmri-study
#1
Anna A Matejko, Daniel Ansari
Previous research has demonstrated that children recruit the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during arithmetic, which has largely been attributed to domain-specific processes such as quantity manipulations. However, the IPS has also been found to be important for domain-general abilities, such as visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Based on the current literature it is unclear whether individual differences in domain-specific skills, domain-general skills, or a combination of the two, are related to the recruitment of the IPS during arithmetic...
May 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484381/impaired-activation-of-visual-attention-network-for-motion-salience-is-accompanied-by-reduced-functional-connectivity-between-frontal-eye-fields-and-visual-cortex-in-strabismic-amblyopia
#2
Hao Wang, Sheila G Crewther, Minglong Liang, Robin Laycock, Tao Yu, Bonnie Alexander, David P Crewther, Jian Wang, Zhengqin Yin
Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474293/increased-arithmetic-complexity-is-associated-with-domain-general-but-not-domain-specific-magnitude-processing-in-children-a-simultaneous-fnirs-eeg-study
#3
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Christina Artemenko, Thomas Dresler, Florian B Haeussinger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
The investigation of the neural underpinnings of increased arithmetic complexity in children is essential for developing educational and therapeutic approaches and might provide novel measures to assess the effects of interventions. Although a few studies in adults and children have revealed the activation of bilateral brain regions during more complex calculations, little is known about children. We investigated 24 children undergoing one-digit and two-digit multiplication tasks while simultaneously recording functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) data...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472382/mapping-domain-selective-and-counterpointed-domain-general-higher-cognitive-functions-in-the-lateral-parietal-cortex-evidence-from-fmri-comparisons-of-difficulty-varying-semantic-versus-visuo-spatial-tasks-and-functional-connectivity-analyses
#4
Gina F Humphreys, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Numerous cognitive domains have been associated with the lateral parietal cortex, yet how these disparate functions are packed into this region remains unclear. Whilst areas within the dorsal and the ventral parietal cortex (DPC and VPC) show differential function, there is considerable disagreement as to what these functions might be. Studies focussed on individual domains have plotted out variations of function across the region. Direct cross-domain comparisons are rare yet, when they have been undertaken, at least some regions (particularly the intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and core angular gyrus [AG]) appear to have contrastive domain-general qualities...
May 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454819/causal-role-of-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-for-two-digit-mental-subtraction-and-addition-a-repetitive-tms-study
#5
Maria Montefinese, Cristina Turco, Francesco Piccione, Carlo Semenza
Although parietal areas of the left hemisphere are known to be involved in simple mental calculation, the possible role of the homologue areas of the right hemisphere in mental complex calculation remains debated. In the present study, we tested the causal role of the posterior parietal cortex of both hemispheres in two-digit mental addition and subtraction by means of neuronavigated repetitive TMS (rTMS), investigating possible hemispheric asymmetries in specific parietal areas. In particular, we performed two rTMS experiments, which differed only for the target sites stimulated, on independent samples of participants...
April 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450538/modulation-of-illusory-reversal-in-tactile-temporal-order-by-the-phase-of-posterior-alpha-rhythm
#6
Toshimitsu Takahashi, Shigeru Kitazawa
The subjective temporal order of tactile stimuli, delivered sequentially to each hand with an interval of 100-300 ms, is often inverted when the arms are crossed. Based on data from behavioral and neuroimaging studies, it has been proposed that the reversal is due to a conflict between anatomical and spatial representations of the tactile signal or to the production of an inverted apparent motion signal. Because the alpha rhythms, which consist of a few distinct components, reportedly modulate tactile perception and apparent motion and serve as a 10 Hz timer, we hypothesized that the illusory reversal would be regulated by some of the alpha rhythms...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445695/neural-correlates-of-evoked-phantom-limb-sensations
#7
J Andoh, M Diers, C Milde, C Frobel, D Kleinböhl, H Flor
Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442224/functional-hyperconnectivity-vanishes-in-children-with-developmental-dyscalculia-after-numerical-intervention
#8
Lars Michels, Ruth O'Gorman, Karin Kucian
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a developmental learning disability associated with deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information. Although behavioural training can reduce these deficits, it is unclear which neuronal resources show a functional reorganization due to training. We examined typically developing (TD) children (N=16, mean age: 9.5 years) and age-, gender-, and handedness-matched children with DD (N=15, mean age: 9.5 years) during the performance of a numerical order task with fMRI and functional connectivity before and after 5-weeks of number line training...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438707/contributions-of-the-parietal-cortex-to-increased-efficiency-of-planning-based-action-selection
#9
Jennifer Randerath, Kenneth F Valyear, Benjamin A Philip, Scott H Frey
Response selection is foundational to adaptive behavior, and considerable attention has been devoted to investigating this behavior under conditions in which the mapping between stimuli and responses is fixed. Results from prior studies implicate the left supramarginal gyrus (SMg), premotor and prefrontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum in this essential function. Yet, many goal-directed motor behaviors have multiple solutions with flexible mappings between stimuli and responses whose solutions are believed to involve prospective planning...
April 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431740/getting-a-grip-on-reality-grasping-movements-directed-to-real-objects-and-images-rely-on-dissociable-neural-representations
#10
Erez Freud, Scott N Macdonald, Juan Chen, Derek J Quinlan, Melvyn A Goodale, Jody C Culham
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#11
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383970/visual-short-term-memory-related-brain-activity-predicts-mathematical-abilities
#12
Aubrée Boulet-Craig, Philippe Robaey, Karine Lacourse, Karim Jerbi, Victor Oswald, Maja Krajinovic, Caroline Laverdière, Daniel Sinnett, Pierre Jolicoeur, Sarah Lippé
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382579/a-neuroanatomical-model-of-space-based-and-object-centered-processing-in-spatial-neglect
#13
Elena Pedrazzini, Armin Schnider, Radek Ptak
Visual attention can be deployed in space-based or object-centered reference frames. Right-hemisphere damage may lead to distinct deficits of space- or object-based processing, and such dissociations are thought to underlie the heterogeneous nature of spatial neglect. Previous studies have suggested that object-centered processing deficits (such as in copying, reading or line bisection) result from damage to retro-rolandic regions while impaired spatial exploration reflects damage to more anterior regions. However, this evidence is based on small samples and heterogeneous tasks...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369235/uniformity-and-diversity-of-cortical-projections-to-precuneate-areas-in-the-macaque-monkey-what-defines-area-pgm
#14
Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Sophia Bakola, Michela Gamberini, Katrina H Worthy, Patrizia Fattori, Claudio Galletti
We report on the corticocortical connections of areas on the mesial surface of the macaque posterior parietal cortex, based on 10 retrograde tracer injections targeting different parts of the precuneate gyrus. Analysis of afferent connections supported the existence of two areas: PGm (also known as 7 m) and area 31. Both areas received major afferents from the V6A complex and from the external subdivision of area 23, but they differed in most other aspects. Area 31 showed greater emphasis on connections with premotor and parietal sensorimotor areas, whereas PGm received a greater proportion of its afferents from visuomotor structures involved in spatial cognition (including the lateral intraparietal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and the putative visual areas in the ventral part of the precuneus)...
March 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345153/the-functional-architectures-of-addition-and-subtraction-network-discovery-using-fmri-and-dcm
#15
Yang Yang, Ning Zhong, Karl Friston, Kazuyuki Imamura, Shengfu Lu, Mi Li, Haiyan Zhou, Haiyuan Wang, Kuncheng Li, Bin Hu
The neuronal mechanisms underlying arithmetic calculations are not well understood but the differences between mental addition and subtraction could be particularly revealing. Using fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM), this study aimed to identify the distinct neuronal architectures engaged by the cognitive processes of simple addition and subtraction. Our results revealed significantly greater activation during subtraction in regions along the dorsal pathway, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle portion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mDLPFC), and supplementary motor area (SMA), compared with addition...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343866/selective-entrainment-of-theta-oscillations-in-the-dorsal-stream-causally-enhances-auditory-working-memory-performance
#16
Philippe Albouy, Aurélien Weiss, Sylvain Baillet, Robert J Zatorre
The implication of the dorsal stream in manipulating auditory information in working memory has been recently established. However, the oscillatory dynamics within this network and its causal relationship with behavior remain undefined. Using simultaneous MEG/EEG, we show that theta oscillations in the dorsal stream predict participants' manipulation abilities during memory retention in a task requiring the comparison of two patterns differing in temporal order. We investigated the causal relationship between brain oscillations and behavior by applying theta-rhythmic TMS combined with EEG over the MEG-identified target (left intraparietal sulcus) during the silent interval between the two stimuli...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341165/the-left-intraparietal-sulcus-adapts-to-symbolic-number-in-both-the-visual-and-auditory-modalities-evidence-from-fmri
#17
Stephan E Vogel, Celia Goffin, Joshua Bohnenberger, Karl Koschutnig, Gernot Reishofer, Roland H Grabner, Daniel Ansari
A growing body of evidence from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging adaptation (fMRIa) has implicated the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as a crucial brain region representing the semantic of number symbols. However, it is currently unknown to what extent the left IPS brain activity can be generalized across modalities (e.g., Arabic digits and spoken number words) and how robust and reproducible numerical adaptation effects are. In two separate fMRIa experiments we habituated the brain response of 20 native English-speaking (Experiment 1) and 34 native German-speaking (Experiment 2) adults to Arabic digits or spoken number words...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341161/predictive-position-computations-mediated-by-parietal-areas-tms-evidence
#18
Grace Edwards, Céline Paeye, Philippe Marque, Rufin VanRullen, Patrick Cavanagh
When objects move or the eyes move, the visual system can predict the consequence and generate a percept of the target at its new position. This predictive localization may depend on eye movement control in the frontal eye fields (FEF) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and on motion analysis in the medial temporal area (MT). Across two experiments we examined whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over right FEF, right IPS, right MT, and a control site, peripheral V1/V2, diminished participants' perception of two cases of predictive position perception: trans-saccadic fusion, and the flash grab illusion, both presented in the contralateral visual field...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334082/decoding-grasping-movements-from-the-parieto-frontal-reaching-circuit-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#19
Koen Nelissen, Prosper Agbesi Fiave, Wim Vanduffel
Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits...
February 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321551/top-down-cortical-interactions-in-visuospatial-attention
#20
Timothy P Meehan, Steven L Bressler, Wei Tang, Serguei V Astafiev, Chad M Sylvester, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The voluntary allocation of visuospatial attention depends upon top-down influences from the frontal eye field (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS)-the core regions of the dorsal attention network (DAN)-to visual occipital cortex (VOC), and has been further associated with within-DAN influences, particularly from the FEF to IPS. However, the degree to which these influences manifest at rest and are then modulated during anticipatory visuospatial attention tasks remains poorly understood. Here, we measured both undirected and directed functional connectivity (UFC, DFC) between the FEF, IPS, and VOC at rest and during an anticipatory visuospatial attention task, using a slow event-related design...
March 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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