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Osmotic homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791245/pi-3-5-p-2-controls-vacuole-potassium-transport-to-support-cellular-osmoregulation
#1
Zachary N Wilson, Amber L Scott, Robin D Dowell, Greg Odorizzi
Lysosomes are dynamic organelles with critical roles in cellular physiology. The lysosomal signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2 ) is a key regulator that has been implicated to control lysosome ion homeostasis, but the scope of ion transporters targeted by PI(3,5)P2 and the purpose of this regulation is not well understood. Through an unbiased screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identified loss-of-function mutations in the vacuolar H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and in Vnx1, a vacuolar monovalent cation/proton antiporter, as suppressor mutations that relieve the growth defects and osmotic swelling of vacuoles (lysosomes) in yeast lacking PI(3,5)P2 ...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790029/a-new-functional-role-of-oxytocin-participation-in-osmoregulation
#2
Yu V Natochin, D V Golosova, E I Shakhmatova
After a water load in rats hyperhydration occurs and the secretion of oxytocin increases by the neurohypophysis. This increases the water diuresis, the water is quickly excreted by the kidney, and the recovery of osmotic homeostasis is accelerated.
March 2018: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784874/select-%C3%AE-arrestins-control-cell-surface-abundance-of-the-mammalian-kir2-1-potassium-channel-in-a-yeast-model
#3
Natalie A Hager, Collin J Krasowski, Timothy D Mackie, Alexander R Kolb, Patrick G Needham, Andrew A Augustine, Alison Dempsey, Christopher Szent-Gyorgyi, Marcel P Bruchez, Daniel J Bain, Adam V Kwiatkowski, Allyson F O'Donnell, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inwardly rectifying channel Kir2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772474/mitochondria-rich-cells-adjustments-and-ionic-balance-in-the-neotropical-fish-prochilodus-lineatus-exposed-to-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles
#4
Talita L L Carmo, Vinícius C Azevedo, Priscila R Siqueira, Tiago D Galvão, Fabrício A Santos, Cláudia B R Martinez, Carlos R Appoloni, Marisa N Fernandes
Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) have been intensely applied in numerous industrial products and may be a risk for aquatic systems as they are not completely removed from domestic and industrial wastes after water treatment. This study evaluated the osmo- and ionic balance, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities and the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) in the gills and kidney of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after 2 (acute) and 14 (subchronic) days of exposure to nominal 0, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L-1 TiO2 -NP...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770550/improved-robustness-of-an-ethanologenic-yeast-strain-through-adaptive-evolution-in-acetic-acid-is-associated-with-its-enzymatic-antioxidant-ability
#5
N Gurdo, G F Novelli Poisson, Á B Juárez, M C Ríos de Molina, M A Galvagno
AIMS: To investigate multiple tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained through a laboratory strategy of adaptive evolution in acetic acid, its relation with enzymatic ROS detoxification and bioethanol 2G production. METHODS AND RESULTS: After adaptive evolution in acetic acid, a clone (Y8A) was selected for its tolerance to high acetic acid concentrations (13 g l-1 ) in batch cultures. Y8A was resistant to multiple stresses: osmotic, thermic, oxidative, saline, ethanol, organic acid, phenolic compounds and slow freeze-thawing cycles...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769424/sex-specific-response-of-renal-na-k-atpase-to-prenatal-angiotensin-2-exposure-and-increased-salt-intake-in-offspring
#6
L Jagmasevic-Mezesova, P Svitok, B Kalocayova, M Zeman, N Vrbjar
In rodents, increased angiotensin 2 (Ang2) during pregnancy increases blood pressure and decreases salt sensitivity in the offspring. To explore the underlying mechanisms, this study evaluated the effects of prenatal Ang2 exposure on the activity of renal Na,K-ATPase, which is one of the main systems that maintains sodium ion homeostasis in an organism. Moreover, this study also investigated the impact of a higher-salt diet on the enzyme activity in the offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Pregnant Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that continuously released Ang2 (2 μg/kg/h) for 2 weeks...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751252/drought-induced-changes-of-leaf-to-root-relationships-in-two-tomato-genotypes
#7
Tommaso Michele Moles, Lorenzo Mariotti, Leandro Federico De Pedro, Lorenzo Guglielminetti, Piero Picciarelli, Andrea Scartazza
Water deficit triggers a dynamic and integrated cross-talk between leaves and roots. Tolerant plants have developed several physiological and molecular mechanisms to establish new cell metabolism homeostasis, avoiding and/or escaping from permanent impairments triggered by drought. Two tomato genotypes (a Southern Italy landrace called Ciettaicale and the well-known commercial cultivar Moneymaker) were investigated at vegetative stage to assess leaf and root metabolic strategies under 20 days of water deficit...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742416/electromechanics-and-volume-dynamics-in-nonexcitable-tissue-cells
#8
Florence Yellin, Yizeng Li, Varun K A Sreenivasan, Brenda Farrell, Manu B Johny, David Yue, Sean X Sun
Cell volume regulation is fundamentally important in phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, tissue homeostasis, and embryogenesis. How the cell size is set, maintained, and changed over a cell's lifetime is not well understood. In this work we focus on how the volume of nonexcitable tissue cells is coupled to the cell membrane electrical potential and the concentrations of membrane-permeable ions in the cell environment. Specifically, we demonstrate that a sudden cell depolarization using the whole-cell patch clamp results in a 50% increase in cell volume, whereas hyperpolarization results in a slight volume decrease...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740942/genetic-defects-disrupting-glial-ion-and-water-homeostasis-in-the-brain
#9
Rogier Min, Marjo S van der Knaap
Electrical activity of neurons in the brain, caused by the movement of ions between intracellular and extracellular compartments, is the basis of all our thoughts and actions. Maintaining the correct ionic concentration gradients is therefore crucial for brain functioning. Ion fluxes are accompanied by the displacement of osmotically obliged water. Since even minor brain swelling leads to severe brain damage and even death, brain ion and water movement has to be tightly regulated. Glial cells, in particular astrocytes, play a key role in ion and water homeostasis...
May 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740721/differential-expression-of-salt-responsive-genes-to-salinity-stress-in-salt-tolerant-and-salt-sensitive-rice-oryza-sativa-l-at-seedling-stage
#10
Vijayata Singh, Ajit Pal Singh, Jyoti Bhadoria, Jitender Giri, Jogendra Singh, Vineeth T V, P C Sharma
The understanding of physio-biochemical and molecular attributes along with morphological traits contributing to the salinity tolerance is important for developing salt-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. To explore these facts, rice genotypes CSR10 and MI48 with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress (control, 75 and 150 mM NaCl) conditions. CSR10 expressed higher rate of physio-biochemical parameters, maintained lower Na/K ratio in shoots, and restricted Na translocation from roots to shoots than MI48...
May 8, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701811/spatio-temporal-aspects-of-ca2-signalling-lessons-from-guard-cells-and-pollen-tubes
#11
K R Konrad, T Maierhofer, R Hedrich
Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) serve to transmit information in eukaryotic cells. The involvement of this second messenger in plant cell growth as well as osmotic- and water relations is well established. After almost 40 years of intense research on the coding and decoding of plant Ca2+ signals, numerous proteins involved in Ca2+ action have been identified. However, we are still far from understanding the complexity of Ca2+ networks. New in vivo Ca2+ imaging techniques combined with molecular genetics allow visualisation of spatio-temporal aspects of Ca2+ signalling...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698766/effects-of-salinity-and-hypoxia-induced-hyperventilation-on-oxygen-consumption-and-cost-of-osmoregulation-in-the-estuarine-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus
#12
Rasmus Ern, Andrew J Esbaugh
Understanding the physiological responses of fishes to salinity changes and aquatic hypoxia is essential for the conservation of marine species. Salinity changes affect the osmotic gradient across the gill epithelium, while hypoxia increases gill ventilation and the flow of water over the gills. Both processes affect the diffusive movement of ions and water across the gill epithelium, and the rate of active ion transport required for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Consequently, salinity and hypoxia may affect the energetic cost of osmoregulation, and consequently the energy available for other physiological functions such as migration, growth, and reproduction...
April 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693271/bzip17-regulates-the-expression-of-genes-related-to-seed-storage-and-germination-reducing-seed-susceptibility-to-osmotic-stress
#13
Nicolás Cifuentes-Esquivel, Jonathan Celiz-Balboa, Carlos Henriquez-Valencia, Irina Mitina, Paulina Arraño-Salinas, Adrián A Moreno, Claudio Meneses, Francisca Blanco-Herrera, Ariel Orellana
Low temperatures, salinity, and drought cause significant crop losses. These conditions involve osmotic stress, triggering transcriptional remodeling, and consequently, the restitution of cellular homeostasis and growth recovery. Protein transcription factors regulate target genes, thereby mediating plant responses to stress. bZIP17 is a transcription factor involved in cellular responses to salinity and the unfolded protein response. Because salinity can also produce osmotic stress, the role of bZIP17 in response to osmotic stress was assessed...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674454/control-of-vacuole-membrane-homeostasis-by-a-resident-pi-3-5-kinase-inhibitor
#14
P C Malia, Johannes Numrich, Taki Nishimura, Ayelén González Montoro, Christopher J Stefan, Christian Ungermann
Lysosomes have an important role in cellular protein and organelle quality control, metabolism, and signaling. On the surface of lysosomes, the PIKfyve/Fab1 complex generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI-3,5-P2 , which is critical for lysosomal membrane homeostasis during acute osmotic stress and for lysosomal signaling. Here, we identify the inverted BAR protein Ivy1 as an inhibitor of the Fab1 complex with a direct influence on PI-3,5-P2 levels and vacuole homeostasis. Ivy1 requires Ypt7 binding for its function, binds PI-3,5-P2 , and interacts with the Fab1 kinase...
April 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659565/cyclic-di-amp-regulation-of-osmotic-homeostasis-is-essential-in-group-b-streptococcus
#15
Laura Devaux, Dona Sleiman, Maria-Vittoria Mazzuoli, Myriam Gominet, Philippe Lanotte, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Arnaud Firon
Cyclic nucleotides are universally used as secondary messengers to control cellular physiology. Among these signalling molecules, cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a specific bacterial second messenger recognized by host cells during infections and its synthesis is assumed to be necessary for bacterial growth by controlling a conserved and essential cellular function. In this study, we sought to identify the main c-di-AMP dependent pathway in Streptococcus agalactiae, the etiological agent of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#16
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621145/zebrafish-as-a-model-system-for-investigating-the-compensatory-regulation-of-ionic-balance-during-metabolic-acidosis
#17
REVIEW
Lletta Lewis, Raymond W M Kwong
Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) have become an important model for integrative physiological research. Zebrafish inhabit a hypo-osmotic environment; to maintain ionic and acid-base homeostasis, they must actively take up ions and secrete acid to the water. The gills in the adult and the skin at larval stage are the primary sites of ionic regulation in zebrafish. The uptake of ions in zebrafish is mediated by specific ion transporting cells termed ionocytes. Similarly, in mammals, ion reabsorption and acid excretion occur in specific cell types in the terminal region of the renal tubules (distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568414/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-gb-lp4-and-identification-of-evolutionarily-divergent-genes-in-high-osmolarity-environment
#18
Jaehoon Jung, Kwondo Kim, DongAhn Yoo, Chanho Lee, Jungsun Kang, Kyungjin Cho, Dae-Kyung Kang, Woori Kwak, Sook Hee Yoon, Hawsun Sohn, Heebal Kim, Seoae Cho
Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the widely-used probiotics and there have been a large number of advanced researches on the effectiveness of this species. However, the difference between previously reported plantarum strains, and the source of genomic variation among the strains were not clearly specified. In order to understand further on the molecular basis of L. plantarum on Korean traditional fermentation, we isolated the L. plantarum GB-LP4 from Korean fermented vegetable and conducted whole genome assembly...
2018: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564630/proteomic-analysis-of-melatonin-mediated-osmotic-tolerance-by-improving-energy-metabolism-and-autophagy-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#19
Guibin Cui, Fengli Sun, Xinmei Gao, Kunliang Xie, Chao Zhang, Shudong Liu, Yajun Xi
Melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance was attributed to increased antioxidant capacity, energy metabolism, osmoregulation and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Melatonin is known to play multiple roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance. However, its role in wheat has been rarely investigated. In this study, 25% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to simulate osmotic stress, and wheat seeds and seedlings were treated with different concentrations of melatonin under PEG stress. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques were used to identify the differentially accumulated proteins from melatonin-treated and non-treated seedlings...
March 21, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557361/dyslipidemia-modulates-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-sensing-and-transduction-of-ambient-information
#20
REVIEW
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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