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Osmotic homeostasis

Jennifer Forecki, Daniel J Van Antwerp, Sean M Lujan, Christa S Merzdorf
Aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins are a large family of membrane channel proteins that allow rapid movement of water and small, uncharged solutes into and out of cells along concentration gradients. Recently, aquaporins have been gaining recognition for more complex biological roles than the regulation of cellular osmotic homeostasis. We have identified a specific expression pattern for Xenopus aqp3b (also called aqp3.L) during gastrulation, where it is localized to the sensorial (deep) layer of the blastocoel roof and dorsal margin...
November 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Karin von Wnuck Lipinski, Sarah Weske, Petra Keul, Susann Peters, Hideo A Baba, Gerd Heusch, Markus H Gräler, Bodo Levkau
The Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor (HNF) family regulates complex networks of metabolism and organ development. Human mutations in its prototypical member HNF1A cause maturity-onset of diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3. In this study, we identified an important role for HNF1A in the preservation of erythrocyte membrane integrity, calcium homeostasis and osmotic resistance through a yet unrecognized link of HNF1A to sphingolipid homeostasis. HNF1A(-/-) mice displayed microcytic hypochromic anemia with reticulocytosis that was partially compensated by avid extramedullary erythropoiesis at all erythroid stages in the spleen thereby excluding erythroid differentiation defects...
November 6, 2017: Blood
Carmen Perez-Laso, Sebastián Cerdan, Carme Junque, Ángel Gómez, Esperanza Ortega, Mireia Mora, Carlos Avendaño, Esther Gómez-Gil, María Cruz Rodríguez Del Cerro, Antonio Guillamon
Androgenization in adult natal women, as in transsexual men (TM), affects brain cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these changes we have developed an adult female rat model of androgenization. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to monitor brain volume changes, white matter microstructure and ex vivo metabolic profiles over 32 days in androgenized and control subjects. Supraphysiological doses of testosterone prevents aging decrease of fractional anisotropy values, decreased general cortical volume and the relative concentrations of glutamine (Gln) and myo-Inositol (mI)...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Yizhou Wang, Adrian Hills, Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Maria Papanatsiou, Howard Griffiths, Simon Rogers, Tracy Lawson, Virgilio Lew, Michael R Blatt
Stomatal movements depend on the transport and metabolism of osmotic solutes that drive reversible changes in guard cell volume and turgor. These processes are defined by a deep knowledge of the identities of the key transporters and of their biophysical and regulatory properties, and have been modelled successfully with quantitative kinetic detail at the cellular level. Transpiration of the leaf and canopy, by contrast, is described by quasi-linear, empirical relations for the inputs of atmospheric humidity, CO2, and light, but without connection to guard cell mechanics...
November 1, 2017: Plant Cell
Zahid Hussain Shah, Hafiz M Rehman, Tasneem Akhtar, Ihsanullah Daur, Muhammad A Nawaz, Muhammad Q Ahmad, Iqrar A Rana, Rana M Atif, Seung H Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Systems biology and omics has provided a comprehensive understanding about the dynamics of the genome, metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome under stress. In wheat, abiotic stresses trigger specific networks of pathways involved in redox and ionic homeostasis as well as osmotic balance. These networks are considerably more complicated than those in model plants, and therefore, counter models are proposed by unifying the approaches of omics and stress systems biology. Furthermore, crosstalk among these pathways is monitored by the regulation and streaming of transcripts and genes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
Merryl N Black, Elenor F Henry, Olivia A Adams, J Craig F Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
The bioavailability of engineered nanomaterials should be limited in marine environments, but uptake and toxicity has been noted in marine fish and invertebrates, albeit at exposure doses far exceeding predicted environmental levels. We examined the bioactivity of amine functionalized copper nanoparticles (nCu; 5-10 nm core diameter) to the euryhaline killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in fresh (FW) and brackish water (BW). Free copper dissolution was undetectable in either water type and nCu remained relatively well dispersed in BW, despite the high ionic strength...
October 30, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Yichang Liu, Renato H Orsi, Kathryn J Boor, Martin Wiedmann, Veronica Guariglia-Oropeza
Among Listeria monocytogenes' four alternative σ factors, σ(B) controls the largest regulon. As σ(B)-dependent transcription of some genes may be masked by overlaps among regulons, and as some σ(B)-dependent genes are expressed only under very specific conditions, we hypothesized that the σ(B) regulon is not yet fully defined. To further extend our understanding of the σ(B) regulon, we used RNA-seq to identify σ(B)-dependent genes in an L. monocytogenes strain that expresses σ(B) following rhamnose induction, and in which genes encoding the other alternative sigma factors have been deleted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hidechika Morimoto, Jun Mori, Hisakazu Nakajima, Yasuhiro Kawabe, Yusuke Tsuma, Shota Fukuhara, Kazuki Kodo, Kazuya Ikoma, Satoaki Matoba, Gavin Y Oudit, Hajime Hosoi
The renin-angiotensin system is a key regulator of metabolism with beneficial effects of the angiotensin 1-7 peptide. We hypothesized that the anti-obesity effect of Ang 1-7 is related to the stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We administered Ang 1-7 (0.54 mg・kg(-1)・d(-1)) for 28 days via implanted micro-osmotic pumps to mice with high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Ang 1-7 treatment reduced body weight, upregulated thermogenesis and ameliorated impaired glucose homeostasis without affecting food consumption...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Patrick G Gallagher
The erythrocyte contains a network of pathways that regulate salt and water content in the face of extracellular and intracellular osmotic perturbations. This allows the erythrocyte to maintain a narrow range of cell hemoglobin concentration, a process critical for normal red blood cell function and survival. Primary disorders that perturb volume homeostasis jeopardize the erythrocyte and may lead to its premature destruction. These disorders are marked by clinical, laboratory, and physiologic heterogeneity...
October 19, 2017: Blood
Tania Marchbank, Raymond J Playford
Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are produced rapidly at sites of injury, stimulating epithelial migration, a process involving rapid changes in cell shape and volume, requiring rapid flow of water into and out of the cell. We examined the effect of TFFs on fluidity of cells by measuring their sensitivity to osmotic challenges and cell migration, and determined whether those results were mediated through altering the levels of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of transmembrane water channels involved in cellular water homeostasis...
October 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Laura C D Pomatto, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis is, 'the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range for any given physiological parameter in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signalling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Davies, 2016a)." Adaptive homeostasis enables biological systems to make continuous short-term adjustments for optimal functioning despite ever-changing internal and external environments. Initiation of adaptation in response to an appropriate signal allows organisms to successfully cope with much greater, normally toxic, stresses...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Kasper Lykke, Mette Assentoft, Sofie Hørlyck, Hans Cc Helms, Anca Stoica, Trine L Toft-Bertelsen, Katerina Tritsaris, Frederik Vilhardt, Birger Brodin, Nanna MacAulay
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is involved in brain water and salt homeostasis. Blood osmolarity increases during dehydration and water is osmotically extracted from the brain. The loss of water is less than expected from pure osmotic forces, due to brain electrolyte accumulation. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unresolved, the current model suggests the luminally expressed Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) as a key component, while the role of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase remains uninvestigated...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Huili Shi, Wenjun Ma, Junyu Song, Mei Lu, Siddiq Ur Rahman, Thi Tuyet Xuan Bui, Dinh Duy Vu, Huifang Zheng, Junhui Wang, Yi Zhang, Torgny Näsholm
Many semi-arid ecosystems are simultaneously limited by soil water and nitrogen (N). We conducted a greenhouse experiment to address how N availability impacts drought-resistant traits of Catalpa bungei C. A. Mey at the physiological and molecular level. A factorial design was used, consisting of sufficient-N and deficient-N combined with moderate drought and well-watered conditions. Seedling biomass and major root parameters were significantly suppressed by drought under the deficient-N condition, whereas N application mitigated the inhibiting effects of drought on root growth, particularly that of fine roots with a diameter <0...
July 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
Yang-Er Chen, Jun-Mei Cui, Yan-Qiu Su, Chao-Ming Zhang, Jie Ma, Zhong-Wei Zhang, Ming Yuan, Wen-Juan Liu, Huai-Yu Zhang, Shu Yuan
Reversible phosphorylation of proteins and the assembly of thylakoid complexes are the important protective mechanism against environmental stresses in plants. This research was aimed to investigate the different responses of the antioxidant defense system and photosystem II (PSII) to osmotic stress between drought-resistant and drought-susceptible wheat cultivars. Results showed that the decrease in PSII photochemistry and six enzyme activities was observed in drought-susceptible wheat compared with drought-resistant wheat under osmotic stress...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Diana Cooke, Amadou Ouattara, Gene P Ables
Methionine restriction (MR) extends the lifespan across several species, such as rodents, fruit flies, roundworms, and yeast. MR studies have been conducted on various rodent organs, such as liver, adipose tissue, heart, bones, and skeletal muscle, to elucidate its benefits to the healthspan; however, studies of the direct effect of MR on kidneys are lacking. To investigate the renal effects of MR, we used young and aged unilateral nephrectomized and 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) mice. Our studies indicated that MR mice experienced polydipsia and polyuria compared with control-fed counterparts...
September 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Xiaomeng Guo, Ziya Liao, Yanchun Yan, Mark Holtzapple, Qingping Hu, Baisuo Zhao
The haloalkaliphilic archaeon Natronolimnobius baerhuensis was isolated from a soda lake in Inner Mongolia (China), growing optimally at about 20% NaCl and pH 9.0. The draft genome consists of approximately 3.91 Mb and contains 3,810 predicted genes. Some genes that regulate intracellular osmotic stress and pH homeostasis were identified, providing insight into specific adaptations to this double-extreme environment.
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
Xiaomeng Guo, Ziya Liao, Mark Holtzapple, Qingping Hu, Baisuo Zhao
The anaerobic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, thermotolerant bacterium Natranaerobius trueperi was isolated from a soda lake in Wadi An Natrun, Egypt. It grows optimally at 3.7 M Na(+), pH 9.5, and 43°C. The draft genome consists of 2.63 Mb and is composed of 2,681 predicted genes. Genomic analysis showed that various genes are potentially involved in the adaptation mechanisms for osmotic stress, pH homeostasis, and high temperatures.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
Liming Luo, Pingping Zhang, Ruihai Zhu, Jing Fu, Jing Su, Jing Zheng, Ziyue Wang, Dan Wang, Qingqiu Gong
Salinity stress challenges agriculture and food security globally. Upon salt stress, plant growth slows down, nutrients are recycled, osmolytes are produced, and reallocation of Na(+) takes place. Since autophagy is a high-throughput degradation pathway that contributes to nutrient remobilization in plants, we explored the involvement of autophagic flux in salt stress response of Arabidopsis with various approaches. Confocal microscopy of GFP-ATG8a in transgenic Arabidopsis showed that autophagosome formation is induced shortly after salt treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christian Ott, Christoph Kopp, Anke Dahlmann, Axel Schmid, Peter Linz, Alexander Cavallaro, Matthias Hammon, Tilmann Ditting, Roland Veelken, Michael Uder, Jens Titze, Roland E Schmieder
OBJECTIVES: Renal denervation (RDN) has been introduced for reducing blood pressure (BP) in treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). The precise mechanism how RDN exerts its BP-lowering effects are not yet fully understood. It is widely accepted that sodium (Na(+)) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disease. However, there is increasing evidence of osmotically inactive Na(+) storage. We investigated the impact of RDN on Na(+) homeostasis using estimation of salt intake, and measurement of tissue Na(+) content...
August 28, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
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