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Osmotic homeostasis

Sung Don Lim, Won Cheol Yim, Degao Liu, Rongbin Hu, Xiaohan Yang, John C Cushman
Strategies for improving plant size are critical targets for plant biotechnology to increase vegetative biomass or reproductive yield. To improve biomass production, a codon-optimized helix-loop-helix transcription factor (VvCEB1opt ) from wine grape was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana resulting in significantly increased leaf number, leaf and rosette area, fresh weight, and dry weight. Cell size, but typically not cell number, was increased in all tissues resulting in increased vegetative biomass and reproductive organ size, number, and seed yield...
March 9, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Mingzhe Sun, Xue Qian, Chao Chen, Shufei Cheng, Bowei Jia, Yanming Zhu, Xiaoli Sun
Receptor-like kinases (RLK) play fundamental roles in plant growth and stress responses. Compared with other RLKs, little information is provided concerning the S-locus LecRLK subfamily, which is characterized by an extracellular G-type lectin domain and an S-locus-glycop domain. Until now, the function of the G-type lectin domain is still unknown. In a previous research, we identified a Glycine soja S-locus LecRLK gene GsSRK , which conferred increased salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis . In this study, to investigate the role of the G-type lectin domain and to breed transgenic alfalfa with superior salt stress tolerance, we transformed the full-length GsSRK ( GsSRK-f ) and a truncated version of GsSRK ( GsSRK-t ) deleting the G-type lectin domain into alfalfa...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rosaria Meli, Claudio Pirozzi, Alessandra Pelagalli
Aquaporins (AQPs) are emerging, in the last few decades, as critical proteins regulating water fluid homeostasis in cells involved in inflammation. AQPs represent a family of ubiquitous membrane channels that regulate osmotically water flux in various tissues and sometimes the transport of small solutes, including glycerol. Extensive data indicate that AQPs, working as water channel proteins, regulate not only cell migration, but also common events essential for inflammatory response. The involvement of AQPs in several inflammatory processes, as demonstrated by their dysregulation both in human and animal diseases, identifies their new role in protection and response to different noxious stimuli, including bacterial infection...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Henriette Rübsam, Friedrich Kirsch, Viktoria Reimann, Alexander Erban, Joachim Kopka, Martin Hagemann, Wolfgang R Hess, Stephan Klähn
In nature, microorganisms are exposed to multiple stress factors in parallel. Here, we investigated the response of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to simultaneous iron limitation and osmotic stresses. Iron is a major limiting factor for bacterial and phytoplankton growth in most environments. Thus, bacterial iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Synechocystis, it is mediated mainly by the transcriptional regulator FurA and the iron-stress activated RNA 1 (IsaR1). IsaR1 is an important riboregulator that affects the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to iron starvation in multiple ways...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
M Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Zijun Xiong, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Anne Kathrine Runge, Julien Thézé, Daniel Streicker, Hannah K Frank, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Shengmao Liu, Oliver A Ryder, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Aris Katzourakis, George Pacheco, Blanca Taboada, Ulrike Löber, Oliver G Pybus, Yang Li, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Kristine Bohmann, Aldo Carmona Baez, Carlos F Arias, Shiping Liu, Alex D Greenwood, Mads F Bertelsen, Nicole E White, Michael Bunce, Guojie Zhang, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, M P Thomas Gilbert
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats...
February 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Walid Ben-Romdhane, Rania Ben-Saad, Donaldo Meynard, Nabil Zouari, Ali Mahjoub, Lotfi Fki, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Abdullah Al-Doss, Afif Hassairi
Herein, we report isolation of the AlTMP2 gene from the halophytic C4 grass Aeluropus littoralis. The subcellular localization suggested that AlTMP2 is a plasma membrane protein. In A. littoralis exposed to salt and osmotic stresses, the AlTMP2 gene was induced early and at a high rate, but was upregulated relatively later in response to abscisic acid and cold treatments. Expression of AlTMP2 in tobacco conferred improved tolerance against salinity, osmotic, H 2 O 2 , heat, and freezing stresses at the germination and seedling stages...
February 15, 2018: Protoplasma
Ioannis Papapetridis, Maaike Goudriaan, María Vázquez Vitali, Nikita A de Keijzer, Marcel van den Broek, Antonius J A van Maris, Jack T Pronk
Background: Reduction or elimination of by-product formation is of immediate economic relevance in fermentation processes for industrial bioethanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Anaerobic cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae require formation of glycerol to maintain the intracellular NADH/NAD+ balance. Previously, functional expression of the Calvin-cycle enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in S. cerevisiae was shown to enable reoxidation of NADH with CO2 as electron acceptor...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Shin Hamamoto, Yasuo Mori, Isamu Yabe, Nobuyuki Uozumi
Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel homolog TRPY1 in its vacuolar membrane, considered to be an ancestral TRP channel. So far, studies have focused on the channel properties of TRPY1 but its regulation and physiological role remained to be elucidated. Here we investigated TRPY1 channel function in vitro and in vivo. Patch-clamp recording of TRPY1 in yeast vacuolar membranes showed that Ca2+ on the lumen side inhibited TRPY1-mediated channel activity, whereas luminal Zn2+ increased the currents...
February 6, 2018: FEBS Journal
Madina Sifi, Roza Benabdesselam, Sabrina Souttou, Tiziana Annese, Alvaro Rendon, Beatrice Nico, Latifa Dorbani-Mamine
Dystrophin (Dp) is a multidomain protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix through the dystrophin associated proteins complex (DAPC). Dp of 71 kDa (Dp71), corresponding to the COOH-terminal domain of dystrophin, and α1-syntrophin (α1Syn) as the principal component of the DAPC, are strongly expressed in the brain. To clarify their involvement in the central control of osmotic homeostasis, we investigated the effect of 14 days of salt loading (with drinking water containing 2% NaCl) and then reversibly to 30 days of normal hydration (with drinking water without salt), first on the expression by western-blotting and the distribution by immunochemistry of Dp71 and α1Syn in the SON of the rat and, second, on the level of some physiological parameters, as the plasma osmolality, natremia and hematocrit...
January 26, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Joseph Sugie, Marcos Intaglietta, Lanping Amy Sung
Erythrocytes have long been known to change volumes and shapes in response to different salt concentrations. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was discovered in their membranes more than 20 years ago. The physiological roles of volume changes and AQP1 expression, however, have remained unclear. We propose that rapid water exchange through AQP1 coupled with large capacity for volume change may allow erythrocytes to play an important role in water regulation. In this study, we showed that erythrocytes in situ gradually reduced their volumes by 39% in response to the hyperosmotic corticomedullary gradient within mouse kidneys...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Artur Gurgul, Joanna Romanek, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Tomasz Szmatoła, Jolanta Opiela
Cryopreservation is an important procedure in maintenance and clinical applications of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Although the methods of cell freezing using various cryoprotectants are well developed and allow preserving structurally intact living cells, the freezing process can be considered as a severe cellular stress associated with ice formation, osmotic damage, cryoprotectants migration/cytotoxicity or rapid cell shrinkage. The cellular response to freezing stress is aimed at the restoring of homeostasis and repair of cell damage and is crucial for cell viability...
2018: PloS One
Pawel Jurkiewicz, Henri Batoko
Abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, high temperature or freezing can be perceived, in part, as a transient or permanent hyperosmotic stress by the plant cell. As sessile organisms, the detrimental effects of these environmental insults limit plants productivity but also their geographical distribution. Sensing and signaling events that detect the hyperosmotic (or simply osmotic) stress involve the cellular increase of active abscisic acid (ABA). The stress phytohormone ABA regulates fundamental growth and developmental processes in the plant by marshalling metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Guozhong Zhu, Weixi Li, Feng Zhang, Wangzhen Guo
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have focused on the regulation of gene expression in response to salt stress at the transcriptional level; however, little is known about this process at the post-transcriptional level. RESULTS: Using a diploid D genome wild salinity-tolerant cotton species, Gossypium davidsonii, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) of genes related to salt stress by comparing high-throughput transcriptomes from salt-treated and well-watered roots and leaves...
January 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Lucie Gerber, Johannes Overgaard
There is growing evidence that maintenance of ion and water balance determine cold tolerance in many insects. The hindgut of terrestrial insects is critical for maintaining organismal homeostasis as it regulates solute- and water-balance of the hemolymph. Here we used ex vivo everted gut sacs of L. migratoria to examine the effects of temperature (0 - 30°C), thermal-acclimation, hypoxia, and ionic and osmotic forces on bulk water and ion (Na+, K+ and Cl-) movement across the rectal epithelium. These findings were related to simultaneous in vivo measurements of water and ion balance in locusts exposed to similar temperatures...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Neha Handa, Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Ashwani Kumar Thukral, Renu Bhardwaj, Mohammed N Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Parvaiz Ahmad
The present study aimed at the potential role of selenium in providing protection to plants subjected to chromium toxicity. The study was carried out on 15-day-old seedlings of Brassica juncea raised in the solutions of Cr (300 µM) and Se (2, 4 and 6 µM), both alone and in combinations under controlled laboratory environment. The effects were studied on growth, plant metabolites (involved in osmotic homeostasis and stress protection), and essential elements. The results showed that the exposure of B. juncea seedlings to 300 µM Cr led to an increase in the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total phenols and flavonoids...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Jennifer Peek, Catherine Harvey, Dreux Gray, Danny Rosenberg, Likhitha Kolla, Reuben Levy-Myers, Rui Yin, Jonathan L McMurry, Oliver Kerscher
SUMO proteases of the SENP/Ulp family are master regulators of both sumoylation and desumoylation and regulate SUMO homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. SUMO conjugates rapidly increase in response to cellular stress, including nutrient starvation, hypoxia, osmotic stress, DNA damage, heat shock, and other proteotoxic stressors. Nevertheless, little is known about the regulation and targeting of SUMO proteases during stress. To this end we have undertaken a detailed comparison of the SUMO-binding activity of the budding yeast protein Ulp1 (ScUlp1) and its ortholog in the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, KmUlp1...
2018: PloS One
Nibras Belgaroui, Benoit Lacombe, Hatem Rouached, Moez Hanin
Engineering osmotolerant plants is a challenge for modern agriculture. An interaction between osmotic stress response and phosphate homeostasis has been reported in plants, but the identity of molecules involved in this interaction remains unknown. In this study we assessed the role of phytic acid (PA) in response to osmotic stress and/or phosphate deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. For this purpose, we used Arabidopsis lines (L7 and L9) expressing a bacterial beta-propeller phytase PHY-US417, and a mutant in inositol polyphosphate kinase 1 gene (ipk1-1), which were characterized by low PA content, 40% (L7 and L9) and 83% (ipk1-1) of the wild-type (WT) plants level...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
J M Robinson, W A Henderson
OBJECTIVE: We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors...
January 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Artur Nowiński, Marcin Ufnal
Diet has been considered a general health determinant for many years. Recent research shows a connection between gut microbiota composition that is shaped by our diet and lifestyle diseases. Several studies point to a positive correlation between elevated plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut bacteria metabolite, and an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Therefore, it has been suggested that TMAO is a link between the diet, gut microbiota, and illness. Emerging experimental and clinical evidence shows that TMAO may be involved in the etiology of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and renal failure...
February 2018: Nutrition
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