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Olena Odnokoz, Kyle Nakatsuka, Vladimir I Klichko, Jacqueline Nguyen, Liz Calderon Solis, Kaitlin Ostling, Marziyeh Badinloo, William C Orr, Svetlana N Radyuk
Previously, we have shown that flies under-expressing the two mitochondrial peroxiredoxins (Prxs), dPrx3 and dPrx5, display increases in tissue-specific apoptosis and dramatically shortened life span, associated with a redox crisis, manifested as changes in GSH:GSSG and accumulation of protein mixed disulfides. To identify specific pathways responsible for the observed biological effects, we performed a transcriptome analysis. Functional clustering revealed a prominent group enriched for immunity-related genes, including a considerable number of NF-kB-dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMP) that are up-regulated in the Prx double mutant...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yun Bai, Jia Wang, Jing Han, Xiao-Li Xie, Cheng-Guang Ji, Jie Yin, Lei Chen, Cun-Kai Wang, Xiao-Yu Jiang, Wei Qi, Hui-Qing Jiang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: BCL2L10 is an apoptosis-related member of the BCL-2 protein family. The role of BCL2L10 in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. This study was aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of BCL2L10 in HCC. METHODS: BCL2L10 expression in human HCC and corresponding adjacent normal tissues was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. The biological functions of BCL2L10 in HCC cell lines were determined by cell viability, colony formation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cell metastasis assays, and in vivo by tumorigenicity and lung metastasis assays in nude mice...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
XinWang Zhu, CongXiao Zhang, QiuLing Fan, XiaoDan Liu, Gang Yang, Yi Jiang, LiNing Wang
BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most lethal diabetic microvascular complication; it is a major cause of renal failure, and an increasingly globally prominent healthcare problem. MATERIAL AND METHODS To identify susceptible microRNAs for the pathogenesis of DN and the targets of losartan treatment, microRNA arrays were employed to survey the glomerular microRNA expression profiles of KKAy mice treated with or without losartan. KKAy mice were assigned to either a losartan-treated group or a non-treatment group, with C57BL/6 mice used as a normal control...
October 22, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M Kochlamazashvili, Kh Khatiashvili, M Butsashvili, O Chubinishvili, Sh Khetsuriani, G Kamkamidze
In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M Butsashvili, M Kajaia, M Kochlamazashvili, M Zarandia, T Gagua, D Meskhishvili, N Avaliani, G Kamkamidze
Of the 100 types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), approximately 35 infect the genital tract. The viruses are categorized as "high risk" and "low risk" depending on whether they are known to cause cancer or not. Cervical cancer is an important cause of cancer mortality in Georgia, and worldwide. Only limited and incomplete data are available about the epidemiology of HPV infection and related molecular and cellular changes in Georgia. Objectives of our study included the estimation of the prevalence and the distribution of HPV genotypes among women in Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Priscilla Hakime Scalize, Karina F Bombonato-Prado, Luiz Gustavo de Sousa, Adalberto Luiz Rosa, Marcio Mateus Beloti, Marisa Semprini, Rossano Gimenes, Adriana L G de Almeida, Fabíola Singaretti de Oliveira, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo, Selma Siessere
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that impairs proper bone remodeling. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical technique that improves bone defect in a particular region through new bone formation, using barrier materials (e.g. membranes) to protect the space adjacent to the bone defect. The polytetrafluorethylene membrane is widely used in guided bone regeneration, however, new membranes are being investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of P(VDFTrFE)/BT [poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate] membrane on in vivo bone formation...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Christian Parisod
Taking transposable elements into consideration in surveys of genetic and epigenetic variation remains challenging in species lacking a high-quality reference genome. Here, molecular techniques reducing genome complexity and specifically targeting restructuring and methylation changes in TE genome fractions are described. In particular, methyl-sensitive transposon display (MSTD) uses isoschizomers and PCR amplifications to assess the methylation environment of TE insertions. MSTD offers reliable insights into genome-wide epigenetic changes associated with TEs, especially when used together with similar techniques tracking random sequences...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masayuki Tsuzuki, Yuichiro Watanabe
Small RNAs are key molecules in RNA silencing pathways that exert the sequence-specific regulation of gene expression and chromatin modifications in many eukaryotes. In plants, endogenous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), trans-acting short interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs), and heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs), play an important role in switching or orchestrating biological processes during the development and at the onset of stress responses. These endogenous and exogenous small RNAs are mainly 20-24 nucleotides in length...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Erika Varkonyi-Gasic
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes, and they are essential for a normal development and survival. Mature miRNAs are cleaved from larger precursor RNAs and are typically 21-22 nt long.The small size, the lack of a common feature like a poly(A) tail, 3' end-modifications, and presence of a precursor-all these factors affect the detection and hinder the quantification of miRNAs. The stem-loop qRT-PCR method described here is designed to detect and quantify mature miRNAs in a fast, specific, accurate, and reliable manner...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pavlina Sasheva, Ueli Grossniklaus
Over the last years, it has become increasingly clear that environmental influences can affect the epigenomic landscape and that some epigenetic variants can have heritable, phenotypic effects. While there are a variety of methods to perform genome-wide analyses of DNA methylation in model organisms, this is still a challenging task for non-model organisms without a reference genome. Differentially methylated region-representational difference analysis (DMR-RDA) is a sensitive and powerful PCR-based technique that isolates DNA fragments that are differentially methylated between two otherwise identical genomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andriy Bilichak, Igor Kovalchuk
DNA methylation is a heritable but reversible epigenetic mechanism of control over gene expression. The level of DNA methylation of specific genomic regions correlates with chromatin condensation, the level of gene expression, and in some cases genome stability and the frequency of homologous recombination. Here, we describe the combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) assay that allows analyzing the methylation status at a specific locus. The protocol consists of the following major steps: bisulfite conversion of non-methylated cytosines to uracils, the locus-specific PCR amplification of converted DNA, restriction digestion, the analysis of restriction patterns on the gel, and the quantification of these restriction patterns using ImageJ or a similar program...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pat Whitworth, Peter Beitsch, Angela Mislowsky, James V Pellicane, Charles Nash, Mary Murray, Laura A Lee, Carrie L Dul, Michael Rotkis, Paul Baron, Lisette Stork-Sloots, Femke A de Snoo, Jennifer Beatty
PURPOSE: Hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumors have heterogeneous biology and present a challenge for determining optimal treatment. In the Neoadjuvant Breast Registry Symphony Trial (NBRST) patients were classified according to MammaPrint/BluePrint subtyping to provide insight into the response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this predefined substudy was to compare MammaPrint/BluePrint with conventional 'clinical' immunohistochemistry/fluorescence in situ hybridization (IHC/FISH) subtyping in 'clinical luminal' [HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-)] breast cancer patients to predict treatment sensitivity...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Pei Ma, Haitao Wang, Lu Han, Wei Jing, Xin Zhou, Zhisu Liu
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) as a novel molecular species may have significant and comprehensive influences on the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We recently characterized snoRNA transcriptome signatures in HCC tissues by small RNA sequencing and found that small nucleolar RNA 78 (SNORD78) was associated with HCC. However, little is known about the pathological role of SNORD78 in HCC patients. This study aimed to profile SNORD78 expression signature and then to explore the pathogenesis of SNORD78 in HCC...
October 21, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Zhuqing Leslie Li, Yonghui Shi, Yinyi Ding, Yumei Ran, Guowei Le
Oxidized tyrosine (O-Tyr) products have been detected in commercial food and have been demonstrated to induce liver injury in our previous study, but the precise mechanisms of the impact induced by dietary O-Tyr are still unclear. Kidney plays an important role in the metabolism of protein. Accumulation of O-Tyr products, especially the dityrosine (Dityr) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), in vivo was shown to be associated with many kidney diseases. Therefore, this study determined whether chronic exposure to dietary O-Tyr impaired renal function in rats...
October 21, 2016: Amino Acids
Bassem Refaat, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, Fadi Fayez Kamfar, Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Faizah Ahmed Malibary
This is a prospective observational study that measures the expression of vitamin D (VD) metabolising and signalling molecules and Ca(2+) sensing receptor (CaSR) in human Fallopian tube (FT) during the menstrual cycle and ectopic pregnancy (EP). Fresh FTs were obtained during total abdominal hysterectomy at the follicular (n = 16) and midluteal (n = 16) phases. Specimens from remote and implantation sites as well as trophoblastic tissues were also freshly collected from each FT with EP (n = 10)...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Liuyu Wu, Xiao Xiong, Xuming Wang, Tianrong Xin, Jing Wang, Zhiwen Zou, Bin Xia
The bluish yellow lappet moth, Trabala vishnou guttata is an extraordinarily important pest in China. The complete mitochondrial genome is sequenced and determined firstly, which is based on traditional PCR amplification and primer walking methods with a length of 15,281 bp, including 13 protein-coding (PCG) genes, 22 transfer RNA (rRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A + T-rich region. The gene order and orientation of the T. vishnou guttata mitogenome were identical to the other sequenced Lasiocampidae species...
October 21, 2016: Genetica
Jing Zhao, Xin Ye, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Wei Zhong, Yun Sun, Zhenfan Yang, Guanshan Zhu, Yi Gu, Mengzhao Wang
PURPOSE: Central nervous system (CNS) is the prevalent site for metastases in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-relapsed NSCLC patients. To understand the EGFR mutation status in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples after EGFR-TKI treatment failure might be useful to guide the treatment of intra- and extracranial tumors in those patients. METHODS: Paired CSF and plasma samples were collected from seven NSCLC patients with CNS metastases after EGFR-TKI failure...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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