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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#1
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626967/strategy-over-operation-neural-activation-in-subtraction-and-multiplication-during-fact-retrieval-and-procedural-strategy-use-in-children
#2
Brecht Polspoel, Lien Peters, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Arithmetic development is characterized by strategy shifts between procedural strategy use and fact retrieval. This study is the first to explicitly investigate children's neural activation associated with the use of these different strategies. Participants were 26 typically developing 4th graders (9- to 10-year-olds), who, in a behavioral session, were asked to verbally report on a trial-by-trial basis how they had solved 100 subtraction and multiplication items. These items were subsequently presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608616/whole-brain-structural-connectivity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-and-its-association-with-motor-and-cognitive-function
#3
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Ruben Schmidt, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Carme Junqué, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Esther Toro, Marcel A de Reus, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Roser Pueyo
Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) has long been associated with basal ganglia and thalamus lesions. Recent evidence further points at white matter (WM) damage. This study aims to identify altered WM pathways in dyskinetic CP from a standardized, connectome-based approach, and to assess structure-function relationship in WM pathways for clinical outcomes. Individual connectome maps of 25 subjects with dyskinetic CP and 24 healthy controls were obtained combining a structural parcellation scheme with whole-brain deterministic tractography...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607795/recurrent-lateral-ventricular-enterogenous-cyst-a-report-of-an-extreme-rare-case
#4
Md Shamsuzzaman Mondle, Md Shamsul Alam, Misbah Uddin Ahmad, Md Abdullah Yusuf
The patient was a 45-year-old man with a progressive headache. Evaluation in detail revealed it as a case of left lateral ventricular space occupying lesion (SOL) resembling choroid plexus papilloma. A left parietal craniotomy was done and the lesion was removed completely through intraparietal approach. Surgical removal resulted in complete symptomatic relief. Histopathology revealed that it was a case of the enterogenous cyst. One year after surgery, the patient again experienced the same symptom and the images revealed recurrence of the lesion...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598733/task-context-dependent-linear-representation-of-multiple-visual-objects-in-human-parietal-cortex
#5
Su Keun Jeong, Yaoda Xu
A host of recent studies have reported robust representations of visual object information in the human parietal cortex, similar to those found in ventral visual cortex. In ventral visual cortex, both monkey neurophysiology and human fMRI studies showed that the neural representation of a pair of unrelated objects can be approximated by the averaged neural representation of the constituent objects shown in isolation. In this study, we examined whether such a linear relationship between objects exists for object representations in the human parietal cortex...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591837/attention-selectively-reshapes-the-geometry-of-distributed-semantic-representation
#6
Samuel A Nastase, Andrew C Connolly, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Yaroslav O Halchenko, J Swaroop Guntupalli, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Jason Gors, M Ida Gobbini, James V Haxby
Humans prioritize different semantic qualities of a complex stimulus depending on their behavioral goals. These semantic features are encoded in distributed neural populations, yet it is unclear how attention might operate across these distributed representations. To address this, we presented participants with naturalistic video clips of animals behaving in their natural environments while the participants attended to either behavior or taxonomy. We used models of representational geometry to investigate how attentional allocation affects the distributed neural representation of animal behavior and taxonomy...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555565/threat-of-shock-increases-excitability-and-connectivity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus
#7
Nicholas L Balderston, Elizabeth Hale, Abigail Hsiung, Salvatore Torrisi, Tom Holroyd, Frederick W Carver, Richard Coppola, Monique Ernst, Christian Grillon
Anxiety disorders affect approximately 1 in 5 (18%) Americans within a given 1 year period, placing a substantial burden on the national health care system. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neural mechanisms mediating anxiety symptoms. We used unbiased, multimodal, data-driven, whole-brain measures of neural activity (magnetoencephalography) and connectivity (fMRI) to identify the regions of the brain that contribute most prominently to sustained anxiety. We report that a single brain region, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), shows both elevated neural activity and global brain connectivity during threat...
May 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553217/electrocorticography-of-spatial-shifting-and-attentional-selection-in-human-superior-parietal-cortex
#8
Maarten Schrooten, Eshwar G Ghumare, Laura Seynaeve, Tom Theys, Patrick Dupont, Wim Van Paesschen, Rik Vandenberghe
Spatial-attentional reorienting and selection between competing stimuli are two distinct attentional processes of clinical and fundamental relevance. In the past, reorienting has been mainly associated with inferior parietal cortex. In a patient with a subdural grid covering the upper and lower bank of the left anterior and middle intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior parietal lobule (SPL), we examined the involvement of superior parietal cortex using a hybrid spatial cueing paradigm identical to that previously applied in stroke and in healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#9
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488352/how-do-individual-differences-in-children-s-domain-specific-and-domain-general-abilities-relate-to-brain-activity-within-the-intraparietal-sulcus-during-arithmetic-an-fmri-study
#10
Anna A Matejko, Daniel Ansari
Previous research has demonstrated that children recruit the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during arithmetic, which has largely been attributed to domain-specific processes such as quantity manipulations. However, the IPS has also been found to be important for domain-general abilities, such as visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Based on the current literature it is unclear whether individual differences in domain-specific skills, domain-general skills, or a combination of the two, are related to the recruitment of the IPS during arithmetic...
May 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484381/impaired-activation-of-visual-attention-network-for-motion-salience-is-accompanied-by-reduced-functional-connectivity-between-frontal-eye-fields-and-visual-cortex-in-strabismic-amblyopia
#11
Hao Wang, Sheila G Crewther, Minglong Liang, Robin Laycock, Tao Yu, Bonnie Alexander, David P Crewther, Jian Wang, Zhengqin Yin
Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474293/increased-arithmetic-complexity-is-associated-with-domain-general-but-not-domain-specific-magnitude-processing-in-children-a-simultaneous-fnirs-eeg-study
#12
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Christina Artemenko, Thomas Dresler, Florian B Haeussinger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
The investigation of the neural underpinnings of increased arithmetic complexity in children is essential for developing educational and therapeutic approaches and might provide novel measures to assess the effects of interventions. Although a few studies in adults and children have revealed the activation of bilateral brain regions during more complex calculations, little is known about children. We investigated 24 children undergoing one-digit and two-digit multiplication tasks while simultaneously recording functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) data...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472382/mapping-domain-selective-and-counterpointed-domain-general-higher-cognitive-functions-in-the-lateral-parietal-cortex-evidence-from-fmri-comparisons-of-difficulty-varying-semantic-versus-visuo-spatial-tasks-and-functional-connectivity-analyses
#13
Gina F Humphreys, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Numerous cognitive domains have been associated with the lateral parietal cortex, yet how these disparate functions are packed into this region remains unclear. Whilst areas within the dorsal and the ventral parietal cortex (DPC and VPC) show differential function, there is considerable disagreement as to what these functions might be. Studies focussed on individual domains have plotted out variations of function across the region. Direct cross-domain comparisons are rare yet, when they have been undertaken, at least some regions (particularly the intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and core angular gyrus [AG]) appear to have contrastive domain-general qualities...
May 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454819/causal-role-of-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-for-two-digit-mental-subtraction-and-addition-a-repetitive-tms-study
#14
Maria Montefinese, Cristina Turco, Francesco Piccione, Carlo Semenza
Although parietal areas of the left hemisphere are known to be involved in simple mental calculation, the possible role of the homologue areas of the right hemisphere in mental complex calculation remains debated. In the present study, we tested the causal role of the posterior parietal cortex of both hemispheres in two-digit mental addition and subtraction by means of neuronavigated repetitive TMS (rTMS), investigating possible hemispheric asymmetries in specific parietal areas. In particular, we performed two rTMS experiments, which differed only for the target sites stimulated, on independent samples of participants...
April 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450538/modulation-of-illusory-reversal-in-tactile-temporal-order-by-the-phase-of-posterior-alpha-rhythm
#15
Toshimitsu Takahashi, Shigeru Kitazawa
The subjective temporal order of tactile stimuli, delivered sequentially to each hand with an interval of 100-300 ms, is often inverted when the arms are crossed. Based on data from behavioral and neuroimaging studies, it has been proposed that the reversal is due to a conflict between anatomical and spatial representations of the tactile signal or to the production of an inverted apparent motion signal. Because the alpha rhythms, which consist of a few distinct components, reportedly modulate tactile perception and apparent motion and serve as a 10 Hz timer, we hypothesized that the illusory reversal would be regulated by some of the alpha rhythms...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445695/neural-correlates-of-evoked-phantom-limb-sensations
#16
J Andoh, M Diers, C Milde, C Frobel, D Kleinböhl, H Flor
Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee...
May 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442224/functional-hyperconnectivity-vanishes-in-children-with-developmental-dyscalculia-after-numerical-intervention
#17
Lars Michels, Ruth O'Gorman, Karin Kucian
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a developmental learning disability associated with deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information. Although behavioural training can reduce these deficits, it is unclear which neuronal resources show a functional reorganization due to training. We examined typically developing (TD) children (N=16, mean age: 9.5 years) and age-, gender-, and handedness-matched children with DD (N=15, mean age: 9.5 years) during the performance of a numerical order task with fMRI and functional connectivity before and after 5-weeks of number line training...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438707/contributions-of-the-parietal-cortex-to-increased-efficiency-of-planning-based-action-selection
#18
Jennifer Randerath, Kenneth F Valyear, Benjamin A Philip, Scott H Frey
Response selection is foundational to adaptive behavior, and considerable attention has been devoted to investigating this behavior under conditions in which the mapping between stimuli and responses is fixed. Results from prior studies implicate the left supramarginal gyrus (SMg), premotor and prefrontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum in this essential function. Yet, many goal-directed motor behaviors have multiple solutions with flexible mappings between stimuli and responses whose solutions are believed to involve prospective planning...
April 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431740/getting-a-grip-on-reality-grasping-movements-directed-to-real-objects-and-images-rely-on-dissociable-neural-representations
#19
Erez Freud, Scott N Macdonald, Juan Chen, Derek J Quinlan, Melvyn A Goodale, Jody C Culham
In the current era of touchscreen technology, humans commonly execute visually guided actions directed to two-dimensional (2D) images of objects. Although real, three-dimensional (3D), objects and images of the same objects share high degree of visual similarity, they differ fundamentally in the actions that can be performed on them. Indeed, previous behavioral studies have suggested that simulated grasping of images relies on different representations than actual grasping of real 3D objects. Yet the neural underpinnings of this phenomena have not been investigated...
March 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#20
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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