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Wen-Yu Cheng, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Ming-Tsang Chiao, Yea-Jiuan Liang, Tsuo-Fei Mao, Bai-Shuan Liu, Jun-Peng Chen
INTRODUCTION: A previous study confirmed that a novel splicing variant of large vascular endothelial growth factor (L-VEGF) termed L-VEGF144, a nucleolus protein, is found in glioblastoma cells and specimens, but the actual biological function and clinical significance of L-VEGF144 remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the expression of L-VEGF144 in 68 glioblastoma multiforme specimens using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Takahito Sugase, Tomoki Makino, Makoto Yamasaki, Koji Tanaka, Tadayoshi Hashimoto, Yasuhiro Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Yukinori Kurokawa, Kiyokazu Nakajima, Masayuki Mano, Eiichi Morii, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to analyze the clinical and histological effects of chemotherapy in superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC). METHODS: We analyzed tumor samples from five patients with cT1bN1M0 who underwent subtotal esophagectomy following two courses of a new triplet chemotherapy regimen including docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF). To assess the histological effects of chemotherapy, resected specimens were analyzed by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining (p53, Ki-67 and cytokeratin) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining...
June 16, 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Jinghao Qin, Hongbing Shi, Yanjie Xu, Fang Zhao, Qing Wang
This study aims to explore the effects and related mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA in cervix carcinoma (CC) stemness-like cells migration, invasion, stemness and chemotherapeutical sensitivity. Here, we found that Tanshinone IIA suppressed CC stemness-like cells migration and invasion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. And consistent results were obtained in CC cells stemness characterized as the decrease of CC stemness markers expression and cells spheroid formation ability. Mechanistically, we found that Tanshinone IIA suppressed RNA binding protein HuR translocation from nuclear to cytoplasm, and thus reduced YAP mRNAs stability and transcriptional activity...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ning Li, Wen-Yu Xin, Bin-Rong Yao, Wei Cong, Chun-Hua Wang, Gui-Ge Hou
Ten novel symmetric 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidone derivatives (BAPs, 1-10) and fourteen dissymmetric BAPs (11-24) were synthesized and evaluated the cytotoxicity. All of the compounds have been screened for their anti-inflammatory activity characterized by evaluating their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced IL-6, TNF-α secretion. Among them, BAP 23 exhibits both the highest anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Western blot analysis showed that BAP 23 markedly reduced the levels of Bcl-2 but increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3and Bax...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Mohamed A Farag, Mahmoud F Elsebai, Amira R Khattab
The growing interest in assuring phytomedicines efficacy and moreover the increase in requirements for its safety drive the development of analytical methods for its quality control assurance. Herein, we present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprinting approach of artichoke leaf material from different origins and in its commercial preparations. Under optimized conditions, we were able to simultaneously identify 23 metabolites including sugars, amino and organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, flavones, cinnamates, inulin, fatty acids and nitrogenous bases...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Eirini Kaiserli, Giorgio Perrella, Mhairi Lh Davidson
Environmental stimuli play a major role in modulating growth and development throughout the life-cycle of a plant. Quantitative and qualitative variations in light and temperature trigger changes in gene expression that ultimately shape plant morphology for adaptation and survival. Although the phenotypic and transcriptomic basis of plant responses to the constantly changing environment have been examined for decades, the relationship between global changes in nuclear architecture and adaption to environmental stimuli is just being uncovered...
June 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Nil Ege, Anna M Dowbaj, Ming Jiang, Michael Howell, Steven Hooper, Charles Foster, Robert P Jenkins, Erik Sahai
The transcriptional regulator YAP1 is critical for the pathological activation of fibroblasts. In normal fibroblasts, YAP1 is located in the cytoplasm, while in activated cancer-associated fibroblasts, it is nuclear and promotes the expression of genes required for pro-tumorigenic functions. Here, we investigate the dynamics of YAP1 shuttling in normal and activated fibroblasts, using EYFP-YAP1, quantitative photobleaching methods, and mathematical modeling. Imaging of migrating fibroblasts reveals the tight temporal coupling of cell shape change and altered YAP1 localization...
June 8, 2018: Cell Systems
John C Norton, Sunali Goyal
PURPOSE: To determine patient characteristics and outcomes for developing retained nuclear fragments in the anterior chamber after phacoemulsification in at-risk populations. SETTING: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Jones Eye Institute, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Using Current Procedural Terminology codes 2006 to 2018, patients with a diagnosis of retained nuclear fragment in the anterior chamber after uncomplicated phacoemulsification cataract extraction were identified...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Peng Yi, Xuegao Chen, Zixia Wang, Ala Aldahan, Xiaolin Hou, Zhongbo Yu
The radioactive isotope 129 I, with a half-life of 1.57 × 107 years, is widely used as a tracer to assess nuclear safety, to track environmental and geological events and to figure out the details of the stable iodine geochemical cycle. This work investigated the 129 I and 127 I distribution in water samples collected from the terrestrial (rivers, lakes and springs) and marine water systems (estuary and sea) in China. The measured 129 I concentrations of (1-51) × 106 atoms/L and 129 I/127 I ratios of (0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Charles A Herzog, Tanya Natwick, Shuling Li, David M Charytan
OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to analyze temporal trends in cardiac stress testing in U.S. Medicare beneficiaries from 2008 to 2012, types of stress testing, and comparative utilization related to the presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD). BACKGROUND: A long-held perception depicts patients with CKD as being treated less intensively for cardiovascular disease than nonrenal patients. We wondered whether use of diagnostic testing for ischemic heart disease is affected by the presence of CKD...
June 8, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Pavlo Bielytskyi, Daniel Gräsing, Kaustubh R Mote, Karthick Babu Sai Sankar Gupta, Shimon Vega, P K Madhu, A Alia, Jörg Matysik
In the present study, we exploit the light-induced hyperpolarization occurring on 13 C nuclei due to the solid-state photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) effect to boost the NMR signal intensity of selected protons via inverse cross-polarization. Such hyperpolarization transfer is implemented into 1 H-detected two-dimensional 13 C-1 H correlation magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR experiment to study protons in frozen photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs). As a first trial, the performance of such an experiment is tested on selectively 13 C labeled RCs from the purple bacteria of Rhodobacter sphaeroides...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Yu-Mei Zhang, En-En Gao, Qian-Qian Wang, Hao Tian, Jian Hou
Aberrant hypermethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) is a key barrier to the development of cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of chaetocin, an inhibitor of H3K9 methyltransferase SUV39 H, in regulating the H3K9 methylation in ovine SCNT embryos. Treatment of sheep fetal fibroblast cells with chaetocin specifically decreased the levels of H3K9 di-and trimethylation, and down-regulated the expression of H3K9 methyltransferases, SUV39H1/2 and G9A...
June 14, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Bharti Garg, Bhuwan Giri, Shrey Modi, Vrishketan Sethi, Iris Castro, Oliver Umland, Yuguang Ban, Shweta Lavania, Rajinder Dawra, Sulagna Banerjee, Selwyn Vickers, Nipun B Merchant, Steven Xi Chen, Eli Gilboa, Sundaram Ramakrishnan, Ashok Saluja, Vikas Dudeja
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunotherapies are ineffective against pancreatic cancer. We investigated whether the activity of nuclear factor (NF)κB in pancreatic stromal cells contributes to an environment that suppresses anti-tumor immune response. METHODS: Pancreata of C57BL/6 or Rag1-/- mice were given pancreatic injections of a combination of KrasG12D/+; Trp53 R172H/+; Pdx-1cre (KPC) pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) extracted from C57BL/6 (control) or mice with disruption of the gene encoding the NFkB p50 subunit (Nfkb1 or p50-/- mice)...
June 14, 2018: Gastroenterology
Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Bert W Hoeksema, Sofya V Mudrova, Mikhail A Nikitin, Alejandro Martínez, Nadezda N Rimskaya-Korsakova, Michael L Berumen, Diego Fontaneto
The radiation of symbiotic copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) living in association with stony corals (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) is considered host-specific and linked to the phylogenetic diversification of their hosts. However, symbiotic copepods are poorly investigated, occurrence records are mostly anecdotal, and no explicit analysis exists regarding their relationship with the hosts. Here, we analysed the occurrence of symbiotic copepods on different co-occurring and phylogenetically closely related scleractinian corals...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nicole E Adams, Kentaro Inoue, Richard A Seidel, Brian K Lang, David J Berg
Vicariance and dispersal events affect current biodiversity patterns in desert springs. Whether major diversification events are due to environmental changes leading to radiation or due to isolation resulting in relict species is largely unknown. We seek to understand whether the Gammarus pecos species complex underwent major diversification events due to environmental changes in the area leading either to radiation into novel habitats, or formation of relicts due to isolation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that Gammarus in the northern Chihuahuan Desert of New Mexico and Texas, USA are descendants of an ancient marine lineage now containing multiple undescribed species...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yu-Qiong He, Hua Yang, Yi Shen, Jian-Hua Zhang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Lin-Lin Liu, Hong-Tao Song, Bin Lin, Hsien-Yeh Hsu, Lu-Ping Qin, Ting Han, Hai-Liang Xin, Qiao-Yan Zhang
Estrogen deficiency and inflammation are known to play important roles in bone metabolism and occurrence of osteoporosis. Monotropein as an iridoid glycoside is reported to decrease estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and inhibit inflammatory response in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, the effect of monotropein on bone loss in chronic inflammatory conditions remains unclear. It was found in the present study that monotropein significantly inhibited bone mass reduction and improved bone micro-architectures by enhancing bone formation and blocking increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines in osteoporotic mice induced by combined ovariectomy and LPS...
June 14, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Chaochu Cui, Yan Chang, Xiaoli Zhang, Sangyong Choi, Henry Tran, Kumar V Penmetsa, Srikant Viswanadha, Liwu Fu, Zui Pan
Esophageal cancer (EC) is the 6 t h leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide with poor prognosis, hence more effective chemotherapeutic drugs for this deadly disease are urgently needed. We previously reported that high expression of Orai1, a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channel was associated with poor survival rate in EC patients and Orai1-mediated intracellular Ca2+ oscillations regulated cancer cell proliferation. Previous studies suggested that Orai1-mediated SOCE is a promising target for EC chemotherapy...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
Gabriel V Markov, Jean Girard, Vincent Laudet, Catherine Leblanc
Hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) are signaling molecules produced by plants that alter hormonal signaling in animals, due to consumption or environmental exposure. To date, HAPs have been investigated mainly in terrestrial ecosystems. To gain a full understanding of the origin and evolution of plant-animal interactions, it is necessary also to study these interactions in the marine environment, where the major photosynthetic lineages are very distant from the terrestrial plants. Here we focus on chemicals from red and brown macroalgae and point out their potential role as modulators of the endocrine system of aquatic animals through nuclear hormone receptors...
June 14, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
L Han, F Batistel, Y Ma, A S M Alharthi, C Parys, J J Loor
The periparturient period is the most critical period during the lactation cycle of dairy cows and is characterized by increased oxidative stress status. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing rumen-protected methionine on nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2, formerly NRF2) protein and target gene expression in the mammary gland during the early postpartal period. Multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design experiment with 30 cows per treatment. Treatments consisting of a basal control diet (control) or the basal diet plus rumen-protected methionine (methionine) were fed from d -28 to 60 relative to parturition...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Zhenlin Huang, Yuchen Sheng, Minwei Chen, Zhanxia Hao, Feifei Hu, Lili Ji
Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is a serious and life-threatening liver disease. Liquiritigenin (LG) and liquiritin (LQ) are natural flavonoids distributed in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Gan-cao). This study aims to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of LG and LQ against monocrotaline (MCT)-induced HSOS. Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) activities, liver histological evaluation and scanning electron microscope observation, and hepatic metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression demonstrated that LG and LQ both alleviated HSOS induced by MCT in rats...
June 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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