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H Moriah Sokolowski, Wim Fias, Ahmad Mousa, Daniel Ansari
In recent years, there has been substantial growth in neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and non-symbolic (e.g. dot arrays) number processing. However, it remains contested whether number is represented abstractly, or if number representations in the brain are format-dependent. In order to quantitatively evaluate available evidence, we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct quantitative meta-analyses using 57 neuroimaging papers. Consistent with the existence of abstract representation of number in the brain, conjunction analyses revealed overlapping activation for symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers in frontal and parietal lobes...
October 18, 2016: NeuroImage
Kenny Skagerlund, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf Träff
Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, studies investigating the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions are inconclusive, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Meaghan Clough, Sanuji Gajamange, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
Executive dysfunction has been demonstrated among premutation (PM) carriers (55-199 CGG repeats) of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Further, alterations to neural activation patterns have been reported during memory and comparison based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks in these carriers. For the first time, the relationships between fMRI neural activation during an interleaved ocular motor prosaccade/antisaccade paradigm, and concurrent task performance (saccade measures of latency, accuracy and error rate) in PM females were examined...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Wei Zhou, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhichao Xia, Yanchao Bi, Ping Li, Hua Shu
When reading a narrative text, both the dorsal and ventral visual systems are activated. To illustrate the patterns of interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems in text reading, we conducted analyses of functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) in a left-hemispheric network for reading-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. In reading-driven fMRI (Experiment 1), we found significant FCs among the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the visual word form area (VWFA), and there were top-down effects from the left MFG to the left IPS, from the left MFG to the VWFA, and from the left IPS to the VWFA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Sashank Pisupati, Lital Chartarifsky, Anne K Churchland
Katz and colleagues demonstrate that inactivating the primate lateral intraparietal area (LIP) spares visual motion decisions, even though these same decisions strongly modulate LIP neurons. This work is the latest addition to an intense effort spanning sensory modalities, animals, and techniques to understand which structures comprise the circuits responsible for interpreting sensory signals to make decisions.
September 26, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Mo Chen, Bing Li, Jing Guang, Linyu Wei, Si Wu, Yu Liu, Mingsha Zhang
Although the cerebral cortex is thought to be composed of functionally distinct areas, the actual parcellation of area and assignment of function are still highly controversial. An example is the much-studied lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP). Despite the general agreement that LIP plays an important role in visual-oculomotor transformation, it remains unclear whether the area is primary sensory- or motor-related (the attention-intention debate). Although LIP has been considered as a functionally unitary area, its dorsal (LIPd) and ventral (LIPv) parts differ in local morphology and long-distance connectivity...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Brian A Anderson
Through associative reward learning, arbitrary cues acquire the ability to automatically capture visual attention. Previous studies have examined the neural correlates of value-driven attentional orienting, revealing elevated activity within a network of brain regions encompassing the visual corticostriatal loop (caudate tail, lateral occipital complex (LOC), and early visual cortex) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Such attentional priority signals raise a broader question concerning how visual signals are combined with reward signals during learning to create a representation that is sensitive to the confluence of the two...
September 27, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Shipra Kanjlia, Connor Lane, Lisa Feigenson, Marina Bedny
In humans, the ability to reason about mathematical quantities depends on a frontoparietal network that includes the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). How do nature and nurture give rise to the neurobiology of numerical cognition? We asked how visual experience shapes the neural basis of numerical thinking by studying numerical cognition in congenitally blind individuals. Blind (n = 17) and blindfolded sighted (n = 19) participants solved math equations that varied in difficulty (e.g., 27 - 12 = x vs. 7 - 2 = x), and performed a control sentence comprehension task while undergoing fMRI...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Frank Bremmer, Andre Kaminiarz, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Jan Churan
Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP)...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Stephen M Emrich, Jeffrey S Johnson, David W Sutterer, Bradley R Postle
Numerous studies have demonstrated that visual STM (VSTM) and attention are tightly linked processes that share a number of neuroanatomical substrates. Here, we used repetitive TMS (rTMS) along with simultaneous EEG to examine the causal relationship between intraparietal sulcus functioning and performance on tasks of attention and VSTM. Participants performed two tasks in which they were required to attend to or remember colored items over a brief interval, with 10-Hz rTMS applied on some of the trials. Although no overall behavioral changes were observed across either task, rTMS did affect individual performance on both the attention and VSTM tasks in a manner that was predicted by individual differences in baseline performance...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sabrina Brigadoi, Simone Cutini, Federica Meconi, Marco Castellaro, Paola Sessa, Mattia Marangon, Alessandra Bertoldo, Pierre Jolicœur, Roberto Dell'Acqua
A consolidated practice in cognitive neuroscience is to explore the properties of human visual working memory through the analysis of electromagnetic signals using cued change detection tasks. Under these conditions, EEG/MEG activity increments in the posterior parietal cortex scaling with the number of memoranda are often reported in the hemisphere contralateral to the objects' position in the memory array. This highly replicable finding clashes with several reported failures to observe compatible hemodynamic activity modulations using fMRI or fNIRS in comparable tasks...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dietsje Jolles, Kaustubh Supekar, Jennifer Richardson, Caitlin Tenison, Sarit Ashkenazi, Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Lynn Fuchs, Vinod Menon
Cognitive development is shaped by brain plasticity during childhood, yet little is known about changes in large-scale functional circuits associated with learning in academically relevant cognitive domains such as mathematics. Here, we investigate plasticity of intrinsic brain circuits associated with one-on-one math tutoring and its relation to individual differences in children's learning. We focused on functional circuits associated with the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG), cytoarchitectonically distinct subdivisions of the human parietal cortex with different roles in numerical cognition...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Paolo Capotosto, Antonello Baldassarre, Carlo Sestieri, Sara Spadone, Gian Luca Romani, Maurizio Corbetta
Alpha (8-12 Hz) power desynchronization is strongly associated to visual perception but has been observed in a large variety of tasks, indicating a general role in task anticipation. We previously reported in human observers that interference by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of core regions of the dorsal attention network (DAN) disrupts both anticipatory alpha desynchronization and performance during a visuospatial attention (VSA) task. Here, we test the hypothesis that alpha desynchronization is task specific, and can be selectively modulated by interfering with activity in different higher-order parietal regions...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Kenji Ogawa, Fumihito Imai
Previous neuropsychological studies of ideomotor apraxia (IMA) indicated impairments in pantomime actions for tool use for both right and left hands following lesions of parieto-premotor cortices in the left hemisphere. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we tested the hypothesis that the left parieto-premotor cortices are involved in the storage or retrieval of hand-independent representation of tool-use actions. In the fMRI scanner, one of three kinds of tools was displayed in pictures or letters, and the participants made pantomimes of the use of these tools using the right hand for the picture stimuli or with the left hand for the letters...
September 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Chandler Sours, Prashant Raghavan, W Alex Foxworthy, M Alex Meredith, Dina El Metwally, Jiachen Zhuo, John H Gilmore, Alexandre E Medina, Rao P Gullapalli
How the newborn brain adapts to its new multisensory environment has been a subject of debate. Although an early theory proposed that the brain acquires multisensory features as a result of postnatal experience, recent studies have demonstrated that the neonatal brain is already capable of processing multisensory information. For multisensory processing to be functional, it is a prerequisite that multisensory convergence among neural connections occur. However, multisensory connectivity has not been examined in human neonates nor are its location(s) or afferent sources understood...
August 31, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Margot A Schel, Torkel Klingberg
Mathematical ability, especially perception of numbers and performance of arithmetics, is known to rely on the activation of intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, reasoning ability and working memory, 2 highly associated abilities also activate partly overlapping regions. Most studies aimed at localizing mathematical function have used group averages, where individual variability is averaged out, thus confounding the anatomical specificity when localizing cognitive functions. Here, we analyze the functional anatomy of the intraparietal cortex by using individual analysis of subregions of IPS based on how they are structurally connected to frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex...
August 27, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Tanya M Evans, D Lynn Flowers, Megan M Luetje, Eileen Napoliello, Guinevere F Eden
Arithmetic and written language are uniquely human skills acquired during early schooling and used daily. While prior studies have independently characterized the neural bases for arithmetic and reading, here we examine both skills in a single study to capture their shared and unique cognitive mechanisms, as well as the role of age/experience in modulating their neural representations. We used functional MRI in 7- to 29-year-olds who performed single-digit subtraction, single-digit addition, and single-word reading...
August 23, 2016: NeuroImage
Stephen M Wilson, Andrew T DeMarco, Maya L Henry, Benno Gesierich, Miranda Babiak, Bruce L Miller, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini
Syntactic processing deficits are highly variable in individuals with primary progressive aphasia. Damage to left inferior frontal cortex has been associated with syntactic deficits in primary progressive aphasia in a number of structural and functional neuroimaging studies. However, a contrasting picture of a broader syntactic network has emerged from neuropsychological studies in other aphasic cohorts, and functional imaging studies in healthy controls. To reconcile these findings, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of syntactic comprehension in 51 individuals with primary progressive aphasia, composed of all clinical variants and a range of degrees of syntactic processing impairment...
August 23, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Pascasie L Dombert, Anna Kuhns, Paola Mengotti, Gereon R Fink, Simone Vossel
Humans flexibly attend to features or locations and these processes are influenced by the probability of sensory events. We combined computational modelling of response times with fMRI to compare the functional correlates of (re-)orienting, and the modulation by probabilistic inference in spatial and feature-based attention systems. Twenty-four volunteers performed two task versions with spatial or colour cues. Percentage of cue validity changed unpredictably. A hierarchical Bayesian model was used to derive trial-wise estimates of probability-dependent attention, entering the fMRI analysis as parametric regressors...
August 11, 2016: NeuroImage
Tobias U Hauser, Bruno Rütsche, Karoline Wurmitzer, Silvia Brem, Christian C Ruff, Roland H Grabner
BACKGROUND: A small but increasing number of studies suggest that non-invasive brain stimulation by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can modulate arithmetic processes that are essential for higher-order mathematical skills and that are impaired in dyscalculic individuals. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such stimulation effects, and whether they are specific to cognitive processes involved in different arithmetic tasks. METHODS: We addressed these questions by applying tDCS during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants were solving two types of complex subtraction problems: repeated problems, relying on arithmetic fact learning and problem-solving by fact retrieval, and novel problems, requiring calculation procedures...
July 20, 2016: Brain Stimulation
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