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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909099/neural-tuning-to-numerosity-relates-to-perceptual-tuning-in-3-to-6-year-old-children
#1
Alyssa J Kersey, Jessica F Cantlon
: Neural representations of approximate numerical value, or numerosity, have been observed in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in monkeys and humans, including children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that children as young as 3 to 4 years old exhibit neural tuning to cardinal numerosities in the IPS and that their neural responses are accounted for by a model of numerosity coding that has been used to explain neural responses in the adult IPS. We also found that the sensitivity of children's neural tuning to number in the right IPS was comparable to their numerical discrimination sensitivity observed behaviorally, outside of the scanner...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909000/distinct-contributions-of-dorsal-and-ventral-streams-to-imitation-of-tool-use-and-communicative-gestures
#2
Andrea Dressing, Kai Nitschke, Dorothee Kümmerer, Tobias Bormann, Lena Beume, Charlotte S M Schmidt, Vera M Ludwig, Irina Mader, Klaus Willmes, Michel Rijntjes, Christoph P Kaller, Cornelius Weiller, Markus Martin
Imitation of tool-use gestures (transitive; e.g., hammering) and communicative emblems (intransitive; e.g., waving goodbye) is frequently impaired after left-hemispheric lesions. We aimed 1) to identify lesions related to deficient transitive or intransitive gestures, 2) to delineate regions associated with distinct error types (e.g., hand configuration, kinematics), and 3) to compare imitation to previous data on pantomimed and actual tool use. Of note, 156 patients (64.3 ± 14.6 years; 56 female) with first-ever left-hemispheric ischemic stroke were prospectively examined 4...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903728/context-dependent-accumulation-of-sensory-evidence-in-the-parietal-cortex-underlies-flexible-task-switching
#3
Hironori Kumano, Yuki Suda, Takanori Uka
: Switching behavior based on multiple rules is a fundamental ability of flexible behavior. Although interactions among the frontal, parietal, and sensory cortices are necessary for such flexibility, little is known about the neural computations concerning context-dependent information readouts. Here, we provide evidence that neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) accumulate relevant information preferentially depending on context. We trained monkeys to switch between direction and depth discrimination tasks and analyzed the buildup activity in the LIP depending on task context...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896064/executive-attention-networks-show-altered-relationship-with-default-mode-network-in-pd
#4
Peter Boord, Tara M Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Thomas J Grabowski
Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#5
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881778/attentive-motion-discrimination-recruits-an-area-in-inferotemporal-cortex
#6
Heiko Stemmann, Winrich A Freiwald
: Attentional selection requires the interplay of multiple brain areas. Theoretical accounts of selective attention predict different areas with different functional properties to support endogenous covert attention. To test these predictions, we devised a demanding attention task requiring motion discrimination and spatial selection and performed whole-brain imaging in macaque monkeys. Attention modulated the early visual cortex, motion-selective dorsal stream areas, the lateral intraparietal area, and the frontal eye fields...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881719/neuronal-pattern-separation-of-motion-relevant-input-in-lip-activity
#7
Nareg Berberian, Amanda MacPherson, Eloise Giraud, Lydia Richardson, Jean-Philippe Thivierge
In various regions of the brain, neurons discriminate sensory stimuli by decreasing the similarity between ambiguous input patterns. Here we examine whether this process of pattern separation may drive the rapid discrimination of visual motion stimuli in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Starting with a simple mean-rate population model that captures neuronal activity in LIP, we show that overlapping input patterns can be reformatted dynamically to give rise to separated patterns of neuronal activity. The population model predicts that a key ingredient of pattern separation is the presence of heterogeneity in the response of individual units...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864082/individual-variation-in-intentionality-in-the-mind-wandering-state-is-reflected-in-the-integration-of-the-default-mode-fronto-parietal-and-limbic-networks
#8
Johannes Golchert, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Paul Seli, Julia M Huntenburg, Franziskus Liem, Mark E Lauckner, Sabine Oligschläger, Boris C Bernhardt, Arno Villringer, Daniel S Margulies
Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality...
November 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859899/neural-signatures-of-trust-in-reciprocity-a-coordinate-based-meta-analysis
#9
Gabriele Bellucci, Sergey V Chernyak, Kimberly Goodyear, Simon B Eickhoff, Frank Krueger
Trust in reciprocity (TR) is defined as the risky decision to invest valued resources in another party with the hope of mutual benefit. Several fMRI studies have investigated the neural correlates of TR in one-shot and multiround versions of the investment game (IG). However, an overall characterization of the underlying neural networks remains elusive. Here, a coordinate-based meta-analysis was employed (activation likelihood estimation method, 30 articles) to investigate consistent brain activations in each of the IG stages (i...
November 17, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852024/-parietal-association-area-and-motion-information-processing
#10
Takanori Uka
Motion perception plays an important role in everyday life. The investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying the distinguishing of the direction of motion has broadly expanded our understanding of the neural mechanisms of not only visual motion processing but also how integration of visual information is linked with intentional behavior. The lateral intraparietal (LIP) cortex is a crucial area involved in perceptual decision making and oculomotor planning. Here, I have reviewed the neural mechanisms underlying visual motion processing and describe how intentional behavior results from motion information...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#11
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849616/cortical-networks-involved-in-visual-awareness-independent-of-visual-attention
#12
Taylor W Webb, Kajsa M Igelström, Aaron Schurger, Michael S A Graziano
It is now well established that visual attention, as measured with standard spatial attention tasks, and visual awareness, as measured by report, can be dissociated. It is possible to attend to a stimulus with no reported awareness of the stimulus. We used a behavioral paradigm in which people were aware of a stimulus in one condition and unaware of it in another condition, but the stimulus drew a similar amount of spatial attention in both conditions. The paradigm allowed us to test for brain regions active in association with awareness independent of level of attention...
November 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845254/neuronal-correlates-of-continuous-manual-tracking-under-varying-visual-movement-feedback-in-a-virtual-reality-environment
#13
Jakub Limanowski, Evgeniya Kirilina, Felix Blankenburg
To accurately guide one's actions online, the brain predicts sensory action feedback ahead of time based on internal models, which can be updated by sensory prediction errors. The underlying operations can be experimentally investigated in sensorimotor adaptation tasks, in which moving under perturbed sensory action feedback requires internal model updates. Here we altered healthy participants' visual hand movement feedback in a virtual reality setup, while assessing brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
November 12, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807167/a-two-stage-process-model-of-sensory-discrimination-an-alternative-to-drift-diffusion
#14
Peng Sun, Michael S Landy
: Discrimination of the direction of motion of a noisy stimulus is an example of sensory discrimination under uncertainty. For stimuli that are extended in time, reaction time is quicker for larger signal values (e.g., discrimination of opposite directions of motion compared with neighboring orientations) and larger signal strength (e.g., stimuli with higher contrast or motion coherence, that is, lower noise). The standard model of neural responses (e.g., in lateral intraparietal cortex) and reaction time for discrimination is drift-diffusion...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798142/longitudinal-study-of-the-emerging-functional-connectivity-asymmetry-of-primary-language-regions-during-infancy
#15
Robert W Emerson, Wei Gao, Weili Lin
: Asymmetry in the form of left-hemisphere lateralization is a striking characteristic of the cerebral regions involved in the adult language network. In this study, we leverage a large sample of typically developing human infants with longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to delineate the trajectory of interhemispheric functional asymmetry in language-related regions during the first 2 years of life. We derived the trajectory of interhemispheric functional symmetry of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG), the sensory and visual cortices, and two higher-order regions within the intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797834/what-does-being-an-expert-mean-to-the-brain-functional-specificity-and-connectivity-in-expertise
#16
Hyeon-Ae Jeon, Angela D Friederici
To what extent is varying cognitive expertise reflected in the brain's functional specificity and connectivity? We addressed this question by examining expertise in mathematics based on the fact that mathematical skills are one of the most critical cognitive abilities known to be a good predictor of academic achievement. We investigated processing of hierarchical structures, which is a fundamental process for building complex cognitive architecture. Experts and nonexperts in mathematics participated in processing hierarchical structures using algebraic expressions...
October 25, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769786/common-and-distinct-brain-regions-in-both-parietal-and-frontal-cortex-support-symbolic-and-nonsymbolic-number-processing-in-humans-a-functional-neuroimaging-meta-analysis
#17
H Moriah Sokolowski, Wim Fias, Ahmad Mousa, Daniel Ansari
In recent years, there has been substantial growth in neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of symbolic (e.g. Arabic numerals) and non-symbolic (e.g. dot arrays) number processing. At present it remains contested whether number is represented abstractly, or if number representations in the brain are format-dependent. In order to quantitatively evaluate the available neuroimaging evidence, we used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to conduct quantitative meta-analyses of the results reported in 57 neuroimaging papers...
October 18, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761110/magnitude-processing-in-the-brain-an-fmri-study-of-time-space-and-numerosity-as-a-shared-cortical-system
#18
Kenny Skagerlund, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf Träff
Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, studies investigating the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions are inconclusive, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739609/disassociation-between-brain-activation-and-executive-function-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#19
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Meaghan Clough, Sanuji Gajamange, Scott Kolbe, Joanne Fielding
Executive dysfunction has been demonstrated among premutation (PM) carriers (55-199 CGG repeats) of the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Further, alterations to neural activation patterns have been reported during memory and comparison based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks in these carriers. For the first time, the relationships between fMRI neural activation during an interleaved ocular motor prosaccade/antisaccade paradigm, and concurrent task performance (saccade measures of latency, accuracy and error rate) in PM females were examined...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695434/neural-mechanisms-of-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-regions-during-text-reading
#20
Wei Zhou, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhichao Xia, Yanchao Bi, Ping Li, Hua Shu
When reading a narrative text, both the dorsal and ventral visual systems are activated. To illustrate the patterns of interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems in text reading, we conducted analyses of functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) in a left-hemispheric network for reading-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. In reading-driven fMRI (Experiment 1), we found significant FCs among the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the visual word form area (VWFA), and there were top-down effects from the left MFG to the left IPS, from the left MFG to the VWFA, and from the left IPS to the VWFA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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