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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321551/top-down-cortical-interactions-in-visuospatial-attention
#1
Timothy P Meehan, Steven L Bressler, Wei Tang, Serguei V Astafiev, Chad M Sylvester, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The voluntary allocation of visuospatial attention depends upon top-down influences from the frontal eye field (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS)-the core regions of the dorsal attention network (DAN)-to visual occipital cortex (VOC), and has been further associated with within-DAN influences, particularly from the FEF to IPS. However, the degree to which these influences manifest at rest and are then modulated during anticipatory visuospatial attention tasks remains poorly understood. Here, we measured both undirected and directed functional connectivity (UFC, DFC) between the FEF, IPS, and VOC at rest and during an anticipatory visuospatial attention task, using a slow event-related design...
March 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320224/identification-of-common-neural-circuit-disruptions-in-cognitive-control-across-psychiatric-disorders
#2
Lisa M McTeague, Julia Huemer, David M Carreon, Ying Jiang, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated the nature of disruptions in neural circuitry underlying cognitive control capacities across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic neuroimaging meta-analysis. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging articles published through June 2015 that compared activation in patients with axis I disorders and matched healthy control participants during cognitive control tasks...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315613/parietomotor-connectivity-in-the-contralesional-hemisphere-after-stroke-a-paired-pulse-tms-study
#3
Etienne Allart, Arnaud Delval, Alexandre Caux-Dedeystere, Julien Labreuche, Romain Viard, Renaud Lopes, Hervé Devanne
OBJECTIVES: To assess the contralesional connectivity between the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and the motor cortex (M1) in stroke patients, and to probe putative relationships with spatial neglect and motor impairment. METHODS: In 12 right-side stroke patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls, we used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the contralesional connectivity between three left-side PPC sites (the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior intraparietal sulcus and the superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC)) and M1...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299780/age-related-changes-of-sulcal-imprints-on-the-endocranium-in-the-japanese-macaque-macaca-fuscata
#4
Nguyen Van Minh, Yuzuru Hamada
OBJECTIVES: The degree of expression of sulcal patterns on endocasts of nonhuman primates has been shown to depend primarily on species (brain size) and age of the individual. It has been suggested that brain details on endocasts are reproduced better in juvenile than adult primates. Here, we investigated age-related changes in the imprint of the major sulci on the endocranium of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from the juvenile period to adulthood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using CT scans of 25 (12 males, 13 females) cranial specimens from macaques, we generated virtual endocasts to assess imprints of the seven main sulci on the endocranial surface...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294713/attention-to-distinct-goal-relevant-features-differentially-guides-semantic-knowledge-retrieval
#5
Gavin K Hanson, Evangelia G Chrysikou
A critical aspect of conceptual knowledge is the selective activation of goal-relevant aspects of meaning. Although the contributions of ventrolateral prefrontal and posterior temporal areas to semantic cognition are well established, the precise role of posterior parietal cortex in semantic control remains unknown. Here, we examined whether this region modulates attention to goal-relevant features within semantic memory, according to the same principles that determine the salience of task-relevant object properties during visual attention...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290071/structural-connectivity-in-spatial-attention-network-reconstruction-from-left-hemispatial-neglect
#6
Takaaki Hattori, Kenji Ito, Chika Nakazawa, Yoshiyuki Numasawa, Mayumi Watanabe, Shigeki Aoki, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Sumio Ishiai, Takanori Yokota
Left hemispatial neglect (neglect) is an impaired state of spatial attention. We aimed to reconstruct structural connectivity in the spatial attention network and to identify disconnection patterns underlying neglect. We enrolled 59 right-handed patients who had their first-ever infarction in the right hemisphere and classified them into neglect group (34 patients with neglect) and control group (25 patients without neglect). The neglect group was further subcategorized into 6 subgroups based on infarcted vascular territories...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286475/neural-networks-for-time-perception-and-working-memory
#7
Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, Metehan Çiçek
Time is an important concept which determines most human behaviors, however questions remain about how time is perceived and which areas of the brain are responsible for time perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between time perception and working memory in healthy adults. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used during the application of a visual paradigm. In all of the conditions, the participants were presented with a moving black rectangle on a gray screen. The rectangle was obstructed by a black bar for a time period and then reappeared again...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282414/cognitive-control-attention-and-the-other-race-effect-in-memory
#8
Thackery I Brown, Melina R Uncapher, Tiffany E Chow, Jennifer L Eberhardt, Anthony D Wagner
People are better at remembering faces from their own race than other races-a phenomenon with significant societal implications. This Other Race Effect (ORE) in memory could arise from different attentional allocation to, and cognitive control over, same- and other-race faces during encoding. Deeper or more differentiated processing of same-race faces could yield more robust representations of same- vs. other-race faces that could support better recognition memory. Conversely, to the extent that other-race faces may be characterized by lower perceptual expertise, attention and cognitive control may be more important for successful encoding of robust, distinct representations of these stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270589/coding-of-spatial-attention-priorities-and-object-features-in-the-macaque-lateral-intraparietal-cortex
#9
Ekaterina Levichkina, Yuri B Saalmann, Trichur R Vidyasagar
Primate posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is known to be involved in controlling spatial attention. Neurons in one part of the PPC, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), show enhanced responses to objects at attended locations. Although many are selective for object features, such as the orientation of a visual stimulus, it is not clear how LIP circuits integrate feature-selective information when providing attentional feedback about behaviorally relevant locations to the visual cortex. We studied the relationship between object feature and spatial attention properties of LIP cells in two macaques by measuring the cells' orientation selectivity and the degree of attentional enhancement while performing a delayed match-to-sample task...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268177/prospective-relations-between-resting-state-connectivity-of-parietal-subdivisions-and-arithmetic-competence
#10
Gavin R Price, Darren J Yeo, Eric D Wilkey, Laurie E Cutting
The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263416/the-effect-of-reward-expectation-on-the-time-course-of-perceptual-decisions
#11
Annalisa Tosoni, Giorgia Committeri, Cinzia Calluso, Gaspare Galati
Perceptual discriminations can be strongly biased by the expected reward for a correct decision but the neural mechanisms underlying this influence are still partially unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a task requiring to arbitrarily associate a visual stimulus with a specific action, we have recently shown that perceptual decisions are encoded within the same sensorimotor regions responsible for planning and executing specific motor actions. Here we examined whether these regions additionally encode the amount of expected reward for a perceptual decision...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259773/different-activity-patterns-for-action-and-language-within-their-shared-neural-areas-an-fmri-study-on-action-observation-and-language-phonology
#12
Zuo Zhang, Yaoru Sun, Glyn W Humphreys, Yalin Song
The neural processes for action and language activate shared brain regions including the left inferior frontal, parietal and temporal-occipital cortices. However, it still remains unclear how action and language are related and what neural activity patterns are elicited within these shared cortical regions. In this study we examined the neural activation for action observation and language phonology in their shared cortical regions by conducting three experiments in a single fMRI session: a mixed-task experiment involving both action and language phonological processing, and two independent experiments involving language phonology and action observation respectively...
March 1, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258716/functional-interactions-between-the-macaque-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-pathways-during-three-dimensional-object-vision
#13
REVIEW
Peter Janssen, Bram-Ernst Verhoef, Elsie Premereur
The division of labor between the dorsal and the ventral visual stream in the primate brain has inspired numerous studies on the visual system in humans and in nonhuman primates. However, how and under which circumstances the two visual streams interact is still poorly understood. Here we review evidence from anatomy, modelling, electrophysiology, electrical microstimulation (EM), reversible inactivation and functional imaging in the macaque monkey aimed at clarifying at which levels in the hierarchy of visual areas the two streams interact, and what type of information might be exchanged between the two streams during three-dimensional (3D) object viewing...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256036/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-performance-in-a-state-wide-test-of-math-achievement
#14
Eric D Wilkey, Laurie E Cutting, Gavin R Price
The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related to the development of math skills. However, it is unknown how these findings relate to in-school math learning. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the relationship between regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume and performance in grade-level mathematics as measured by a state-wide, school-based test of math achievement (TCAP math) in children from 3rd to 8th grade...
March 3, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247158/working-memory-capacity-and-the-functional-connectome-insights-from-resting-state-fmri-and-voxelwise-centrality-mapping
#15
Sebastian Markett, Martin Reuter, Behrend Heeren, Bernd Lachmann, Bernd Weber, Christian Montag
The functional connectome represents a comprehensive network map of functional connectivity throughout the human brain. To date, the relationship between the organization of functional connectivity and cognitive performance measures is still poorly understood. In the present study we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to explore the link between the functional connectome and working memory capacity in an individual differences design. Working memory capacity, which refers to the maximum amount of context information that an individual can retain in the absence of external stimulation, was assessed outside the MRI scanner and estimated based on behavioral data from a change detection task...
February 28, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226243/bottom-up-and-top-down-computations-in-word-and-face-selective-cortex
#16
Kendrick N Kay, Jason D Yeatman
The ability to read a page of text or recognize a person's face depends on category-selective visual regions in ventral temporal cortex (VTC). To understand how these regions mediate word and face recognition, it is necessary to characterize how stimuli are represented and how this representation is used in the execution of a cognitive task. Here, we show that the response of a category-selective region in VTC can be computed as the degree to which the low-level properties of the stimulus match a category template...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220070/neural-correlates-of-mirror-visual-feedback-induced-performance-improvements-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#17
Viola Rjosk, Jöran Lepsien, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218203/cystic-dystrophy-of-the-duodenal-wall-a-rare-but-need-to-know-disease
#18
Lydia Plana Campos, Carlos Alventosa Mateu, Javier Sempere García-Argüelles, Ana Belén Durá Ayet, Inma Bort Pérez, Patricia Suárez Callol
Cystic dystrophy of the duodenal wall (CDDW) is a serious but uncommon complication of heterotopic pancreatic tissue characterized by increased duodenal wall thickness associated with intraparietal cystic lesions. It is mainly observed in middle-aged male patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Clinical symptoms are usually nonspecific and it is important to take them into account in patients with the abovementioned history. Imaging techniques have been useful for diagnosis, especially endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), to visualize cystic lesions in the wall...
January 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186673/modulation-of-fronto-parietal-connections-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#19
Anke Ninija Karabanov, Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Mark Schram Christensen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Jens Bo Nielsen
Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1)...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183861/tool-selection-and-the-ventral-dorsal-organization-of-tool-related-knowledge
#20
Michael J Tobia, Christopher R Madan
Tool selection is a cognitive process necessary for tool use, and may rely on distinct knowledge under different conditions. This fMRI experiment was designed to identify neural substrates mediating tool selection under different conditions. Participants performed a picture-matching task that presented a recipient object and an action-goal, and required the selection of the best tool object from among four candidates. Some trials allowed selection of the prototypical tool, whereas others forced selection of either a functionally substitutable or impossible tool...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
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