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Osmotic homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883132/draft-genome-sequence-of-natranaerobius-trueperi-dsm-18760-t-an-anaerobic-halophilic-alkaliphilic-thermotolerant-bacterium-isolated-from-a-soda-lake
#1
Xiaomeng Guo, Ziya Liao, Mark Holtzapple, Qingping Hu, Baisuo Zhao
The anaerobic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, thermotolerant bacterium Natranaerobius trueperi was isolated from a soda lake in Wadi An Natrun, Egypt. It grows optimally at 3.7 M Na(+), pH 9.5, and 43°C. The draft genome consists of 2.63 Mb and is composed of 2,681 predicted genes. Genomic analysis showed that various genes are potentially involved in the adaptation mechanisms for osmotic stress, pH homeostasis, and high temperatures.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878796/autophagy-is-rapidly-induced-by-salt-stress-and-is-required-for-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#2
Liming Luo, Pingping Zhang, Ruihai Zhu, Jing Fu, Jing Su, Jing Zheng, Ziyue Wang, Dan Wang, Qingqiu Gong
Salinity stress challenges agriculture and food security globally. Upon salt stress, plant growth slows down, nutrients are recycled, osmolytes are produced, and reallocation of Na(+) takes place. Since autophagy is a high-throughput degradation pathway that contributes to nutrient remobilization in plants, we explored the involvement of autophagic flux in salt stress response of Arabidopsis with various approaches. Confocal microscopy of GFP-ATG8a in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that autophagosome formation is induced shortly after salt treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845508/impact-of-renal-denervation-on-tissue-na-content-in-treatment-resistant-hypertension
#3
Christian Ott, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Axel Schmid, Peter Linz, Alexander Cavallaro, Matthias Hammon, Tilmann Ditting, Roland Veelken, Michael Uder, Jens Titze, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na(+)) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na(+) homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na(+) content...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833692/central-angiotensin-1-7-increases-osmotic-thirst
#4
Raoni Conceição Dos-Santos, Lívia da Rocha Natalino Monteiro, Bruno Paes-Leme, Danilo Lustrino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, André Souza Mecawi, Luís Carlos Reis
INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7) is generated by type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2) and binds to MAS receptor. Although it is well known that angiotensin 1-7 functionally antagonizes the effects of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in several situations, the role of ANG 1-7 in hydromineral homeostasis is not clear. This study aimed to assess the role of ANG 1-7 on neuroendocrine responses to hyperosmolality in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: control, 24 hours of water deprivation (WD) and 24 hours of salt loading (SL, 1...
August 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828605/taurine-homeostasis-and-volume-control
#5
Herminia Pasantes-Morales
Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818757/expression-of-a-na-h-antiporter-rtnhx1-from-a-recretohalophyte-reaumuria-trigyna-improved-salt-tolerance-of-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Ningning Li, Xue Wang, Binjie Ma, Chao Du, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered recretohalophyte and a small xeric shrub that is endemic to the eastern Alxa and western Ordos areas of Inner Mongolia, China. Using transcriptome data, we identified a 1662-bp open reading frame encoding a 553-amino-acid protein corresponding to a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (RtNHX1) from R. trigyna. RtNHX1 was rapidly up-regulated by NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid treatment and had different tissue-specific expression patterns before and after salt-stress treatment. Overexpression of RtNHX1 enhanced seed germination, biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content, and root elongation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants under salt stress and rescued the salt-sensitive deficiencies of the nhx1 mutant...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816060/the-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-potential-of-mn-co-4-s2cnme-ch2co2h-a-water-soluble-co-releasing-molecule-corm-401-intracellular-accumulation-transcriptomic-and-statistical-analyses-and-membrane-polarization
#7
Lauren Katie Wareham, Samantha McLean, Ronald Begg, Namrata Rana, Salar Ali, John J Kendall, Guido Sanguinetti, Brian E Mann, Robert K Poole
AIMS: Carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecules (CORMs) are candidates for animal and antimicrobial therapeutics. We aimed to probe the antimicrobial potential of a novel manganese CORM. RESULTS: [Mn(CO)4S2CNMe(CH2CO2H)], CORM-401, inhibits growth of Escherichia coli and several antibiotic-resistant clinical pathogens. CORM-401 releases CO that binds oxidases in vivo but is an ineffective respiratory inhibitor. Extensive CORM accumulation (assayed as intracellular manganese) accompanies antimicrobial activity...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807601/ubx-domain-containing-proteins-are-involved-in-lipid-homeostasis-and-stress-responses-in-pichia-pastoris
#8
Meng Zhang, Qilin Yu, Zhe Liu, Chen Liang, Biao Zhang, Mingchun Li
Ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) domain-containing proteins constitute a family of proteins and are substrate adaptors of AAA ATPase Cdc48. UBX proteins can bind to the N-terminal region of Cdc48 to perform endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD). In this study, we identified two UBX domain-containing proteins, Ubx1 and Ubx2, in Pichia pastoris and found that the two proteins could recover the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ubx2Δ. Our results revealed that Ubx1 and Ubx2 play critical roles in synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by affecting Spt23...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802667/different-approaches-to-modeling-analysis-of-mitochondrial-swelling
#9
REVIEW
Sabzali Javadov, Xavier Chapa-Dubocq, Vladimir Makarov
Mitochondria are critical players involved in both cell life and death through multiple pathways. Structural integrity, metabolism and function of mitochondria are regulated by matrix volume due to physiological changes of ion homeostasis in cellular cytoplasm and mitochondria. Ca(2+) and K(+) presumably play a critical role in physiological and pathological swelling of mitochondria when increased uptake (influx)/decreased release (efflux) of these ions enhances osmotic pressure accompanied by high water accumulation in the matrix...
August 10, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765275/proline-accumulation-is-regulated-by-transcription-factors-associated-with-phosphate-starvation
#10
Dávid Aleksza, Gábor V Horváth, Györgyi Sándor, László Szabados
Pro accumulation in plants is a well-documented physiological response to osmotic stress caused by drought or salinity. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the stress and ABA-induced Δ1-PYRROLINE-5-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHETASE1 (P5CS1) gene was previously shown to control Pro biosynthesis in such adverse conditions. To identify regulatory factors that control the transcription of P5CS1, Y1H screens were performed with a genomic fragment of P5CS1, containing 1.2-kB promoter and 0.8-kb transcribed regions. The myeloblastosis (MYB)-type transcription factors PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1 (PHR1) and PHR1-LIKE1 (PHL1) were identified to bind to P5CS1 regulatory sequences in the first intron, which carries a conserved PHR1-binding site (P1BS) motif...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760831/a-mosquito-entomoglyceroporin-aedes-aegypti-aqp5-participates-in-water-transport-across-the-malpighian-tubules-of-larvae
#11
Lidiya Misyura, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Andrew Donini
The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for arboviral diseases such as Zika fever, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. The larvae reside in hypo-osmotic freshwater habitats, where they face dilution of their body fluids from osmotic influx of water. The Malpighian tubules help maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis by removing excess water from the hemolymph, but the transcellular pathway for this movement remains unresolved. Aquaporins are transmembrane channels thought to permit transcellular transport of water from the hemolymph into the Malpighian tubule lumen...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754433/a-novel-double-intra-carotid-cannulation-technique-to-study-the-effect-of-central-nutrient-sensing-on-glucose-metabolism-in-the-rat
#12
M Rijnsburger, L Eggels, J Castel, C Cruciani-Guglielmacci, M T Ackermans, S Luquet, S E la Fleur
BACKGROUND: The hypothalamus plays a key role in central nutrient sensing and glucose homeostasis. Due to its position next to the third ventricle, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections or osmotic minipumps are widely applied techniques in studying effects of hormones and other molecules on the hypothalamus and glucose metabolism. NEW METHODS: The intracarotid catheter technique in which a catheter is placed in the carotid artery, pointing towards the brain, provides a physiological route to centrally infuse blood-borne molecules in an undisturbed animal...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751902/overexpression-of-sbsi-1-a-nuclear-protein-from-salicornia-brachiata-confers-drought-and-salt-stress-tolerance-and-maintains-photosynthetic-efficiency-in-transgenic-tobacco
#13
Jyoti Kumari, Pushpika Udawat, Ashish K Dubey, Md Intesaful Haque, Mangal S Rathore, Bhavanath Jha
A novel Salicornia brachiata Salt Inducible (SbSI-1) gene was isolated and overexpressed in tobacco for in planta functional validation subjected to drought and salt stress. SbSI-1 is a nuclear protein. The transgenic tobacco overexpressing SbSI-1 gene exhibited better seed germination, growth performances, pigment contents, cell viability, starch accumulation, and tolerance index under drought and salt stress. Overexpression of SbSI-1 gene alleviated the build-up of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and curtailed the ROS-induced oxidative damages thus improved the physiological health of transgenic tobacco under stressed conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744295/antarctic-moss-multiprotein-bridging-factor-1c-overexpression-in-arabidopsis-resulted-in-enhanced-tolerance-to-salt-stress
#14
Hemasundar Alavilli, Hyoungseok Lee, Mira Park, Byeong-Ha Lee
Polytrichastrum alpinum is one of the moss species that survives extreme conditions in the Antarctic. In order to explore the functional benefits of moss genetic resources, P. alpinum multiprotein-bridging factor 1c gene (PaMBF1c) was isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaMBF1c comprises of a multiprotein-bridging factor (MBF1) domain and a helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain. PaMBF1c expression was induced by different abiotic stresses in P. alpinum, implying its roles in stress responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739528/chronic-hyper-leptinemia-induces-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-adipocytes-implications-of-nos2
#15
Abhishek Gupta, Muheeb Beg, Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Kalpana Singh, Satyendra Sonkar, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Madhu Dikshit, Anil Nilkanth Gaikwad
Leptin, following its discovery, has developed a formidable interest in the scientific community to delineate its contribution towards overall metabolic homeostasis. Contradictory reports have been published on leptin administration effects on whole body insulin sensitivity. Following late reports, we surveyed human serum leptin levels along with other metabolic parameters including BMI and HOMA-IR. We found a positive correlation between leptin levels and insulin resistance parameters. Considering the presence of the long form of leptin receptor on adipocytes, we explored the effects of chronic physiological hyper-leptinemic exposure on adipocyte insulin sensitivity...
July 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736568/bdcipk31-a-calcineurin-b-like-protein-interacting-protein-kinase-regulates-plant-response-to-drought-and-salt-stress
#16
Qingchen Luo, Qiuhui Wei, Ruibin Wang, Yang Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yuan He, Shiyi Zhou, Jialu Feng, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
Calcineurin B-like protein interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) are vital elements in plant abiotic stress signaling pathways. However, the functional mechanism of CIPKs has not been understood clearly, especially in Brachypodium distachyon, a new monocot model plant. In this study, BdCIPK31, a CIPK gene from B. distachyon was characterized. BdCIPK31 was downregulated by polyethylene glycol, NaCl, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing BdCIPK31 presented improved drought and salt tolerance, and displayed hypersensitive response to exogenous ABA...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733678/physiological-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-he-ne-laser-pretreated-wheat-seedlings-in-response-to-drought-stress
#17
Zongbo Qiu, Mengmeng Yuan, Yanyan He, Yongfang Li, Liang Zhang
Drought stress is a serious problem worldwide that reduces crop productivity. The laser has been shown to play a positive physiological role in enhancing plant seedlings tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However, little information is available about the molecular mechanism of He-Ne laser irradiation induced physiological changes for wheat adapting to drought conditions. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptome sequencing to determine the molecular roles of He-Ne laser pretreated wheat seedlings under drought stress...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730461/low-salinity-affects-cellularity-dna-methylation-and-mrna-expression-of-igf1-in-the-liver-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#18
Siping Li, Feng He, Haishen Wen, Jifang Li, Yufeng Si, Mingyuan Liu, Yajuan Huang, Lingcai Meng
Animal growth depends on feedback regulation of hormone levels and environmental conditions. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) promotes cell growth and differentiation and represses apoptosis and is highly regulated by the environment. Moreover, animals modify physiological homeostasis under stressful conditions through epigenetics and genetic regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of salt on fish growth is needed. In this study, half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were subjected to 15‰ salinity for 0, 7, and 60 days (D) to assess the effects of low salinity on liver cellularity and growth...
July 21, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714397/prognostic-value-of-copeptin-in-chronic-kidney-disease-from-general-population-to-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
Edyta Golembiewska, Anna Machowska, Peter Stenvinkel, Bengt Lindholm
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is released in response to osmotic and non-osmotic stimuli and plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. The main function of AVP is the control of fluid homeostasis by inducing water conservation by the kidney, but it also stimulates arteriolar vasoconstriction and the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). These actions are mediated by different AVP receptors located on various target cells. Produced in hypothalamus from a larger precursor, pre-proAVP, AVP is produced in equimolar amounts to copeptin, a glycopeptide with yet unknown biologic function...
July 14, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703589/metabolic-pathways-regulated-by-chitosan-contributing-to-drought-resistance-in-white-clover
#20
Zhou Li, Yan Zhang, Xinquan Zhang, Emily Merewitz, Yan Peng, Xiao Ma, Linkai Huang, Yanhong Yan
Increased endogenous chitosan (CTS) could be associated with improved drought resistance in white clover (Trifolium repens). Plants were pretreated with or without 1 mg/mL CTS and then were subjected to optimal or water-limited condition in controlled growth chambers for 6 days. Phenotypic and physiological results indicated that exogenous CTS significantly improved drought resistance of white clover. Metabolome results showed that exogenous CTS induced a significant increase in endogenous CTS content during dehydration accompanied by the maintenance of greater accumulation of sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, and other metabolites (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, putrescine, and spermidine)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
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