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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785004/a-direct-tissue-grafting-approach-to-increasing-endogenous-brown-fat
#2
Nicole R Blumenfeld, Hwan June Kang, Anna Fenzl, Ziwei Song, Janice J Chung, Ranjodh Singh, Roshawn Johnson, Ayse Karakecili, Jun B Feranil, Ninna S Rossen, Vivian Zhang, Sahir Jaggi, Bret McCarty, Steven Bessler, Gary J Schwartz, Robert Grant, Judith Korner, Florian W Kiefer, Brian M Gillette, Samuel K Sia
There is widespread evidence that increasing functional mass of brown adipose tissue (BAT) via browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) could potentially counter obesity and diabetes. However, most current approaches focus on administration of pharmacological compounds which expose patients to highly undesirable side effects. Here, we describe a simple and direct tissue-grafting approach to increase BAT mass through ex vivo browning of subcutaneous WAT, followed by re-implantation into the host; this cell-therapy approach could potentially act synergistically with existing pharmacological approaches...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782640/drug-gut-microbiota-interactions-implications-for-neuropharmacology
#3
REVIEW
Jacinta Walsh, Brendan T Griffin, Gerard Clarke, Niall P Hyland
The fate and activity of drugs are frequently dictated not only by the host per se but also by the microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract. The gut microbiome is known to, both directly and indirectly, affect drug metabolism. More evidence now hints at the impact that drugs can have on the function and composition of the gut microbiome. Both microbiota-mediated alterations in drug metabolism and drug-mediated alterations in the gut microbiome can have beneficial or detrimental effects on the host...
May 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781490/elucidation-of-interfacial-ph-behaviour-at-the-cell-substrate-nanogap-for-in-situ-monitoring-of-cellular-respiration
#4
Hiroto Satake, Akiko Saito, Toshiya Sakata
In situ monitoring of cellular metabolism is useful for elucidating dynamic functions of living cells. In our previous studies, cellular respiration was continuously monitored as a change in pH at the cell/electrode nanoscale interface (i.e., interfacial pH) using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). However, such interfacial pH behaviour on the nanoscale has not been confirmed using other methods such as fluorescence imaging. In this study, we have clarified the interfacial pH behaviour at a cell/substrate nanogap using a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope...
May 21, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778137/deciphering-natural-control-of-hiv-1-a-valuable-strategy-to-achieve-antiretroviral-therapy-termination
#5
REVIEW
Hamza Loucif, Steven Gouard, Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Armstrong Murira, Simona Stäger, Cécile Tremblay, Julien Van Grevenynghe
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality, and has transformed HIV-1 infection into a manageable chronic condition by suppressing viral replication. However, despite recent patient care improvements, ART still fails to cure HIV-1 infection due to the inability to counteract immune defects and metabolic disturbances that are associated with residual inflammation alongside viral persistence. Life-long drug administration also results in multiple side-effects in patients including lipodystrophy and insulin resistance...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777569/improving-metabolic-stability-with-deuterium-the-discovery-of-hwl-066-a-potent-and-long-acting-free-fatty-acid-receptor-1-agonists
#6
Chunxia Liu, Zheng Li, Wei Shi, Huilan Li, Nasi Wang, Yuxuan Dai, Chen Liao, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
The free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) is a potential target due to its function in enhancing of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The FFA1 agonist GW9508 has great potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it has been suffering from high plasma clearance probably because the phenylpropanoic acid is vulnerable to β-oxidation. To identify orally available analog without influence on the unique pharmacological mechanism of GW9508, we tried to interdict the metabolically labile group by incorporating two deuterium atoms at the α-position of phenylpropionic acid affording compound 4 (HWL-066)...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#7
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775451/-recurrent-urolithiasis-as-a-symptom-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-in-a-16-year-old-boy
#8
Monika Wojciechowska, Beata Bieniaś, Aleksandra Sobieszczańska-Droździel, Anna Wieczorkiewicz-Płaza, Iwona Beń-Skowronek, Przemysław Sikora
Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases, however, it is rare in children. In most cases, it is caused by adenoma of these organs. Its most common complications include urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and osteoporosis. CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old patient was admitted to our Clinic because of his first-ever renal colic. The ultrasound examination revealed rightsided hydronephrosis caused by the presence of 9 mm stone in the upper part of the right ureter. In addition, the presence of 8 mm stone in the middle calyx of the left kidney was found...
April 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#9
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773496/reflections-on-methodical-approaches-to-hematopoietic-stem-cell-collection-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Del Fante, Jerard Seghatchian, Cesare Perotti
Pediatric peripheral blood stem cell collection (PBSC) is challenging because it has potentially more side effects than in adults due to the small body mass and unique physiology of children. The extracorporeal volume of the cell separator device, poor venous access and metabolic complications due to citrate toxicity are the main problems to face during PBSC collection. These aspects are more relevant in very low body weight (BW) children of 20 kg or lower. An efficient, experienced and well-prepared team of pediatricians, apheresis physicians and nurses, and physicians involved in CVC positioning is crucial to performing a safe PBSC collection...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770231/cardiovascular-outcomes-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-with-special-emphasis-on-its-effect-beyond-ldl-cholesterol-lowering
#11
REVIEW
Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Kumar Ashish, Adrija Hajra, Arshna Qureshi, Raktim K Ghosh
PCSK9 inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are novel antihypercholesterolemic drugs. FDA first approved them in July 2015. PCSK9 protein (692-amino acids) was discovered in 2003. It plays a major role in LDL receptor degradation and is a prominent modulator in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. PCSK9 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 protein in liver and inhibiting this protein leads to drastically lowering harmful LDL-C level in the bloodstream. Despite widespread use of the statin, not all the high-risk patients were able to achieve targeted level of LDL-C...
2018: Journal of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769312/the-chloroplast-division-protein-arc6-acts-to-inhibit-disassembly-of-gdp-bound-ftsz2
#12
Min Woo Sung, Rahamthulla Shaik, Allan D TerBush, Katherine W Osteryoung, Stanislav Vitha, Andreas Holzenburg
Chloroplasts host photosynthesis and fulfill other metabolic functions that are essential to plant life. They have to divide by binary fission to maintain their numbers throughout cycles of cell division. Chloroplast division is achieved by a complex ring-shaped division machinery located on both the inner (stromal) and the outer (cytosolic) side of the chloroplast envelope. The inner division ring (termed the Z ring) is formed by the assembly of tubulin-like FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 proteins. ARC6 is a key chloroplast division protein that interacts with the Z ring...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761043/differential-expression-patterns-of-housekeeping-genes-increase-diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-in-lung-cancer
#13
Yu-Chun Chang, Yan Ding, Lingsheng Dong, Lang-Jing Zhu, Roderick V Jensen, Li-Li Hsiao
Background: Using DNA microarrays, we previously identified 451 genes expressed in 19 different human tissues. Although ubiquitously expressed, the variable expression patterns of these "housekeeping genes" (HKGs) could separate one normal human tissue type from another. Current focus on identifying "specific disease markers" is problematic as single gene expression in a given sample represents the specific cellular states of the sample at the time of collection. In this study, we examine the diagnostic and prognostic potential of the variable expressions of HKGs in lung cancers...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759138/impact-of-imipramine-on-proteome-of-rat-primary-glial-cells
#14
Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Bianka Swiderska, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Gabriela Prus, Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Urszula Jankowska, Ewa Obuchowicz
Microglia and astrocytes, two types of glial cells are known to be important targets for antidepressant drugs. Here we used a comprehensive proteomic analysis to examine the effect of imipramine on rat primary mixed glial culture. The two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis method allowed us to identify 62 proteins that were altered by imipramine. Functional analysis revealed that imipramine influenced the level of proteins involved in oxidative stress; in particular, it elevated the level of glutathione transferases...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758036/benzoxaborole-treatment-perturbs-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#15
Pieter C Steketee, Isabel M Vincent, Fiona Achcar, Federica Giordani, Dong-Hyun Kim, Darren J Creek, Yvonne Freund, Robert Jacobs, Kevin Rattigan, David Horn, Mark C Field, Annette MacLeod, Michael P Barrett
The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes Human African Trypanosomiasis and Nagana in other mammals. These diseases present a major socio-economic burden to large areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Current therapies involve complex and toxic regimens, which can lead to fatal side-effects. In addition, there is emerging evidence for drug resistance. AN5568 (SCYX-7158) is a novel benzoxaborole class compound that has been selected as a lead compound for the treatment of HAT, and has demonstrated effective clearance of both early and late stage trypanosomiasis in vivo...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756563/cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitors-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-inflammatory-diseases
#16
Miguel D Ferrer, Carla Busquests-Cortes, Xavier Capo, Silvia Tejada, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
Inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of many complex diseases and disorders including autoimmune diseases, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular pathologies. Prostaglandins play a regulatory role in inflammation. Cyclooxygenases are the main mediators of inflammation by catalyzing the initial step of arachidonic acid metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis. The differential expression of the constitutive isoform COX-1 and the inducible isoform COX-2, and the finding that COX-1 is the major form expressed in the gastro-intestinal tract, lead to the search for COX-2-selective inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents that might diminish the gastrointestinal side effects of traditional non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
May 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755923/epigenetic-alterations-impact-on-antipsychotic-treatment-in-elderly-patients
#17
Bryan M McClarty, Daniel W Fisher, Hongxin Dong
Purpose of the review: Antipsychotics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of psychosis as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in elderly patients. However, elderly patients often experience decreased antipsychotic efficacy and increased side effects, though the mechanisms underlying these changes with age are not clear. Recent findings: Although aging can affect drug metabolism and clearance through changes in renal and hepatic function, additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes due to aging-induced epigenetic alterations also impact processes important for antipsychotic function...
March 2018: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754040/synthetic-cannabinoid-bb-22-quchic-human-hepatocytes-metabolism-with-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-detection
#18
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Marilyn A Huestis
Clandestine laboratories continue producing new synthetic cannabinoids that mimic and magnify natural cannabinoids effects to circumvent drug scheduling legislation. New synthetic cannabinoids are highly potent and responsible for many acute intoxications and deaths. Characterization of metabolic pathways is critical to identify metabolite markers whose detection can prove intake. BB-22 is a new potent synthetic cannabinoid whose toxicological and metabolic properties are currently unavailable. Analytical methods require constant updating and are challenging due to extensive synthetic cannabinoid metabolism and low marker concentrations...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753402/hif-activation-against-cvd-in-ckd-novel-treatment-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Kai-Uwe Eckardt
Cardiovascular disease is a common and serious complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). One of the fundamental functions of the cardiovascular system is oxygen delivery, therefore cardiovascular disease inherently is linked to insufficient tissue oxygenation. Advances in our knowledge of cellular oxygen sensing by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) and their role in regulating hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) have led to the discovery of PHD inhibitors as HIF stabilizers. Several small-molecule PHD inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of anemia in CKD...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752633/clinical-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations-in-the-treatment-of-ulcerative-colitis
#20
REVIEW
Sophie E Berends, Anne S Strik, Mark Löwenberg, Geert R D'Haens, Ron A A Mathôt
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology, probably caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The treatment of patients with active UC depends on the severity, localization and history of IBD medication. According to the classic step-up approach, treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds is the first step in the treatment of mild to moderately active UC. Corticosteroids, such as prednisolone are used in UC patients with moderate to severe disease activity, but only for remission induction therapy because of side effects associated with long-term use...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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