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inflammatory bowel disease and diet

Lynnette R Ferguson, Matthew P G Barnett
For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mitsuro Chiba, Kunio Nakane, Yuko Takayama, Kae Sugawara, Hideo Ohno, Hajime Ishii, Satoko Tsuda, Tsuyotoshi Tsuji, Masafumi Komatsu, Takeshi Sugawara
CONTEXT: Plant-based diets (PBDs) are a healthy alternative to westernized diets. A semivegetarian diet, a PBD, has been shown to prevent a relapse in Crohn disease. However, there is no way to measure adherence to PBDs. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple way of evaluating adherence to a PBD for Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN: PBD scores were assigned according to the frequency of consumption provided on a food-frequency questionnaire, obtained on hospitalization for 159 patients with ulcerative colitis and 70 patients with Crohn disease...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Regina Irwin, Sandi Raehtz, Narayanan Parameswaran, Laura R McCabe
Increasing evidence indicates a strong link between intestinal health and bone health. For example, inflammatory bowel disease can cause systemic inflammation, weight loss and extra-intestinal manifestations such as decreased bone growth and density.  However, the effects of moderate intestinal inflammation without weight loss on bone health have never been directly examined; yet this condition is relevant not only to IBD but to conditions of increased intestinal permeability and inflammation as seen with ingestion of high fat diets, intestinal dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic syndrome and food allergies...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Rosario Lucas López, María José Grande Burgos, Antonio Gálvez, Rubén Pérez Pulido
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a spectrum of diseases from ulcerative colitis (UC) to Crohn's disease (CD). Many studies have addressed the changes in the microbiota of individuals affected by UC and CD. A decrease in biodiversity and depletion of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes has been reported, among others. Changes in microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity that may involve the amount of butyrate and other metabolites such as H2 S being produced...
October 5, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Ishfaq Ahmed, Badal C Roy, Salman A Khan, Seth Septer, Shahid Umar
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder that conceptually occurs as a result of altered immune responses to commensal and/or pathogenic gut microbes in individuals most susceptible to the disease. During Crohn's Disease (CD) or Ulcerative Colitis (UC), two components of the human IBD, distinct stages define the disease onset, severity, progression and remission. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome) and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis. While the dysbiotic microbiota has been proposed to play a role in disease pathogenesis, the data on IBD and diet are still less convincing...
June 15, 2016: Microorganisms
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
David L Suskind, Ghassan Wahbeh, Stanley A Cohen, Christopher J Damman, Jani Klein, Kim Braly, Michele Shaffer, Dale Lee
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that dietary therapy may be effective for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but limited published data exist on the usage and efficacy of dietary therapy. AIM: To evaluate the perspective of IBD patients using the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD). METHODS: An anonymous online survey was conducted using REDCap, a Web-based survey tool. Survey links were sent to known Web sites as well as support groups in an attempt to characterize patient utilization of the SCD and perception of efficacy of the SCD...
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Marie Claude Denis, Denis Roy, Pantea Rahmani Yeganeh, Yves Desjardins, Thibault Varin, Nour Haddad, Devendra Amre, Alain Théophile Sané, Carole Garofalo, Alexandra Furtos, Natalie Patey, Edgard Delvin, Eric Tremblay, Andre Marette, Jean François Beaulieu, Emile Levy
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation via several mechanisms. These beneficial effects may be due to their high polyphenol content. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic aspects of polyphenols in dried apple peel extract (DAPP) on intestinal inflammation while elucidating the underlying mechanisms and clinical benefits. Induction of intestinal inflammation in mice was performed by oral administration of the inflammatory agent DSS at 2...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Angela B Javurek, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Nathan J Bivens, Karen H Bromert, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Gut dysbiosis may result in various diseases, such as metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), especially during development, may also increase the risk for such disorders. An unexplored possibility is that EDC-exposure might alter the gut microbial composition. Gut flora and their products may thus be mediating factors for the disease-causing effects of these chemicals. To examine the effects of EDCs on the gut microbiome, female and male monogamous and biparental California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were exposed to BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight) or EE (0...
September 13, 2016: Gut Microbes
Josiane L Broussard, Suzanne Devkota
BACKGROUND: The last 50-100 years has been marked by a sharp rise in so-called "Western-diseases" in those countries that have experienced major industrial advances and shifts towards urbanized living. These diseases include obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, and food allergies in which chronic dysregulation of metabolic and/or immune processes appear to be involved, and are likely a byproduct of new environmental influences on our ancient genome. What we now appreciate is that this genome consists of both human and co-evolved microbial genes of the trillions of microbes residing in our body...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
M A W Stam, W A Draaisma, B J M van de Wall, H E Bolkenstein, E C J Consten, I A M J Broeders
AIM: The optimal diet for uncomplicated diverticulitis is unclear. Guidelines refrain from recommendation due to lack of objective information. The aim of the study was to determine whether an unrestricted diet during a first acute episode of uncomplicated diverticulitis is safe. METHOD: A prospective cohort study was performed of patients diagnosed with diverticulitis for the first time between 2012 and 2014. Requirements for inclusion were radiologically proven modified Hinchey 1a/b diverticulitis, ASA I-III and the ability to tolerate an unrestricted diet...
September 9, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Carlos Moctezuma-Velázquez, Jonathan Aguirre-Valadez
Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Lu Cheng, Huimin Jin, Yetao Qiang, Shuiyun Wu, Cheng Yan, Mutian Han, Tengfei Xiao, Nannan Yan, Huazhang An, Xiaoming Zhou, Qixiang Shao, Sheng Xia
Epidemiological studies have shown that fat rich western diet contributes to the high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Moreover, accumulated data indicated that fat dietary factor might promote the change of the composition and metabolism in commensal flora. But, the exact mechanisms for fatty diet in gut inflammation are not well demonstrated. In this study, we found that high fat diet (HFD) promoted inflammation and exacerbated the disease severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis in mice...
August 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Gerhard Rogler, Jonas Zeitz, Luc Biedermann
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a 'prototype disease' for chronic auto-inflammatory disorders with a polygenic background and important multifaceted environmental trigger components. The environmental factors contribute both to pathogenesis and disease flares. Thus, IBD is a disease par excellence to study the interactions between host genetics, environmental factors (such as infections or smoking) and 'in-vironmental' factors - for example, our intestinal microbiota. Longitudinal intercurrent events, including the impact of long-term medication on disease progression or stabilization, can exemplarily be studied in this disease group...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Abigail Basson, Ashley Trotter, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Fabio Cominelli
Numerous reviews have discussed gut microbiota composition changes during inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD). However, most studies address the observed effects by focusing on studying the univariate connection between disease and dietary-induced alterations to gut microbiota composition. The possibility that these effects may reflect a number of other interconnected (i.e., pantropic) mechanisms, activated in parallel, particularly concerning various bacterial metabolites, is in the process of being elucidated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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