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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735750/partially-mixed-selectivity-in-human-posterior-parietal-association-cortex
#1
Carey Y Zhang, Tyson Aflalo, Boris Revechkis, Emily R Rosario, Debra Ouellette, Nader Pouratian, Richard A Andersen
To clarify the organization of motor representations in posterior parietal cortex, we test how three motor variables (body side, body part, cognitive strategy) are coded in the human anterior intraparietal cortex. All tested movements were encoded, arguing against strict anatomical segregation of effectors. Single units coded for diverse conjunctions of variables, with different dimensions anatomically overlapping. Consistent with recent studies, neurons encoding body parts exhibited mixed selectivity. This mixed selectivity resulted in largely orthogonal coding of body parts, which "functionally segregate" the effector responses despite the high degree of anatomical overlap...
July 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701531/differential-contributions-to-the-interception-of-occluded-ballistic-trajectories-by-the-temporoparietal-junction-area-hmt-v5-and-the-intraparietal-cortex
#2
Sergio Delle Monache, Francesco Lacquaniti, Gianfranco Bosco
The ability to catch objects when transiently occluded from view suggests their motion can be extrapolated. Intraparietal cortex (IPS) plays a major role in this process along with other brain structures, depending on the task. For example, interception of objects under Earth's gravity effects may depend on time-to-contact predictions derived from integration of visual signals processed by hMT/V5+ with a-priori knowledge of gravity residing in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). To investigate this issue further, we disrupted TPJ, hMT/V5+ and IPS activities with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) while subjects intercepted computer-simulated projectile trajectories perturbed randomly with either hypo- or hypergravity effects...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690501/cortical-activation-during-landmark-centered-vs-gaze-centered-memory-of-saccade-targets-in-the-human-an-fmri-study
#3
Ying Chen, J D Crawford
A remembered saccade target could be encoded in egocentric coordinates such as gaze-centered, or relative to some external allocentric landmark that is independent of the target or gaze (landmark-centered). In comparison to egocentric mechanisms, very little is known about such a landmark-centered representation. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to identify brain areas supporting these two types of spatial coding (i.e., landmark-centered vs. gaze-centered) for target memory during the Delay phase where only target location, not saccade direction, was specified...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668221/human-neuroimaging-reveals-the-subcomponents-of-grasping-reaching-and-pointing-actions
#4
Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi, Jason D Connolly, Simona Monaco, Teresa D Figley, A David Milner, Thomas Schenk, Jody C Culham
Although the neural underpinnings of visually guided grasping and reaching have been well delineated within lateral and medial fronto-parietal networks (respectively), the contributions of subcomponents of visuomotor actions have not been explored in detail. Using careful subtraction logic, here we investigated which aspects of grasping, reaching, and pointing movements drive activation across key areas within visuomotor networks implicated in hand actions. For grasping tasks, we find activation differences based on the precision required (fine > coarse grip: anterior intraparietal sulcus, aIPS), the requirement to lift the object (grip + lift > grip: aIPS; dorsal premotor cortex, PMd; and supplementary motor area, SMA), and the number of digits employed (3-/5- vs...
June 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659463/integration-of-visual-and-tactile-information-in-reproduction-of-traveled-distance
#5
Jan Churan, Johannes Paul, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
In the natural world, self-motion always stimulates several different sensory modalities. Here we investigated the interplay between a visual optic flow stimulus simulating self-motion and a tactile stimulus (air flow resulting from self-motion) while human observers were engaged in a distance reproduction task. We found that adding congruent tactile information (i.e. speed of the air flow and speed of visual motion are directly proportional) to the visual information significantly improves the precision of the actively reproduced distances...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#6
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626967/strategy-over-operation-neural-activation-in-subtraction-and-multiplication-during-fact-retrieval-and-procedural-strategy-use-in-children
#7
Brecht Polspoel, Lien Peters, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Arithmetic development is characterized by strategy shifts between procedural strategy use and fact retrieval. This study is the first to explicitly investigate children's neural activation associated with the use of these different strategies. Participants were 26 typically developing 4th graders (9- to 10-year-olds), who, in a behavioral session, were asked to verbally report on a trial-by-trial basis how they had solved 100 subtraction and multiplication items. These items were subsequently presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 19, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608616/whole-brain-structural-connectivity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-and-its-association-with-motor-and-cognitive-function
#8
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Ruben Schmidt, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Carme Junqué, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Esther Toro, Marcel A de Reus, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Roser Pueyo
Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) has long been associated with basal ganglia and thalamus lesions. Recent evidence further points at white matter (WM) damage. This study aims to identify altered WM pathways in dyskinetic CP from a standardized, connectome-based approach, and to assess structure-function relationship in WM pathways for clinical outcomes. Individual connectome maps of 25 subjects with dyskinetic CP and 24 healthy controls were obtained combining a structural parcellation scheme with whole-brain deterministic tractography...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607795/recurrent-lateral-ventricular-enterogenous-cyst-a-report-of-an-extreme-rare-case
#9
Md Shamsuzzaman Mondle, Md Shamsul Alam, Misbah Uddin Ahmad, Md Abdullah Yusuf
The patient was a 45-year-old man with a progressive headache. Evaluation in detail revealed it as a case of left lateral ventricular space occupying lesion (SOL) resembling choroid plexus papilloma. A left parietal craniotomy was done and the lesion was removed completely through intraparietal approach. Surgical removal resulted in complete symptomatic relief. Histopathology revealed that it was a case of the enterogenous cyst. One year after surgery, the patient again experienced the same symptom and the images revealed recurrence of the lesion...
2017: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598733/task-context-dependent-linear-representation-of-multiple-visual-objects-in-human-parietal-cortex
#10
Su Keun Jeong, Yaoda Xu
A host of recent studies have reported robust representations of visual object information in the human parietal cortex, similar to those found in ventral visual cortex. In ventral visual cortex, both monkey neurophysiology and human fMRI studies showed that the neural representation of a pair of unrelated objects can be approximated by the averaged neural representation of the constituent objects shown in isolation. In this study, we examined whether such a linear relationship between objects exists for object representations in the human parietal cortex...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591837/attention-selectively-reshapes-the-geometry-of-distributed-semantic-representation
#11
Samuel A Nastase, Andrew C Connolly, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Yaroslav O Halchenko, J Swaroop Guntupalli, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Jason Gors, M Ida Gobbini, James V Haxby
Humans prioritize different semantic qualities of a complex stimulus depending on their behavioral goals. These semantic features are encoded in distributed neural populations, yet it is unclear how attention might operate across these distributed representations. To address this, we presented participants with naturalistic video clips of animals behaving in their natural environments while the participants attended to either behavior or taxonomy. We used models of representational geometry to investigate how attentional allocation affects the distributed neural representation of animal behavior and taxonomy...
June 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555565/threat-of-shock-increases-excitability-and-connectivity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus
#12
Nicholas L Balderston, Elizabeth Hale, Abigail Hsiung, Salvatore Torrisi, Tom Holroyd, Frederick W Carver, Richard Coppola, Monique Ernst, Christian Grillon
Anxiety disorders affect approximately 1 in 5 (18%) Americans within a given 1 year period, placing a substantial burden on the national health care system. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neural mechanisms mediating anxiety symptoms. We used unbiased, multimodal, data-driven, whole-brain measures of neural activity (magnetoencephalography) and connectivity (fMRI) to identify the regions of the brain that contribute most prominently to sustained anxiety. We report that a single brain region, the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), shows both elevated neural activity and global brain connectivity during threat...
May 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553217/electrocorticography-of-spatial-shifting-and-attentional-selection-in-human-superior-parietal-cortex
#13
Maarten Schrooten, Eshwar G Ghumare, Laura Seynaeve, Tom Theys, Patrick Dupont, Wim Van Paesschen, Rik Vandenberghe
Spatial-attentional reorienting and selection between competing stimuli are two distinct attentional processes of clinical and fundamental relevance. In the past, reorienting has been mainly associated with inferior parietal cortex. In a patient with a subdural grid covering the upper and lower bank of the left anterior and middle intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior parietal lobule (SPL), we examined the involvement of superior parietal cortex using a hybrid spatial cueing paradigm identical to that previously applied in stroke and in healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#14
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488352/how-do-individual-differences-in-children-s-domain-specific-and-domain-general-abilities-relate-to-brain-activity-within-the-intraparietal-sulcus-during-arithmetic-an-fmri-study
#15
Anna A Matejko, Daniel Ansari
Previous research has demonstrated that children recruit the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) during arithmetic, which has largely been attributed to domain-specific processes such as quantity manipulations. However, the IPS has also been found to be important for domain-general abilities, such as visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM). Based on the current literature it is unclear whether individual differences in domain-specific skills, domain-general skills, or a combination of the two, are related to the recruitment of the IPS during arithmetic...
May 10, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484381/impaired-activation-of-visual-attention-network-for-motion-salience-is-accompanied-by-reduced-functional-connectivity-between-frontal-eye-fields-and-visual-cortex-in-strabismic-amblyopia
#16
Hao Wang, Sheila G Crewther, Minglong Liang, Robin Laycock, Tao Yu, Bonnie Alexander, David P Crewther, Jian Wang, Zhengqin Yin
Strabismic amblyopia is now acknowledged to be more than a simple loss of acuity and to involve alterations in visually driven attention, though whether this applies to both stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention has not been explored. Hence we investigated monocular threshold performance during a motion salience-driven attention task involving detection of a coherent dot motion target in one of four quadrants in adult controls and those with strabismic amblyopia. Psychophysical motion thresholds were impaired for the strabismic amblyopic eye, requiring longer inspection time and consequently slower target speed for detection compared to the fellow eye or control eyes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474293/increased-arithmetic-complexity-is-associated-with-domain-general-but-not-domain-specific-magnitude-processing-in-children-a-simultaneous-fnirs-eeg-study
#17
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Christina Artemenko, Thomas Dresler, Florian B Haeussinger, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk
The investigation of the neural underpinnings of increased arithmetic complexity in children is essential for developing educational and therapeutic approaches and might provide novel measures to assess the effects of interventions. Although a few studies in adults and children have revealed the activation of bilateral brain regions during more complex calculations, little is known about children. We investigated 24 children undergoing one-digit and two-digit multiplication tasks while simultaneously recording functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) data...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472382/mapping-domain-selective-and-counterpointed-domain-general-higher-cognitive-functions-in-the-lateral-parietal-cortex-evidence-from-fmri-comparisons-of-difficulty-varying-semantic-versus-visuo-spatial-tasks-and-functional-connectivity-analyses
#18
Gina F Humphreys, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Numerous cognitive domains have been associated with the lateral parietal cortex, yet how these disparate functions are packed into this region remains unclear. Whilst areas within the dorsal and the ventral parietal cortex (DPC and VPC) show differential function, there is considerable disagreement as to what these functions might be. Studies focussed on individual domains have plotted out variations of function across the region. Direct cross-domain comparisons are rare yet, when they have been undertaken, at least some regions (particularly the intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and core angular gyrus [AG]) appear to have contrastive domain-general qualities...
May 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454819/causal-role-of-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-for-two-digit-mental-subtraction-and-addition-a-repetitive-tms-study
#19
Maria Montefinese, Cristina Turco, Francesco Piccione, Carlo Semenza
Although parietal areas of the left hemisphere are known to be involved in simple mental calculation, the possible role of the homologue areas of the right hemisphere in mental complex calculation remains debated. In the present study, we tested the causal role of the posterior parietal cortex of both hemispheres in two-digit mental addition and subtraction by means of neuronavigated repetitive TMS (rTMS), investigating possible hemispheric asymmetries in specific parietal areas. In particular, we performed two rTMS experiments, which differed only for the target sites stimulated, on independent samples of participants...
April 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450538/modulation-of-illusory-reversal-in-tactile-temporal-order-by-the-phase-of-posterior-%C3%AE-rhythm
#20
Toshimitsu Takahashi, Shigeru Kitazawa
The subjective temporal order of tactile stimuli, delivered sequentially to each hand with an interval of 100-300 ms, is often inverted when the arms are crossed. Based on data from behavioral and neuroimaging studies, it has been proposed that the reversal is due to a conflict between anatomical and spatial representations of the tactile signal or to the production of an inverted apparent motion signal. Because the α rhythms, which consist of a few distinct components, reportedly modulate tactile perception and apparent motion and serve as a 10 Hz timer, we hypothesized that the illusory reversal would be regulated by some of the α rhythms...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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