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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349038/abnormal-neural-hierarchy-in-processing-of-verbal-information-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Yulia Lerner, Maya Bleich-Cohen, Shimrit Solnik-Knirsh, Galit Yogev-Seligmann, Tamir Eisenstein, Waheed Madah, Alon Shamir, Talma Hendler, Ilana Kremer
Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313167/prenatal-exposure-to-chernobyl-fallout-in-norway-neurological-and-developmental-outcomes-in-a-25-year-follow-up
#2
Rolv Terje Lie, Dag Moster, Per Strand, Allen James Wilcox
Ionizing radiation at high doses early in life may cause neurodevelopmental problems. Possible effects of lower doses are, however, controversial. We use carefully collected exposure data for Norway following the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 combined with population-based registries to assess long-term effects of fetal exposure on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Radiation doses were estimated for each Norwegian municipality for each calendar month from May 1986 to April 1989. We established a cohort of all Norwegian pregnancies during the three-year period of radiation measurement and compared them with appropriate unexposed groups...
December 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310911/attenuated-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-childhood-and-adult-onset-schizophrenia
#3
Rebecca E Watsky, Stephen J Gotts, Rebecca A Berman, Harrison M McAdams, Xueping Zhou, Dede Greenstein, Francois M Lalonde, Peter Gochman, Liv S Clasen, Lorie Shora, Anna E Ordóñez, Nitin Gogtay, Alex Martin, Deanna M Barch, Judith L Rapoport, Siyuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare, severe form of the adult-onset disorder (AOS). Our previous resting-state fMRI study identified attenuated functional connectivity in COS compared with controls. Here, we ask whether COS and AOS patients and their siblings exhibit similar abnormalities of functional connectivity. METHODS: A whole-brain, data-driven approach was used to assess resting-state functional connectivity differences in COS (patients/siblings/controls, n: 26/28/33) and AOS (n: 19/28/30)...
January 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306964/higher-schizotypy-predicts-better-metabolic-profile-in-unaffected-siblings-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
E Cem Atbasoglu, Guvem Gumus-Akay, Sinan Guloksuz, Meram Can Saka, Alp Ucok, Koksal Alptekin, Sevim Gullu, Jim van Os
RATIONALE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more frequent in schizophrenia (Sz) than in the general population. This association is partly accounted for by shared susceptibility genetic variants. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that a genetic predisposition to Sz would be associated with higher likelihood of insulin resistance (IR), and that IR would be predicted by subthreshold psychosis phenotypes. METHODS: Unaffected siblings of Sz patients (n = 101) were compared with a nonclinical sample (n = 305) in terms of IR, schizotypy (SzTy), and a behavioural experiment of "jumping to conclusions"...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302076/candidate-cspg4-mutations-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-implicate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-in-familial-schizophrenia
#5
Femke M de Vrij, Christian G Bouwkamp, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Guy Shpak, Bas Lendemeijer, Maarouf Baghdadi, Shreekara Gopalakrishna, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Tracy M Li, Marialuisa Quadri, Simone Olgiati, Guido J Breedveld, Michiel Coesmans, Edwin Mientjes, Ton de Wit, Frans W Verheijen, H Berna Beverloo, Dan Cohen, Rob M Kok, P Roberto Bakker, Aviva Nijburg, Annet T Spijker, P M Judith Haffmans, Erik Hoencamp, Veerle Bergink, Jacob A Vorstman, Timothy Wu, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Najaf Amin, Carolyn D Langen, Albert Hofman, Witte J Hoogendijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Ype Elgersma, Ben Distel, Joost Gribnau, Tonya White, Vincenzo Bonifati, Steven A Kushner
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275842/risk-of-hospitalization-for-psychiatric-disorders-among-siblings-and-parents-of-probands-with-psychotic-or-affective-disorders-a-population-based-study
#6
Dina Popovic, Shira Goldberg, Daphna Fenchel, Or Frenkel, Abraham Reichenberg, Rinat Yoffe, Michael Davidson, Mark Weiser
Relatives of people diagnosed with psychotic and affective disorders have a higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders compared to the general population. This study examined the risk of hospitalization for psychiatric disorders among siblings and parents of patients affected with major psychiatric disorders. In this large population-based case-control study, 17,895 siblings and parents of 7671 hospitalized subjects with a diagnosis of narrowly defined schizophrenia (SZ), broadly defined SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD), bipolar disorder (BD) or unipolar depression (UD) were identified from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Registry and compared to 71,580 age and gender-matched controls from the Israeli Population Registry...
December 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216608/short-term-effects-of-brief-need-based-psychoeducation-on-knowledge-self-stigma-and-burden-among-siblings-of-persons-with-schizophrenia-a-prospective-controlled-trial
#7
Anekal C Amaresha, Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Boban Joseph, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Daliboina Muralidhar, Doddaballapura K Subbakrishna
Siblings of persons with schizophrenia are important in providing long-term social support to the patients. Interventions addressing their needs are very sparse. Hence, this study aimed at testing the short-term effects of brief need based psychoeducation on knowledge, self-stigma, and burden among siblings of persons with schizophrenia. In this prospective controlled open label trial, 80 siblings of persons with schizophrenia were allocated in equal numbers to the brief need based psychoeducation group and the treatment-as-usual group...
December 2, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153446/the-instability-of-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-siblings-a-dynamic-connectivity-study
#8
Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan
BACKGROUND: The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. METHODS: Resting state functional MRI data acquired from 116 subjects (28 patients with schizophrenia, 28 siblings and 60 matched healthy controls)...
November 15, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112198/co-aggregation-of-major-psychiatric-disorders-in-individuals-with-first-degree-relatives-with-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#9
C-M Cheng, W-H Chang, M-H Chen, C-F Tsai, T-P Su, C-T Li, S-J Tsai, J-W Hsu, K-L Huang, W-C Lin, T-J Chen, Y-M Bai
A previous genetic study has suggested that schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common disease-associated genes. However, whether individuals with first-degree relatives (FDRs) with schizophrenia have a higher risk of these major psychiatric disorders requires further investigation. This study used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and identified 151 650 patients with schizophrenia and 227 967 individuals with FDRs with schizophrenia...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049464/clustering-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-first-degree-and-second-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#10
Margaret O'Brien, Tom Burke, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell McLaughlin, John Gibbons, Susan Byrne, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition primarily involving the motor system. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence of an association between ALS and a wider spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders among family members, including schizophrenia and psychotic illness and suicidal behavior. Objective: To examine the frequency and range of neuropsychiatric conditions that occur within individual first-degree and second-degree relatives of patients with ALS...
December 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036385/the-latent-taxonicity-of-schizotypy-in-biological-siblings-of-probands-with-schizophrenia
#11
Richard J Linscott, Sarah E Morton
If schizotypy is a taxonic liability for schizophrenia with a general population prevalence of ~10%, it should also be taxonic among biological siblings of probands with schizophrenia. Moreover, assuming this is so, siblings' schizotypy class membership should be predicted by probands' familial load for psychotic disorder and clinical severity, consistent with a multifactorial polygenic threshold model of schizophrenia. We tested these hypotheses in the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Study where siblings of probands (n = 792) and unaffected controls (n = 559) provided self-report ratings on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE)...
October 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981847/familial-risk-and-a-genome-wide-supported-drd2-variant-for-schizophrenia-predict-lateral-prefrontal-amygdala-effective-connectivity-during-emotion-processing
#12
Tiziana Quarto, Isabella Paparella, Davide De Tullio, Giovanna Viscanti, Leonardo Fazio, Paolo Taurisano, Raffaella Romano, Antonio Rampino, Rita Masellis, Teresa Popolizio, Pierluigi Selvaggi, Giulio Pergola, Alessandro Bertolino, Giuseppe Blasi
The brain functional mechanisms translating genetic risk into emotional symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ) may include abnormal functional integration between areas key for emotion processing, such as the amygdala and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Indeed, investigation of these mechanisms is also complicated by emotion processing comprising different subcomponents and by disease-associated state variables. Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between risk for SCZ and effective connectivity between the amygdala and the LPFC during different subcomponents of emotion processing...
September 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958455/schizotypal-traits-and-cognitive-performance-in-siblings-of-patients-with-psychosis
#13
L Moreno-Samaniego, Ana M Gaviria, E Vilella, J Valero, A Labad
INTRODUCTION: Schizotypy has been proposed to be the expression of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. The available literature shows cognitive similarities between schizotypy and schizophrenia, with mildly impaired performance being associated with schizotypy. This study aims to determine the relationship between schizotypy and cognitive performance in siblings of patients with psychosis. METHODS: Schizotypal features and cognitive performance on a neuropsychological battery were compared between 48 siblings of patients with psychosis and 44 healthy controls...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882829/childhood-cognitive-development-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-case-control-study
#14
Samuel J R A Chawner, Joanne L Doherty, Hayley Moss, Maria Niarchou, James T R Walters, Michael J Owen, Marianne B M van den Bree
Background22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a high risk of childhood as well as adult psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia. Childhood cognitive deterioration in 22q11.2DS has previously been reported, but only in studies lacking a control sample.AimsTo compare cognitive trajectories in children with 22q11.2DS and unaffected control siblings.MethodA longitudinal study of neurocognitive functioning (IQ, executive function, processing speed and attention) was conducted in children with 22q11...
October 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799427/quality-of-life-in-family-caregivers-of-schizophrenia-patients-in-spain-caregiver-characteristics-caregiving-burden-family-functioning-and-social-and-professional-support
#15
José M Ribé, Manel Salamero, Carles Pérez-Testor, Josep Mercadal, Concepción Aguilera, Margarida Cleris
OBJECTIVE: Caregivers experience physical and mental stress that ends up lowering their quality of life (QoL). Our goal was to research (a) the level of caregivers QoL; (b) the relationships between the demographic characteristics of the caregivers, their caregiving burden, their family functioning, their social and professional support and their QoL and (c) the best predictors of caregivers QoL. METHODS: 100 key caregivers (70% parents, 8% spouses, 17% siblings and 5% children) were studied using the world health organization quality of life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) to research their QoL, the Zarit Scale to assess their perception of their caregiving burden, the Social Network Questionnaire to examine their social support, the Family APGAR to assess the satisfaction with social support from the family and a professional support scale (Escala de Apoyo Profesional) to determine the professional support received by caregivers was performed...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759882/oculomotricity-and-neurological-soft-signs-can-we-refine-the-endophenotype-a-study-in-subjects-belonging-to-the-spectrum-of-schizophrenia
#16
Simona Caldani, Isabelle Amado, Narjes Bendjemaa, François Vialatte, Célia Mam-Lam-Fook, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs, Maria Pia Bucci
Alterations in eye tracking and motor impairments as well as Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are frequently reported in patients with schizophrenia as well as in their relatives, and are proposed as endophenotype of the disease. This study investigated smooth pursuit eye movement and fixation task with distractors with a gap condition, two markers of inhibitory control mechanism, in 49 patients with schizophrenia, 24 ultra-high risk subjects, 41 full biological clinical siblings of patients and 48 controls. NSS were assessed as a marker of abnormal neurodevelopment...
June 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744025/genetic-loci-associated-with-an-earlier-age-at-onset-in-multiplex-schizophrenia
#17
Annemarie L Woolston, Po-Chang Hsiao, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Shi-Heng Wang, Yin-Ju Lien, Chih-Min Liu, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Tzu-Pin Lu, Eric Y Chuang, Li-Ching Chang, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Ming T Tsuang, Wei J Chen
An earlier age at onset (AAO) has been associated with greater genetic loadings in schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify modifier loci associated with an earlier AAO of schizophrenia. A genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted in 94 schizophrenia probands with the earliest AAO and 91 with the latest AAO. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were then genotyped in the co-affected siblings and unrelated probands. Multi-SNP genetic risk scores (GRS) composed of the candidate loci were used to distinguish patients with an early or late AAO...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657695/rare-pdcd11-variations-are-not-associated-with-risk-of-schizophrenia-in-japan
#18
Satoshi Hoya, Yuichiro Watanabe, Akitoyo Hishimoto, Ayako Nunokawa, Naoshi Kaneko, Tatsuyuki Muratake, Naofumi Shinmyo, Ikuo Otsuka, Shujiro Okuda, Emiko Inoue, Hirofumi Igeta, Masako Shibuya, Jun Egawa, Naoki Orime, Ichiro Sora, Toshiyuki Someya
AIM: Rare gene variations are thought to confer substantial risk for schizophrenia. We performed a three-stage study to identify rare variations that have a strong impact on the risk of developing schizophrenia. METHODS: In the first stage, we prioritized rare missense variations using whole-exome sequencing (WES) data from three families, consisting of a proband, an affected sibling, and parents. In the second stage, we performed targeted resequencing of the PDCD11 coding region in 96 patients...
June 28, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615756/neurocognitive-impairments-in-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-of-schizophrenia
#19
Virupaksha Shanmugam Harave, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V Kalmady, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairments of attention and executive functioning are trait abnormalities in schizophrenia, and these are considered to be endophenotypes. These deficits have been convincingly linked to prefrontal cortical functioning. In this study, we examined the cognitive performance in the domains of attention and executive functioning among first-degree relatives of Indian people with schizophrenia (high-risk [HR] patients) compared to healthy controls (HC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Siblings of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, HR patients (n = 17), were compared with HC (n = 30) (matched as a group for age, sex, years of education, and handedness) using the following neurocognitive tests for attention and executive function - digit span test (DST), trail making test, letter-number sequencing (LNS), and spatial span test...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606213/is-emotional-intelligence-impaired-in-unaffected-siblings-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Beatrice Frajo-Apor, Georg Kemmler, Silvia Pardeller, Markus Huber, Christian Macina, Anna-Sophia Welte, Alex Hofer
OBJECTIVES: Social cognitive deficits have been discussed to be endophenotypes for schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses. The current study aimed to assess emotional intelligence (EI) in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients to investigate its potential role as endophenotype for schizophrenia. METHODS: EI was measured in 56 schizophrenia patients, 57 unaffected siblings, and 127 healthy control subjects by using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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