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Intraparietal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#1
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137988/tms-eeg-reveals-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-top-down-influences-of-posterior-intraparietal-cortex-on-behavior-and-visual-event-related-potentials
#2
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Henry Railo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallus, Teemu Paavilainen, Antti Revonsuo
Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129671/the-semantic-system-is-involved-in-mathematical-problem-solving
#3
Xinlin Zhou, Mengyi Li, Leinian Li, Yiyun Zhang, Jiaxin Cui, Jie Liu, Chuansheng Chen
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation...
November 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128550/neural-correlates-of-quantity-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers
#4
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Participants performed a semantic distance comparison task in which they judged which one of the two items was semantically closer to the target...
November 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111411/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-imitating-and-opposing-facial-movements
#5
Detre A Godinez, Daniel S Lumian, Tanisha Crosby-Attipoe, Ana M Bedacarratz, Paree Zarolia, Kateri McRae
Previous studies have demonstrated that imitating a face can be relatively automatic and reflexive. In contrast, opposing facial expressions may require engaging flexible, cognitive control. However, few studies have examined the degree to which imitation and opposition of facial movements recruit overlapping and distinct neural regions. Furthermore, little work has examined whether opposition and imitation of facial movements differ between emotional and averted eye gaze facial expressions. This study utilized a novel task with 40 participants to compare passive viewing, imitation and opposition of emotional faces looking forward and neutral faces with averted eye gaze [(3: Look, Imitate, Oppose) x (2: Emotion, Averted Eye)]...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094500/the-left-supramarginal-gyrus-contributes-to-finger-positioning-for-object-use-a-neuronavigated-tms-study
#7
Michael Andres, Barbara Pelgrims, Etienne Olivier, Gilles Vannuscorps
In everyday actions, we grasp dozens of different manipulable objects in ways that accommodate their functional use. Neuroimaging studies showed that grasping objects in a way that is appropriate for their use involves a left-lateralized network including the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). However, because previous works premised their conclusions on tasks requiring action execution, it has remained difficult to discriminate between the areas involved in specifying the position of fingers onto the object from those implementing the motor program required to perform the action...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080712/caudal-intraparietal-sulcus-and-three-dimensional-vision-a-combined-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-single-cell-study
#8
Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Ilse Van Dromme, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Peter Janssen
The cortical network processing three-dimensional (3D) object structure defined by binocular disparity spans both the ventral and dorsal visual streams. However, very little is known about the neural representation of 3D structure at intermediate levels of the visual hierarchy. Here, we investigated the neural selectivity for 3D surfaces in the macaque Posterior Intraparietal area (PIP) in the medial bank of the caudal intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We first identified a region sensitive to depth-structure information in the medial bank of the caudal IPS using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and then recorded single-cell activity within this fMRI activation in the same animals...
November 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076788/relationship-between-cortical-resection-and-visual-function-after-occipital-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#9
Won Heo, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Sang Kun Lee
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated long-term clinical and visual outcomes of patients after occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) surgery and analyzed the relationship between visual cortical resection and visual function after OLE surgery. METHODS A total of 42 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with OLE and underwent occipital lobe resection between June 1995 and November 2013 were included. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were reviewed retrospectively. Seizure outcomes were categorized according to the Engel classification...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069324/activity-in-lip-but-not-v4-matches-performance-when-attention-is-spread
#10
Fabrice Arcizet, Koorosh Mirpour, Daniel J Foster, James W Bisley
The enhancement of neuronal responses in many visual areas while animals perform spatial attention tasks has widely been thought to be the neural correlate of visual attention, but it is unclear whether the presence or absence of this modulation contributes to our striking inability to notice changes in change blindness examples. We asked whether neuronal responses in visual area V4 and the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) in posterior parietal cortex could explain the limited ability of subjects to attend multiple items in a display...
October 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061698/the-right-temporoparietal-junction-supports-speech-tracking-during-selective-listening-evidence-from-concurrent-eeg-fmri
#11
Sebastian Puschmann, Simon Steinkamp, Imke Gillich, Bojana Mirkovic, Stefan Debener, Christiane M Thiel
Listening selectively to one out of several competing speakers in a "cocktail party" situation is a highly demanding task. It relies on a widespread cortical network, including auditory sensory but also frontal and parietal brain regions involved in controlling auditory attention. Previous work has shown that, during selective listening, ongoing neural activity in auditory sensory areas is dominated by the attended speech stream, whereas competing input is suppressed. The relationship between these attentional modulations in the sensory tracking of the attended speech stream and frontoparietal activity during selective listening is however not understood...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058355/functional-subdivisions-within-the-human-intraparietal-sulcus-are-involved-in-visuospatial-transformation-in-a-non-context-dependent-manner
#12
Alexandra Papadopoulos, Francesco Sforazzini, Gary Egan, Sharna Jamadar
Object-based visuospatial transformation is important for the ability to interact with the world and the people and objects within it. In this preliminary investigation, we hypothesized that object-based visuospatial transformation is a unitary process invoked regardless of current context and is localized to the intraparietal sulcus. Participants (n = 14) performed both antisaccade and mental rotation tasks while scanned using fMRI. A statistical conjunction confirmed that both tasks activated the intraparietal sulcus...
October 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055679/cerebral-metabolic-correlates-of-attention-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-study-of-the-stroop
#13
Rebecca J Melrose, Stephanie Young, Gali H Weissberger, Laura Natta, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show difficulties with attention. Cognitive neuroscience models posit that attention can be broken down into alerting, orienting, and executive networks. We used the Stroop Color-Word test to interrogate the neural correlates of attention deficits in AD. We hypothesized that the Word, Color, and Color-Word conditions of the Stroop would all tap into the alerting and orienting networks. The Color-Word condition would additionally tap into the executive network. A ratio of Color-Word to Color naming performance would isolate the executive network from the others...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044872/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-causally-influences-prefrontal-activation-for-visual-detection
#14
Joana Leitão, Axel Thielscher, Hwee Ling Lee, Johannes Tuennerhoff, Uta Noppeney
For effective interactions with the environment the brain needs to form perceptual decisions based on noisy sensory evidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that perceptual decisions are formed by widespread interactions amongst sensory areas representing the noisy sensory evidence and fronto-parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS on the neural systems involved in perceptual decision making...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044804/comparison-of-visual-receptive-fields-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-dlpfc-and-ventral-intraparietal-area-vip-in-macaques
#15
Pooja Viswanathan, Andreas Nieder
The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterization and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices is missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040434/differential-processing-of-isolated-object-and-multi-item-pop-out-displays-in-lip-and-pfc
#16
Ethan M Meyers, Andy Liang, Fumi Katsuki, Christos Constantinidis
Objects that are highly distinct from their surroundings appear to visually "pop-out." This effect is present for displays in which: (1) a single cue object is shown on a blank background, and (2) a single cue object is highly distinct from surrounding objects; it is generally assumed that these 2 display types are processed in the same way. To directly examine this, we applied a decoding analysis to neural activity recorded from the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)...
October 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040015/distinct-representations-of-magnitude-and-spatial-position-within-parietal-cortex-during-number-space-mapping
#17
Frank J Kanayet, Andrew Mattarella-Micke, Peter J Kohler, Anthony M Norcia, Bruce D McCandliss, James L McClelland
Mapping numbers onto space is foundational to mathematical cognition. These cognitive operations are often conceptualized in the context of a "mental number line" and involve multiple brain regions in or near the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) that have been implicated both in numeral and spatial cognition. Here we examine possible differentiation of function within these brain areas in relating numbers to spatial positions. By isolating the planning phase of a number line task and introducing spatiotopic mapping tools from fMRI into the mental number line task research, we are able to focus our analysis on the neural activity of areas in anterior IPS (aIPS) previously associated with number processing and on spatiotopically organized areas in and around posterior IPS (pIPS), while participants prepare to place a number on a number line...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033221/on-the-role-of-visual-experience-in-mathematical-development-evidence-from-blind-mathematicians
#18
Marie Amalric, Isabelle Denghien, Stanislas Dehaene
Advanced mathematical reasoning, regardless of domain or difficulty, activates a reproducible set of bilateral brain areas including intraparietal, inferior temporal and dorsal prefrontal cortex. The respective roles of genetics, experience and education in the development of this math-responsive network, however, remain unresolved. Here, we investigate the role of visual experience by studying the exceptional case of three professional mathematicians who were blind from birth (n=1) or became blind during childhood (n=2)...
October 4, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030557/heading-representations-in-primates-are-compressed-by-saccades
#19
Frank Bremmer, Jan Churan, Markus Lappe
Perceptual illusions help to understand how sensory signals are decoded in the brain. Here we report that the opposite approach is also applicable, i.e., results from decoding neural activity from monkey extrastriate visual cortex correctly predict a hitherto unknown perceptual illusion in humans. We record neural activity from monkey medial superior temporal (MST) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) area during presentation of self-motion stimuli and concurrent reflexive eye movements. A heading-decoder performs veridically during slow eye movements...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023463/learning-to-tie-the-knot-the-acquisition-of-functional-object-representations-by-physical-and-observational-experience
#20
Emily S Cross, Antonia F de C Hamilton, Nichola Rice Cohen, Scott T Grafton
Here we examined neural substrates for physically and observationally learning to construct novel objects, and characterized brain regions associated with each kind of learning using fMRI. Each participant was assigned a training partner, and for five consecutive days practiced tying one group of knots ("tied" condition) or watched their partner tie different knots ("watched" condition) while a third set of knots remained untrained. Functional MRI was obtained prior to and immediately following the week of training while participants performed a visual knot-matching task...
2017: PloS One
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