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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428931/the-role-of-renal-proximal-tubule-transport-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#1
REVIEW
Shoko Horita, Motonobu Nakamura, Masashi Suzuki, Nobuhiko Satoh, Atsushi Suzuki, Yukio Homma, Masaomi Nangaku
The electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) on the basolateral side of the renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in systemic acid-base homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1 cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis accompanied by other extrarenal symptoms. The proximal tubule reabsorbs most of the sodium filtered in the glomerulus, contributing to the regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure. NBCe1 and other sodium transporters in the proximal tubule are regulated by hormones, such as angiotensin II and insulin...
March 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423240/biochemical-cellular-physiological-and-pathological-consequences-of-human-loss-of-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid
#2
Jonathan Okerblom, Ajit Varki
About 2-3 million years ago, Alu-mediated deletion of a critical exon in the CMAH gene became fixed in the hominin lineage ancestral to humans, possibly through a stepwise process of selection by pathogen targeting of the CMAH product (the sialic acid Neu5Gc), followed by reproductive isolation via female anti-Neu5Gc antibodies. Loss of CMAH has occurred independently in some other lineages, but is functionally intact in Old World primates, including our closest relatives, the chimpanzees. While the biophysical and biochemical ramifications of losing tens of millions of Neu5Gc hydroxyl groups at most cell surfaces remains poorly understood, there are multi-scale effects functionally relevant to both sides of the host-pathogen interface...
April 19, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415828/melatonin-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Ya Li, Sha Li, Yue Zhou, Xiao Meng, Jiao-Jiao Zhang, Dong-Ping Xu, Hua-Bin Li
The epidemiological studies have indicated a possible oncostatic property of melatonin on different types of tumors. Besides, experimental studies have documented that melatonin could exert growth inhibition on some human tumor cells in vitro and in animal models. The underlying mechanisms include antioxidant activity, modulation of melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, stimulation of apoptosis, regulation of pro-survival signaling and tumor metabolism, inhibition on angiogenesis, metastasis, and induction of epigenetic alteration...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413978/advances-and-challenges-in-drug-design-of-ppar%C3%AE-ligands
#4
Vinicius Gonçalves Maltarollo, Thales Kronenberger, Björn Windshügel, Carsten Wrenger, Gustavo Henrique Goulart Trossini, Kathia Maria Honorio
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors activated by endogenous fatty acids and prostaglandins that are classified into three types: α, γ and δ, which have different functions and tissue distribution. PPAR modulators have been exploited to the treatment of important metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which are considered relevant epidemic diseases currently. Along the last decades, several studies have reported structural differences between the three PPAR subtypes associated with the discovery of selective ligands, dual and pan-agonists...
April 14, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412910/aripiprazole-a-drug-that-displays-partial-agonism-and-functional-selectivity
#5
Erin W Tuplin, Matthew R Holahan
The treatment of schizophrenia is challenging due to the wide range of symptoms (positive, negative, cognitive) associated with the disease. Typical antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors are effective in treating positive symptoms, but extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) are a common occurrence. Atypical antipsychotics targeting 5-TH2A and D2 receptors are more effective at treating cognitive and negative symptoms compared to typical antipsychotics, but these drugs also result in side-effects such as metabolic syndromes...
April 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406267/long-term-antipsychotic-use-and-major-cardiovascular-events-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Alejandro G Szmulewicz, Federico Angriman, Felipe E Pedroso, Carolina Vazquez, Diego J Martino
OBJECTIVE: Chronic treatment with antipsychotics may result in both metabolic side effects and cardiovascular disease. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of antipsychotic medications categorized by their metabolic side effect profiles as low, intermediate, or high risk on major cardiovascular events. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in adult outpatients aged 30 years or older initiating antipsychotic treatment from 2002 to 2007. Antipsychotic medications were divided into 3 groups (low-, intermediate-, and high-risk) according to the severity of their side-effect profiles in developing metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular disease...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405747/metabolic-responses-to-different-immune-challenges-and-varying-resource-availability-in-the-side-blotched-lizard-uta-stansburiana
#7
Geoffrey D Smith, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Alison C Webb, Michael J Angilletta, Dale F DeNardo, Susannah S French
The energetic cost of immunity depends on many factors, including the type of challenge, the timing of the response, and the state of the animal. We measured changes in the standard metabolic rates of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852) in response to different immune challenges and nutritional states. In the first experiment, lizards were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (to stimulate the response to a pathogen), cutaneous biopsy (as a proxy to a superficial wound), both injection and biopsy, or neither (control)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403379/effect-of-resveratrol-on-walking-performance-in-older-people-with-peripheral-artery-disease-the-restore-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Mary M McDermott, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jack M Guralnik, Lu Tian, Robert Sufit, Lihui Zhao, Michael H Criqui, Melina R Kibbe, James H Stein, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Stephen D Anton, Tamar S Polonsky, Ying Gao, Rafael de Cabo, Luigi Ferrucci
Importance: Research shows that resveratrol, a sirtuin activator in red wine, improves exercise endurance and skeletal-muscle oxidative metabolism in animals and may enhance vascular function in humans. Resveratrol supplement sales exceed $30 million annually in the United States, but few data are available regarding its efficacy in humans. Objective: To determine whether resveratrol, 125 mg/d or 500 mg/d, improves the 6-minute walk performance in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD)...
April 12, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403066/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#9
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nubaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
April 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401633/functional-soil-metagenomics-elucidation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-degradation-potential-following-12-years-of-in-situ-bioremediation
#10
Márcia Duarte, Agnes Nielsen, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Thomas Bruls, Melissa L Wos-Oxley, Ruy Jauregui, Dietmar H Pieper
A culture-independent function-based screening approach was used to assess the microbial aerobic catabolome for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation of a soil subjected to 12 years of in situ bioremediation. A total of 422,750 fosmid clones were screened for key aromatic ring-cleavage activities using 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl as substrate. Most of the genes encoding ring-cleavage enzymes on the 768 retrieved positive fosmids could not be identified using primer-based approaches and, thus, 205 fosmid inserts were sequenced...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400155/histaminergic-gene-polymorphisms-associated-with-sedation-in-clozapine-treated-patients
#11
Anssi Solismaa, Olli Kampman, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Nina Mononen, Terho Lehtimäki, Esa Leinonen
Sedation is a common adverse effect of clozapine treatment, which may be partly related to clozapine binding to histamine receptors in the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the histaminergic system are associated with sedation in clozapine-treated patients. The study population comprised 237 clozapine-treated, Finnish, Caucasian patients that were diagnosed with schizophrenia and 176 were genotyped using Illumina HumanCoreExome-12 BeadChip...
April 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397993/the-novel-anticonvulsant-neuropeptide-and-galanin-analogue-nax-5055-does-not-alter-energy-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-cultured-brain-cells
#12
Blanca I Aldana, Helle S Waagepetersen, Arne Schousboe, H Steve White, Grzegorz Bulaj, Anne B Walls
A large body of evidence suggests that the neuropeptide galanin plays an important role in seizure control. In line with this, it was demonstrated that the galanin analogue, NAX-5055, exerts a potent anticonvulsant activity in animal seizure models. We recently found that the NAX-5055-mediated anticonvulsant action involves modulation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Since homeostasis of neurotransmitters and cerebral energy metabolism are intimately linked, it was investigated whether the effects of NAX-5055 on neurotransmission involve changes in energy metabolism and in particular glucose- and amino acid metabolism...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397726/long-term-brain-tissue-monitoring-after-semi-brain-irradiation-in-rats-using-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-preliminary-study-in-vivo
#13
Hong Chen, Yu-Shu Cheng, Zheng-Rong Zhou
BACKGROUND: In head and neck neoplasm survivors treated with brain irradiation, metabolic alterations would occur in the radiation-induced injury area. The mechanism of these metabolic alterations has not been fully understood, while the alternations could be sensitively detected by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, we investigated the metabolic characteristics of radiation-induced brain injury through a long-term follow-up after radiation treatment using MRS in vivo...
April 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396543/a-topical-hydrogel-with-deferiprone-and-gallium-protoporphyrin-targets-bacterial-iron-metabolism-and-has-antibiofilm-activity
#14
Katharina Richter, Nicky Thomas, Jolien Claeys, Jonathan McGuane, Clive A Prestidge, Tom Coenye, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
Many infectious diseases are associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria residing in biofilms that require high antibiotic concentrations. Whilst oral drug-delivery is frequently ineffective, topical treatments have the potential to deliver higher drug concentrations to the infection-site while reducing systemic side-effects.This study determined the antibiofilm activity of a surgical wound-gel loaded with the iron-chelator deferiprone (Def) and the heme-analogue gallium-protoporphyrin (GaPP), alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394295/antimicrobial-resistance-and-the-alternative-resources-with-special-emphasis-on-plant-based-antimicrobials-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Harish Chandra, Parul Bishnoi, Archana Yadav, Babita Patni, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Anant Ram Nautiyal
Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe's development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according to their mechanism of action, i.e., interference with cell wall synthesis, DNA and RNA synthesis, lysis of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc...
April 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393622/the-importance-of-drug-metabolites-synthesis-the-case-study-of-cardiotoxic-anticancer-drugs
#16
Ivanna Hrynchak, Emília Sousa, Madalena Pinto, Vera Marisa Costa
Anticancer drugs are presently guarantying more survivors as a result of more powerful drugs or combinations of drugs used in therapy. Thus, it has become more crucial to study and overcome the side effects of these therapies. Cardiotoxicity is one of the most relevant side effect on the long-term cancer survivors, because of its high social and economic impact. Drug metabolism can result in active metabolites or toxic metabolites that can lead to important side effects. The metabolites of anticancer drugs are possible culprits of cardiotoxicity; however, the cardiotoxicity of many of the metabolites in several drug classes was not yet suitably studied so far...
April 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392373/persistent-blood-glucose-reduction-upon-repeated-transcranial-electric-stimulation-in-men
#17
Alina Kistenmacher, Sebastian Manneck, Ewelina K Wardzinski, Jan C Martens, Georg Gohla, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human brain increases systemic glucose tolerance. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate whether this effect persists after one week of repeated stimulation. Because systemic glucose uptake relates to brain energy homeostasis, we concomitantly measured cerebral high-energy phosphate metabolites. METHODS: In a sham-controlled crossover design, 14 healthy men were tested under daily anodal tDCS vs...
March 25, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390001/defective-glycolysis-and-the-use-of-2-deoxy-d-glucose-in-polycystic-kidney-disease-from-animal-models-to-humans
#18
REVIEW
Riccardo Magistroni, Alessandra Boletta
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited renal disease characterized by bilateral renal cyst formation. ADPKD is one of the most common rare disorders, accounting for ~10% of all patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ADPKD is a chronic disorder in which the gradual expansion of cysts that form in a minority of nephrons eventually causes loss of renal function due to the compression and degeneration of the surrounding normal parenchyma. Numerous deranged pathways have been identified in the cyst-lining epithelia, prompting the design of potential therapies...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389989/single-vagus-nerve-stimulation-reduces-early-postprandial-c-peptide-levels-but-not-other-hormones-or-postprandial-metabolism
#19
M W Tang, F S van Nierop, F A Koopman, H M Eggink, D M Gerlag, M W Chan, R Zitnik, F M Vaz, J A Romijn, P P Tak, M R Soeters
A recent study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to activate the inflammatory reflex has shown promising effects on disease activity. Innervation by the autonomic nerve system might be involved in the regulation of many endocrine and metabolic processes and could therefore theoretically lead to unwanted side effects. Possible effects of VNS on secretion of hormones are currently unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a single VNS on plasma levels of pituitary hormones and parameters of postprandial metabolism...
April 8, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389560/introduction-to-the-thematic-minireview-series-host-microbiome-metabolic-interplay
#20
Ruma Banerjee
Long before the recent thrust of scientific research on the microbiome, the importance of its interface with the host was being acknowledged by practices such as probiotic supplementation e.g., after a course of antibiotics, which has the unwanted side effect of depleting commensal bacteria. The shared metabolite capital between the host and the microbiome is extensive and tightly controlled. However, despite the influence of microbial-derived metabolites on many aspects of host physiology, behavior and pathology, our understanding of this metabolic interface is still in its infancy and its therapeutic targeting is largely untapped...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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