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Weibing Chen, Wenjin Qi, Wei Lu, Nikhil Roy Chaudhury, Jiangtan Yuan, Lidong Qin, Jun Lou
The low toxicity of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) atomically thin film and microparticles is confirmed via cytotoxicity and patch testing in this report. The toxicity of MoS2 thin film and microparticles is extensively studied but is still inconclusive due to potential organic contamination in the preparations of samples. Such contamination is avoided here through preparing MoS2 atomically thin film via direct sulfurization of molybdenum thin film on quartz plate, which permits a direct assessment of its toxicity without any contamination...
January 22, 2018: Small
Janine R Hutchison, Greg F Piepel, Brett G Amidan, Becky M Hess, Michael A Sydor, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser
AIMS: We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials, and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD95 ) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2 - 500 coupon-1 ) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Byung-Han Ryu, Ji Yeun Kim, Taeeun Kim, Min-Chul Kim, Min Jae Kim, Yong-Phil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
OBJECTIVES: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease in Korea and China. Although there is previous evidence of person-to-person transmission via direct contact with body fluids, the role of environmental contamination by SFTS virus (SFTSV) in healthcare settings has not been established. We therefore investigated the contamination of the healthcare environment by SFTSV. METHODS: We investigated the possible contamination of hospital air and surfaces with SFTSV transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surface samples in 2 hospitals treating 6 SFTS patients between March and September 2017...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Simon L Goodman
The biological literature reverberates with the inadequacies of commercial research-tool antibodies. The scientific community spends some $2 billion per year on such reagents. Excellent accessible scientific platforms exist for reliably making, validating and using antibodies, yet the laboratory end-user reality is somehow depressing - because they often "don't work". This experience is due to a bizarre and variegated spectrum of causes including: inadequately identified antibodies; inappropriate user and supplier validation; poor user training; and overloaded publishers...
January 17, 2018: New Biotechnology
Clementine A Lemaire, Sean Z Liu, Charles L Wilkerson, Vishnu C Ramani, Nasim A Barzanian, Kuo-Wei Huang, James Che, Michael W Chiu, Meghah Vuppalapaty, Adam M Dimmick, Dino Di Carlo, Michael L Kochersperger, Steve C Crouse, Stefanie S Jeffrey, Robert F Englert, Stephan Hengstler, Corinne Renier, Elodie Sollier-Christen
Tumor tissue biopsies are invasive, costly, and collect a limited cell population not completely reflective of patient cancer cell diversity. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be isolated from a simple blood draw and may be representative of the diverse biology from multiple tumor sites. The VTX-1 Liquid Biopsy System was designed to automate the isolation of clinically relevant CTC populations, making the CTCs available for easy analysis. We present here the transition from a cutting-edge microfluidic innovation in the lab to a commercial, automated system for isolating CTCs directly from whole blood...
February 2018: SLAS Technology
Hui Xie, Lusheng Zhu, Jun Wang
Bioremediation of contaminated soils by a combinational approach using specific bacterial species together with ryegrass is a promising strategy, resulting in potentially highly efficient degradation of organic contaminants. The present study tested the combination of strain DXZ9 of Stenotrophomonas sp. with ryegrass to remove DDT and DDE contaminants from soil under natural conditions in a pot experiment. The strain DXZ9 was successfully colonized in the natural soil, resulting in removal rates of approximately 77% for DDT, 52% for DDE, and 65% for the two pollutants combined after 210 days...
January 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nichole Bowman, Drashti Patel, Alysia Sanchez, Wentao Xu, Ali Alsaffar, Sonia M Tiquia-Arashiro
Lead is an extensive contaminant. Pb-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Saint Clair River sediments on two enrichment media with increasing concentrations of Pb (NO3)2. Bacterial strains that grew at 1.25 or 1.5 g L-1 of Pb (NO3)2 L-1) were purified and selected for further study. Ninety-seven Pb-resistant strains were screened for the ability to produce bioflocculants. The majority of the Pb-resistant strains demonstrated moderate to high flocculation activity. Metal removal assays demonstrated that the higher is the flocculation activity, the higher is the efficiency of metal removal...
January 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dai Sik Jeong, Young Hun Kim, Kyung Jong Kim
Purpose: Emergency colorectal surgery has high rates of complications and mortality because of incomplete bowel preparation and bacterial contamination. The authors aimed to evaluate the surgical outcomes and the risk factors for the mortality and the complication rates of patients who underwent emergency surgery to treat colorectal diseases. Methods: This is a prospective study from January 2014 to April 2016, and the results are based on a retrospective analysis of the clinical results for patients who underwent emergency colorectal surgery at Chosun University Hospital...
December 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
Caijiao Wei, Junliang Zhong, Ting Hu, Xihong Zhao
Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens that cause serious gastrointestinal illness and frequent food safety accidents. This study aimed to develop a practical multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) technique for the simultaneous detection of these food-borne pathogens in culture broth and artificial food matrix. Pathogen-specific DNA sequences in the rfbE, nuc, and invA genes were used as targets to design primers for the identification of E. coli O157:H7, S...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Reza Hakimi Alni, Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh, Pezhman Mahmoodi
The present study was conducted to determine the molecular diversity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human, bovine and food samples based on the polymorphism of the spa gene. A total of 208 S. aureus isolated from human, bovine raw milk and food samples were assessed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and single locus sequence typing (SLST) methods, followed by determination of spa types using Ridom SpaServer. Altogether, 15 distinct RFLP patterns were recorded (I-XV)...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Hye-Rang Beom, Jin Sun Kim, You-Ran Jang, Sun-Hyung Lim, Chang-Kug Kim, Choung Keun Lee, Jong-Yeol Lee
Although many studies on low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) function have been reported, a comprehensive comparison between specific genes and their protein product is still lacking. This study aimed to link the 43 genes isolated from the Korean wheat variety "Jokyoung" in the authors' previous study to their protein products. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) at the gene haplotype level. Using MS/MS analysis of 17 protein spots, two spots were identified in the Glu-A3 locus and the corresponding haplotype was GluA3-13(Glu-A3c)...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Shraddha Tiwari, Jata Shankar
The contamination of aflatoxins in maize or maize-related products synthesized by Aspergillus flavus causes severe economical loss and threat to human health. Use of eco-friendly phytochemicals has shown potential to inhibit secondary metabolites in Aspergillus species. Thus, A. flavus cultured in corn flour (CF) and corn flour with quercetin (CFQ) was used for protein extraction for proteome analysis using nLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Proteome analysis revealed the expressions of 705 and 843 proteins in CFQ and CF, respectively...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Bhavya Kachiprath, G Jayanath, Solly Solomon, Manomi Sarasan
A simple, reliable method for genomic DNA extraction from sediments with minimum contaminants was developed to address the risk of poor quality DNA in metagenomic studies. Nine DNA extraction methods using 20% cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) were performed and compared to develop an extraction protocol that can offer humic acid-free metagenomic DNA from marine and saltpan sediments. Community DNA extraction was executed via., Zhou et al. modified protocol using 20% CTAB treatment at different steps to compare the efficacy of humic acid removal...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
S Patricia Stock, Ayako Kusakabe, Rousel A Orozco
Gram-negative Photorhabdus bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualists of Heterorhabditis nematodes and are pathogens of insects. Together, this nematode-bacterium partnership has been used to successfully control a wide range of agricultural insect pests. Photorhabdus produce a diverse array of small molecules that play key biological roles in regulating their dual roles. In particular, several secondary metabolites (SM) produced by this bacterium are known to play a critical role in the maintenance of a monoxenic infection in the insect host and are also known to prevent contamination of the cadaver from soil microbes and/or predation by arthropods...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
S Engels, L S R Z Fong, Q Chen, M J Leng, S McGowan, M Idris, N L Rose, M S Ruslan, D Taylor, H Yang
Fossil fuel combustion leads to increased levels of air pollution, which negatively affects human health as well as the environment. Documented data for Southeast Asia (SEA) show a strong increase in fossil fuel consumption since 1980, but information on coal and oil combustion before 1980 is not widely available. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) and heavy metals, such as mercury (Hg), are emitted as by-products of fossil fuel combustion and may accumulate in sediments following atmospheric fallout...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
C Pellacani, L G Costa
Human exposure to neurotoxic pollutants (e.g. metals, pesticides and other chemicals) is recognized as a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that an alteration in autophagic pathways may be correlated with the onset of the neurotoxicity resulting from chronic exposure to these pollutants. In fact, autophagy is a natural process that permits to preserving cell homeostasis, through the seizure and degradation of the cytosolic damaged elements. However, when an excessive level of intracellular damage is reached, the autophagic process may also induce cell death...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tijana Milićević, Mira Aničić Urošević, Dubravka Relić, Gordana Vuković, Sandra Škrivanj, Aleksandar Popović
Monitoring of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil represents the first measure of caution regarding food safety, while research into element bioavailability should be a step forward in understanding the element transportation chain. This study was conducted in the grapevine growing area ("Oplenac Wine Route") for investigating element bioavailability in the soil-grapevine system accompanied by an assessment of the ecological implications and human health risk. Single extraction procedures (CH3COOH, Na2EDTA, CaCl2, NH4NO3 and deionised H2O) and digestion were performed to estimate the bioavailability of 22 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) from the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) to the grapevine parts (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) and wine...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rong Yu, Richard G Andrachek, Leo G Lehmicke, David L Freedman
Biostimulation was identified as a potential technology to treat a fractured sandstone aquifer contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE). Most of the mass of TCE and cis-DCE resides within the rock matrix and strategies to restore groundwater to pre-existing conditions are severely limited by back diffusion. A microcosm study using crushed rock and groundwater from the site was performed to assess biostimulation and natural attenuation. Lactate, hydrogen release compound® (HRC), and emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) significantly increased the rate of TCE reduction to cis-DCE...
January 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Monika Harnisz, Ewa Korzeniewska
The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of antibiotic resistance and virulence of Aeromonas spp. isolated from treated wastewater (WW) and from samples of river water collected upstream (URW) and downstream (DRW) from the effluent discharge point. The resistance of Aeromonas spp. to antibiotics that are widely used in human and veterinary medicine, including beta-lactams, tetracyclines, glycylcyclines, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, was analyzed by disk diffusion method...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Guang-Yuan Lu, Wen-Xiong Wang
Metal contamination is one of the most ubiquitous and complex problems in the Chinese coastal environment. To explore the large-scale spatial patterns of bioavailable metals, we sampled three major mussels, including 784 blue mussels (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758) of 14 sites, 224 hard-shelled mussels (Mytilus unguiculatus Valenciennes, 1858) of 4 sites, and 392 green mussels (Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)) of 7 sites, ranging from temperate to tropical coastlines of China, during August and September 2015...
January 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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