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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311140/visual-short-term-memory-activity-in-parietal-lobe-reflects-cognitive-processes-beyond-attentional-selection
#1
Summer L Sheremata, David C Somers, Sarah Shomstein
Visual attention and short-term memory (VSTM) are distinct yet inter-related processes. While both require selection of information across the visual field, memory additionally requires maintenance of information across time and distraction. VSTM recruits areas within human (male and female) dorsal and ventral parietal cortex that are also implicated in spatial selection, therefore, it is important to determine if overlapping activation might reflect shared attentional demands. Here, identical stimuli and controlled sustained attention across both tasks were used to ask whether fMRI signal amplitude, functional connectivity, and contralateral visual field bias reflect memory-specific task demands...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249953/learning-peri-saccadic-remapping-of-receptive-field-from-experience-in-lateral-intraparietal-area
#2
Xiao Wang, Yan Wu, Mingsha Zhang, Si Wu
Our eyes move constantly at a frequency of 3-5 times per second. These movements, called saccades, induce the sweeping of visual images on the retina, yet we perceive the world as stable. It has been suggested that the brain achieves this visual stability via predictive remapping of neuronal receptive field (RF). A recent experimental study disclosed details of this remapping process in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP), that is, about the time of the saccade, the neuronal RF expands along the saccadic trajectory temporally, covering the current RF (CRF), the future RF (FRF), and the region the eye will sweep through during the saccade...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240774/pharmacological-inactivation-does-not-support-a-unique-causal-role-for-intraparietal-sulcus-in-the-discrimination-of-visual-number
#3
Nicholas K DeWind, Jiyun Peng, Andrew Luo, Elizabeth M Brannon, Michael L Platt
The "number sense" describes the intuitive ability to quantify without counting. Single neuron recordings in non-human primates and functional imaging in humans suggest the intraparietal sulcus is an important neuroanatomical locus of numerical estimation. Other lines of inquiry implicate the IPS in numerous other functions, including attention and decision making. Here we provide a direct test of whether IPS has functional specificity for numerosity judgments. We used muscimol to reversibly and independently inactivate the ventral and lateral intraparietal areas in two monkeys performing a numerical discrimination task and a color discrimination task, roughly equilibrated for difficulty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235185/the-intraparietal-sulcus-governs-multisensory-integration-of-audiovisual-information-based-on-task-difficulty
#4
Christina Regenbogen, Janina Seubert, Emilia Johansson, Andreas Finkelmeyer, Patrik Andersson, Johan N Lundström
Object recognition benefits maximally from multimodal sensory input when stimulus presentation is noisy, or degraded. Whether this advantage can be attributed specifically to the extent of overlap in object-related information, or rather, to object-unspecific enhancement due to the mere presence of additional sensory stimulation, remains unclear. Further, the cortical processing differences driving increased multisensory integration (MSI) for degraded compared with clear information remain poorly understood...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226255/differential-hemispheric-and-visual-stream-contributions-to-ensemble-coding-of-crowd-emotion
#5
Hee Yeon Im, Daniel N Albohn, Troy G Steiner, Cody A Cushing, Reginald B Adams, Kestutis Kveraga
In crowds, where scrutinizing individual facial expressions is inefficient, humans can make snap judgments about the prevailing mood by reading "crowd emotion". We investigated how the brain accomplishes this feat in a set of behavioral and fMRI studies. Participants were asked to either avoid or approach one of two crowds of faces presented in the left and right visual hemifields. Perception of crowd emotion was improved when crowd stimuli contained goal-congruent cues and was highly lateralized to the right hemisphere...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190640/perceptual-integration-rapidly-activates-dorsal-visual-pathway-to-guide-local-processing-in-early-visual-areas
#6
Ling Liu, Fan Wang, Ke Zhou, Nai Ding, Huan Luo
Rapidly grouping local elements into an organized object (i.e., perceptual integration) is a fundamental yet challenging task, especially in noisy contexts. Previous studies demonstrate that ventral visual pathway, which is widely known to mediate object recognition, engages in the process by conveying object-level information processed in high-level areas to modulate low-level sensory areas. Meanwhile, recent evidence suggests that the dorsal visual pathway, which is not typically attributable to object recognition, is also involved in the process...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187554/clustering-of-heading-selectivity-and-perception-related-activity-in-the-ventral-intraparietal-area
#7
Mengmeng Shao, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki, Aihua Chen
The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of the macaque brain is a multimodal cortical region, with many cells tuned to both optic flow and vestibular stimuli. Responses of many VIP neurons also show robust correlations with perceptual judgments during a fine heading discrimination task. Previous studies have shown that heading tuning based on optic flow is represented in a clustered fashion in VIP. However, it is unknown whether vestibular self-motion selectivity is clustered in VIP. Moreover, it is not known whether stimulus- and choice-related signals in VIP show clustering in the context of a heading discrimination task...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176557/functional-connectivity-of-the-cortical-network-supporting-statistical-learning-in-musicians-and-non-musicians-an-meg-study
#8
Evangelos Paraskevopoulos, Nikolas Chalas, Panagiotis Bamidis
Statistical learning is a cognitive process of great importance for the detection and representation of environmental regularities. Complex cognitive processes such as statistical learning usually emerge as a result of the activation of widespread cortical areas functioning in dynamic networks. The present study investigated the cortical large-scale network supporting statistical learning of tone sequences in humans. The reorganization of this network related to musical expertise was assessed via a cross-sectional comparison of a group of musicians to a group of non-musicians...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175612/making-sense-of-objects-lying-around-how-contextual-objects-shape-brain-activity-during-action-observation
#9
Nadiya El-Sourani, Moritz F Wurm, Ima Trempler, Gereon R Fink, Ricarda I Schubotz
Action recognition involves not only the readout of body movements and involved objects but also the integration of contextual information, e.g. the environment in which an action takes place. Notably, inferring superordinate goals and generating predictions about forthcoming action steps should benefit from screening the actor's immediate environment, in particular objects located in the actor's peripersonal space and thus potentially used in following action steps. Critically, if such contextual objects (COs) afford actions that are semantically related to the observed action, they may trigger or facilitate the inference of goals and the prediction of following actions...
November 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172186/-neural-basis-for-producing-temporal-order
#10
Shigeru Kitazawa
It has been proposed that a position in time can be discriminated in two ways. First, each position is either past, present, or future (A series). Second, each position is either before or after another (B series). In this review, we aim to infer how the two series are represented in the brain on the basis of findings from clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We suggest that the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex are critically involved in the A series. In the B series, we suggest that a group of events are represented in space around the intraparietal cortex and are combined with the temporal directional cue provided by the motion signals in the left temporo-parietal junction...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170071/cortical-networks-for-auditory-detection-with-and-without-informational-masking-task-effects-and-implications-for-conscious-perception
#11
Katrin Wiegand, Sabine Heiland, Christian H Uhlig, Andrew R Dykstra, Alexander Gutschalk
Ambiguous and masked stimuli have been used to study conscious perception by comparing neural activity during different percepts of identical physical stimuli. One limitation of this approach is that it typically requires a reporting task that may engage neural processes beyond those required for conscious perception. Here, we explored potential fMRI correlates of auditory conscious perception with and without overt report. In experiment 1, regular tone patterns were presented as targets under informational masking, and participants reported their percepts on each trial...
November 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159664/dual-roles-of-the-hippocampus-and-intraparietal-sulcus-in-network-integration-and-segregation-support-scene-recognition
#12
Xin Hao, Xu Wang, Yiying Song, Xiangzhen Kong, Jia Liu
Effectively recognizing surroundings is a critical ability in human navigation. Previous neuroimaging studies have depicted distributed brain regions underpinning spatial navigation, but little is known about how these regions are formed into the navigation network (NN) supporting scene recognition. In this study, we addressed this issue by using a voxel-based global functional connectivity method to characterize the integration (i.e., within-network connectivity, WNC) of the NN and its segregation (i.e., between-network connectivity, BNC) from non-NN networks...
November 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#13
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#14
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137988/tms-eeg-reveals-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-top-down-influences-of-posterior-intraparietal-cortex-on-behavior-and-visual-event-related-potentials
#15
Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, Henry Railo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallus, Teemu Paavilainen, Antti Revonsuo
Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129671/the-semantic-system-is-involved-in-mathematical-problem-solving
#16
Xinlin Zhou, Mengyi Li, Leinian Li, Yiyun Zhang, Jiaxin Cui, Jie Liu, Chuansheng Chen
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation...
November 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128550/neural-correlates-of-quantity-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers
#17
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Participants performed a semantic distance comparison task in which they judged which one of the two items was semantically closer to the target...
November 8, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111411/overlapping-and-distinct-neural-correlates-of-imitating-and-opposing-facial-movements
#18
Detre A Godinez, Daniel S Lumian, Tanisha Crosby-Attipoe, Ana M Bedacarratz, Paree Zarolia, Kateri McRae
Previous studies have demonstrated that imitating a face can be relatively automatic and reflexive. In contrast, opposing facial expressions may require engaging flexible, cognitive control. However, few studies have examined the degree to which imitation and opposition of facial movements recruit overlapping and distinct neural regions. Furthermore, little work has examined whether opposition and imitation of facial movements differ between emotional and averted eye gaze facial expressions. This study utilized a novel task with 40 participants to compare passive viewing, imitation and opposition of emotional faces looking forward and neutral faces with averted eye gaze [(3: Look, Imitate, Oppose) x (2: Emotion, Averted Eye)]...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100627/locus-coeruleus-activity-mediates-hyperresponsiveness-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Christoph Naegeli, Thomas Zeffiro, Marco Piccirelli, Assia Jaillard, Anina Weilenmann, Katayun Hassanpour, Matthis Schick, Michael Rufer, Scott P Orr, Christoph Mueller-Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are hyperresponsive to unexpected or potentially threatening environmental stimuli. Research in lower animals and humans suggests that sensitization of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system may underlie behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness in PTSD. However, direct evidence linking locus coeruleus system hyperactivity to PTSD hyperresponsiveness is sparse. METHODS: Psychophysiological recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging were used during passive listening to brief, 95-dB sound pressure level, white noise bursts presented intermittently to determine whether behavioral and autonomic hyperresponsiveness to sudden sounds in PTSD is associated with locus coeruleus hyperresponsiveness...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094500/the-left-supramarginal-gyrus-contributes-to-finger-positioning-for-object-use-a-neuronavigated-tms-study
#20
Michael Andres, Barbara Pelgrims, Etienne Olivier, Gilles Vannuscorps
In everyday actions, we grasp dozens of different manipulable objects in ways that accommodate their functional use. Neuroimaging studies showed that grasping objects in a way that is appropriate for their use involves a left-lateralized network including the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv). However, because previous works premised their conclusions on tasks requiring action execution, it has remained difficult to discriminate between the areas involved in specifying the position of fingers onto the object from those implementing the motor program required to perform the action...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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