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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334933/disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1is-essential-for-normal-hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal-hpi-axis-function
#1
Helen Eachus, Charlotte Bright, Vincent T Cunliffe, Marysia Placzek, Jonathan D Wood, Penelope J Watt
Psychiatric disorders arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, including stress. Studies in rodents have shown that mutants for Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a well-accepted genetic risk factor for mental illness, display abnormal behaviours in response to stress, but the mechanisms through which DISC1 affects stress responses remain poorly understood. Using two lines of zebrafish homozygous mutant for disc1, we investigated behaviour and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, the fish equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258794/brain-bioenergetics-and-redox-state-measured-by-31-p-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-unaffected-siblings-of-patients-with-psychotic-disorders
#2
Virginie-Anne Chouinard, Sang-Young Kim, Linda Valeri, Cagri Yuksel, Kyle P Ryan, Guy Chouinard, Bruce M Cohen, Fei Du, Dost Öngür
BACKGROUND: Brain bioenergetic anomalies and redox dysregulation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders. The present study examined brain energy-related metabolites and the balance between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolites (oxidized NAD+ and reduced NADH) using (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in unaffected siblings, compared to first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: 21 unaffected siblings, 32 FEP patients (including schizophrenia spectrum and affective psychoses), and 21 controls underwent (31)P-MRS in the frontal lobe (6×6×4cm(3)) on a 4T MR scanner, using custom-designed dual-tuned surface coil with outer volume suppression...
March 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241183/association-of-gestational-weight-gain-and-maternal-body-mass-index-in-early-pregnancy-with-risk-for-nonaffective-psychosis-in-offspring
#3
Euan Mackay, Christina Dalman, Håkan Karlsson, Renee M Gardner
Importance: Prenatal exposure to famine is associated with a 2-fold risk for nonaffective psychoses. Less is known about whether maternal nutrition states during pregnancy modify offspring risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring in well-fed populations. Objective: To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy and maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy are associated with risk for nonaffective psychoses in offspring. Design, Setting and Participants: This population-based cohort study used data from Swedish health and population registers to follow up 526 042 individuals born from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 1989, from 13 years of age until December 31, 2011...
February 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197005/p300-and-neuropsychological-measurements-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-healthy-biological-siblings
#4
D Vijaya Raghavan, Arumugam Shanmugiah, P Bharathi, Ramasamy Jeyaprakash
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives' exhibit abnormalities in neuropsychological and electrophysiological measures especially P300. The aim was to study the P300 and neuropsychological measures together in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected siblings, and normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients diagnosed as schizophrenia, their unaffected biological siblings, and normal controls were included in the study...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189096/abnormal-agency-experiences-in-schizophrenia-patients-examining-the-role-of-psychotic-symptoms-and-familial-risk
#5
Merel Prikken, Anouk van der Weiden, Robert A Renes, Martijn G J C Koevoets, Henriette D Heering, René S Kahn, Henk Aarts, Neeltje E M van Haren
Experiencing self-agency over one's own action outcomes is essential for social functioning. Recent research revealed that patients with schizophrenia do not use implicitly available information about their action-outcomes (i.e., prime-based agency inference) to arrive at self-agency experiences. Here, we examined whether this is related to symptoms and/or familial risk to develop the disease. Fifty-four patients, 54 controls, and 19 unaffected (and unrelated) siblings performed an agency inference task, in which experienced agency was measured over action-outcomes that matched or mismatched outcome-primes that were presented before action performance...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095817/changes-in-event-related-potentials-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-their-siblings
#6
Chengqing Yang, Tianhong Zhang, Zezhi Li, Anisha Heeramun-Aubeeluck, Na Liu, Nan Huang, Jie Zhang, Leiying He, Hui Li, Yingying Tang, Fazhan Chen, Jijun Wang, Zheng Lu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the characteristics of event-related potentials induced by facial emotion recognition in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and in their siblings. METHODS: In this case-control study, 30 first-episode schizophrenia patients, 26 siblings, and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. They completed facial emotion recognition tasks from the Ekman Standard Faces Database as an induction for evoked potentials. Evoked potential data were obtained using a 64-channel electroencephalography system...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039552/cerebrospinal-fluid-microglia-and-neurodegenerative-markers-in-twins-concordant-and-discordant-for-psychotic-disorders
#7
Viktoria Johansson, Joel Jakobsson, Rebecca G Fortgang, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Tyrone D Cannon, Christina M Hultman, Lennart Wetterberg, Mikael Landén
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling...
December 30, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993229/development-of-two-dimensional-measures-of-restricted-and-repetitive-behavior-in-parents-and-children
#8
David W Evans, Mirko Uljarević, Laina G Lusk, Eva Loth, Thomas Frazier
OBJECTIVE: Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a heterogeneous set of behaviors common across a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and neuropsychiatric disorders (NPDs) that extend well into the general population. This study introduces 2 dimensional measurements of RRBs for use in typical and clinical populations from infancy to adulthood. METHOD: The Childhood Routines Inventory-Revised (CRI-R) and the Adult Routines Inventory (ARI) were created and administered online to a nationally representative cohort of 3,108 parents with 3,032 children (range 12 months to 17 years 11 months)...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988852/obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-and-overall-psychopathology-in-psychotic-disorders-longitudinal-assessment-of-patients-and-siblings
#9
Frederike Schirmbeck, Marije Swets, Carin J Meijer, Mathias Zink, Lieuwe de Haan
The course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and its association with alterations in other clinical variables in patients with psychotic disorders is insufficiently known. Patients (n = 602) and unaffected siblings (n = 652) from the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study were investigated at baseline and after 3 years. Participants were assigned to four groups based on the course of OCS over time: no-OCS, persistent OCS, initial OCS and de novo OCS. In addition to cross-sectional comparisons, longitudinal associations between changes in OCS and symptoms of schizophrenia and general functioning were investigated...
December 17, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942861/decreased-white-matter-fa-values-in-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-is-a-possible-intermediate-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-evidences-from-a-novel-group-strategy
#10
Jianjun Ou, Hailong Lyu, Maorong Hu, Jun Li, Wenbin Guo, Xiaofeng Guo, Lihua Li, Junjie Zheng, Qinling Wei, Feng Liu, Zhong He, Juan Wang, Fang Liu, Renrong Wu, Jindong Chen, Lehua Li, Bin Hu, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao
Intermediate phenotype could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility. However, genetic and environmental heterogeneity may interfere with identification of intermediate phenotypes. In this study, we minimized these interferences by using a novel group strategy. A total of 22 drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, along with 22 of their kin healthy siblings (HS), 22 non-kin healthy siblings (nHS) of other schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls (HC), were recruited. Brain imaging was acquired from the participants...
December 9, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931915/stratifying-empiric-risk-of-schizophrenia-among-first-degree-relatives-using-multiple-predictors-in-two-independent-indian-samples
#11
Triptish Bhatia, Elizabeth A Gettig, Irving I Gottesman, Jonathan Berliner, N N Mishra, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Smita N Deshpande
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) has an estimated heritability of 64-88%, with the higher values based on twin studies. Conventionally, family history of psychosis is the best individual-level predictor of risk, but reliable risk estimates are unavailable for Indian populations. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors are equally important and should be considered when predicting risk in 'at risk' individuals. OBJECTIVE: To estimate risk based on an Indian schizophrenia participant's family history combined with selected demographic factors...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886638/preliminary-evidence-that-negative-symptom-severity-relates-to-multilocus-genetic-profile-for-dopamine-signaling-capacity-and-d2-receptor-binding-in-healthy-controls-and-in-schizophrenia
#12
Sarah A Eisenstein, Ryan Bogdan, Ling Chen, Stephen M Moerlein, Kevin J Black, Joel S Perlmutter, Tamara Hershey, Deanna M Barch
Deficits in central, subcortical dopamine (DA) signaling may underlie negative symptom severity, particularly anhedonia, in healthy individuals and in schizophrenia. To investigate these relationships, we assessed negative symptoms with the Schedule for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and self-reported anhedonia with the Scales for Physical and Social Anhedonia (SPSA), Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale in 36 healthy controls (HC), 27 siblings (SIB) of individuals with schizophrenia, and 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ)...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881919/posttraumatic-stress-and-depression-in-yazidi-refugees
#13
Serhat Nasıroğlu, Veysi Çeri
AIM: The aim of this investigation was to determine the frequency of mental pathologies in children and adolescents of the Yazidi minority group who immigrated to Turkey from Iraq. The refugees were asked about preventive and risk factors that occurred before and after their immigration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample comprised 55 children and adolescents (30 males and 25 females) who were Yazidi refugees and had settled in the Uçkuyular, Oğuz, Onbaşı, and Uğurca villages of Batman, Turkey...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873559/educational-achievement-in-psychiatric-patients-and-their-siblings-a-register-based-study-in-30-000-individuals-in-the-netherlands
#14
W M Tempelaar, F Termorshuizen, J H MacCabe, M P M Boks, R S Kahn
BACKGROUND: Poor educational achievement is associated with a range of psychiatric disorders. Several studies suggest that this underperformance is due to cognitive deficits that commence before disease onset and reflect a genetic risk for this disorder. However, the specificity and the familial contribution of this cognitive deficit are not clear. We analysed lifetime educational achievement of psychiatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar or depressive disorder and their unaffected siblings...
November 22, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834215/diffusion-weighted-imaging-uncovers-likely-sources-of-processing-speed-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#15
Peter Kochunov, Laura M Rowland, Els Fieremans, Jelle Veraart, Neda Jahanshad, George Eskandar, Xiaoming Du, Florian Muellerklein, Anya Savransky, Dinesh Shukla, Hemalatha Sampath, Paul M Thompson, L Elliot Hong
Schizophrenia, a devastating psychiatric illness with onset in the late teens to early 20s, is thought to involve disrupted brain connectivity. Functional and structural disconnections of cortical networks may underlie various cognitive deficits, including a substantial reduction in the speed of information processing in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. Myelinated white matter supports the speed of electrical signal transmission in the brain. To examine possible neuroanatomical sources of cognitive deficits, we used a comprehensive diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) protocol and characterized the white matter diffusion signals using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and permeability-diffusivity imaging (PDI) in patients (n = 74), their nonill siblings (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 113)...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829189/dti-microstructural-abnormalities-in-adolescent-siblings-of-patients-with-childhood-onset-schizophrenia
#16
Dana Waltzman, Barbara Jean Knowlton, Jessica Rachel Cohen, Susan Yost Bookheimer, Robert Martin Bilder, Robert Franklin Asarnow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786353/longitudinal-study-of-cerebral-surface-morphology-in-youth-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-association-with-positive-symptoms-of-psychosis
#17
Petya D Radoeva, Ravi Bansal, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Bradley S Peterson, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder that greatly increases risk of developing schizophrenia. We previously characterized cerebral surface morphology trajectories from late childhood to mid adolescence in a cohort of youth with 22q11DS. Herein, we extend the study period into early adulthood, and describe further the trajectories associated with severe psychiatric symptoms in this cohort. METHODS: Participants included 76 youth with 22q11DS and 30 unaffected siblings, assessed at three timepoints, during which high resolution, anatomic magnetic resonance images were acquired...
March 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770667/altered-cortical-processing-of-motor-inhibition-in-schizophrenia
#18
Påvel G Lindberg, Maxime Térémetz, Sylvain Charron, Oussama Kebir, Agathe Saby, Narjes Bendjemaa, Stéphanie Lion, Benoît Crépon, Raphaël Gaillard, Catherine Oppenheim, Marie-Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Inhibition is considered a key mechanism in schizophrenia. Short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) in the motor cortex is reduced in schizophrenia and is considered to reflect locally deficient γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic modulation. However, it remains unclear how SICI is modulated during motor inhibition and how it relates to neural processing in other cortical areas. Here we studied motor inhibition Stop signal task (SST) in stabilized patients with schizophrenia (N = 28), healthy siblings (N = 21) and healthy controls (n = 31) matched in general cognitive status and educational level...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759181/experiences-of-caring-for-a-sibling-with-schizophrenia-in-a-chinese-context-a-neglected-issue
#19
Cheng-I Yang, Min-Yun Hsieh, Li-Hung Lee, Shu-Ling Chen
Adult clients with schizophrenia are primarily cared for by their ageing parents. When the parents become ill or die, siblings are considered to be responsible for taking over the caregiving role. However, little is known about caregiving for a sibling with schizophrenia, and no studies have explored this phenomenon in an Asian context. The aim of the present descriptive, qualitative study was to understand the experiences of being the primary caregiver of a sibling with schizophrenia. Data were collected from 10 siblings of currently-hospitalized patients diagnosed with schizophrenia using semistructured, in-depth interviews...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639418/saccadic-eye-movements-as-markers-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-exploration-in-at-risk-mental-states
#20
Simona Caldani, Maria Pia Bucci, Jean-Charles Lamy, Magali Seassau, Narjes Bendjemaa, Rémi Gadel, Raphael Gaillard, Marie-Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease with cognitive and motor impairments. Motor dysfunctions, such as eye movements or Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), are proposed as endophenotypic markers. Antisaccade (AS) and memory-guided saccades (MGS), two markers of inhibitory control mechanism, are altered in both patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, although these tools may have different sensitivities. Recently, emphasis has been put on identifying markers predictive of psychosis transition in subjects with ultra-high-risk psychosis in order to develop targeted prevention...
September 14, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
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