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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783200/blood-lead-and-cadmium-levels-in-preschool-children-and-associated-risk-factors-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#1
Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio, Júlia Prestes da Rocha Silva, Agnes Soares da Silva, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira Souza, Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Regina Alves Cardoso
In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783193/quorum-sensing-molecules-in-activated-sludge-could-trigger-microalgae-lipid-synthesis
#2
Chaofan Zhang, Qingcheng Li, Liang Fu, Dandan Zhou, John C Crittenden
Cultivating microalgae using wastewater is an economical strategy to produce biofuel; however, microbial contamination has to be controlled strictly. Microalgae lipid accumulation can be triggered by environmental pressures, and here, we studied whether microbial contamination is the pressure for microalgae. We hypothesized this pressure was forced via cell-to-cell communication with quorum sensing molecules (QSMs). In this work, we verified the impacts of QSMs produced by activated sludge (wastewater-born microbial consortiums) on both lipid content and biomass production of the microalgae Chlorophyta sp...
May 18, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783191/ganga-water-pollution-a-potential-health-threat-to-inhabitants-of-ganga-basin
#3
REVIEW
Sanjay Dwivedi, Seema Mishra, Rudra Deo Tripathi
BACKGROUND: The water quality of Ganga, the largest river in Indian sub-continent and life line to hundreds of million people, has severely deteriorated. Studies have indicated the presence of high level of carcinogenic elements in Ganga water. OBJECTIVES: We performed extensive review of sources and level of organic, inorganic pollution and microbial contamination in Ganga water to evaluate changes in the level of various pollutants in the recent decade in comparison to the past and potential health risk for the population through consumption of toxicant tainted fishes in Ganga basin...
May 18, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783178/an-alternative-approach-for-nitrate-and-arsenic-removal-from-wastewater-via-a-nitrate-dependent-ferrous-oxidation-process
#4
Meilin Zhang, Yingfen Li, Xinxian Long, Yunxiao Chong, Guangwei Yu, Zihao He
Owing to the high efficiency of converting nitrate to nitrogen gas with ferrous iron as the electron donor, the process of nitrate-dependent ferrous oxidation (NDFeO) has been considered suitable to treat wastewater that contains nitrate but lacks organic matter. Meanwhile, arsenic immobilization often has been found during the NDFeO reaction. Thus, it was strongly expected that nitrate and arsenic could be removed simultaneously in co-contaminated wastewater through the NDFeO process. However, in the current work, arsenic was not removed during the NDFeO process when the pH was high (above 8), though the nitrate reduction rate was over 90%...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783177/evaluating-long-term-patterns-of-decreasing-groundwater-discharge-through-a-lake-bottom-permeable-reactive-barrier
#5
Timothy D McCobb, Martin A Briggs, Denis R LeBlanc, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Carole D Johnson
Identifying and quantifying groundwater exchange is critical when considering contaminant fate and transport at the groundwater/surface-water interface. In this paper, areally distributed temperature and point seepage measurements are used to efficiently assess spatial and temporal groundwater discharge patterns through a glacial-kettle lakebed area containing a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Concern was that the PRB was becoming less permeable with time owing to biogeochemical processes within the PRB...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783116/modelling-environment-contamination-with-heavy-metals-in-flathead-grey-mullet-mugil-cephalus-and-upper-sediments-from-north-african-coasts-of-the-mediterranean-sea
#6
Naouel Ouali, Bourhane-Eddine Belabed, Haroun Chenchouni
Heavy metals are a serious hazard for aquatic ecosystems and human health. They negatively affect aquatic life functioning through accumulation resulting physiological/growth disturbances in aquatic lifeforms. This survey focused on the assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Gulf of Annaba (northeastern Algeria), the largest and most diversified industrial hub in Africa, using a multi-compartment approach (water-sediment-biota). The study aims to characterize the spatiotemporal variation of trace metal (TM) contamination and its effects on the growth of the Flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus)...
May 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783109/anti-inflammatory-potential-of-alginic-acid-from-sargassum-horneri-against-urban-aerosol-induced-inflammatory-responses-in-keratinocytes-and-macrophages
#7
I P Shanura Fernando, Thilina U Jayawardena, K K Asanka Sanjeewa, Lei Wang, You-Jin Jeon, Won Woo Lee
The airborne particulate pollutants originating in the deserts of Mongolia and China which becomes contaminated with industrial effluents and traffic emissions while moving with the wind currents towards East Asia has recently become a serious environmental and health issue in the region. They cause asthma, collateral lung tissue damage, oxidative stress, allergic reactions, and inflammation. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of alginate extracted from the invasive alga Sargassum horneri (SHA) against fine dust collected from Beijing, China (Chinese fine dust; CFD)...
May 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783051/occurrence-and-potential-human-health-risks-of-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-in-drinking-water-from-cities-along-the-chinese-coastland-of-the-yellow-sea
#8
Zekai Li, Fangyu Chang, Peng Shi, Xun Chen, Feng Yang, Qing Zhou, Yang Pan, Aimin Li
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in drinking water have been considered a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, SVOC contamination and the associated human health risks of the drinking water from cities along tributaries of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River in China have been seldom reported. Here, we focused on the occurrence and distribution of a series of SVOCs, mainly including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), in drinking water of this region...
May 12, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783046/bacterial-community-of-industrial-raw-sausage-packaged-in-modified-atmosphere-throughout-the-shelf-life
#9
Stefano Raimondi, Maria Rosaria Nappi, Tiziana Maria Sirangelo, Alan Leonardi, Alberto Amaretti, Alessandro Ulrici, Rudy Magnani, Chiara Montanari, Giulia Tabanelli, Fausto Gardini, Maddalena Rossi
Ten lots of industrial raw sausages in modified atmosphere (CO2 30%, O2 70%), produced in the same plant over 7 months, were analyzed at the day after production (S samples) and at the end of shelf life (E samples), after 12 days storage at 7 °C to simulate thermal abuse. Quality of the products was generally compromised by storage at 7 °C, with only 3 E samples without alterations. During the shelf life, the pH decreased for the accumulation of acetic and lactic acids. A few biogenic amines accumulated, remaining below acceptable limits...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783005/metal-accumulation-and-expression-of-genes-encoding-for-metallothionein-and-copper-transporters-in-a-chronically-exposed-wild-population-of-the-fish-hyphessobrycon-luetkenii
#10
Sandra Isabel Moreno Abril, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Adalto Bianchini
In the present study, metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) accumulation and expression of genes involved in metal metabolism (metallothioneins, ATP7A and CTR1) were evaluated in gills and muscle of the fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii living in the João Dias creek, a site historically (~1870-1996) contaminated with a metal mixture associated with copper mining (Minas do Camaquã, southern Brazil). Fish were collected in a metal impacted site of the João Dias creek and kept in a cage at this site (PP fish) or translocated to a non-metal impacted reach of this creek (PC fish)...
May 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782885/the-confounding-effect-of-background-odors-on-olfactory-sensitivity-testing
#11
A Oleszkiewicz, L Rambacher, K L Whitcroft, T Hummel
BACKGROUND: Human olfactory sensitivity is known to vary significantly across subjects. Furthermore, environmental factors such as background noise and odor are known to affect target odor threshold scores but have not yet been fully delineated. We aimed to determine whether congruent and non-congruent background odor impaired target odor threshold scores. NEW METHOD: We performed odor threshold testing in 103 normosmic adults, using phenylethylalcohol (PEA) or linalool as target odors, under three conditions: (a) congruent target and background odors (e...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782830/toxoplasma-gondii-infections-in-chickens-performance-of-various-antibody-detection-techniques-in-serum-and-meat-juice-relative-to-bioassay-and-dna-detection-methods
#12
G Schares, M Koethe, B Bangoura, A-C Geuthner, F Randau, M Ludewig, P Maksimov, M Sens, A Bärwald, F J Conraths, I Villena, D Aubert, M Opsteegh, J Van der Giessen
Chickens, especially if free-range, are frequently exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, and may represent an important reservoir for T. gondii. Poultry products may pose a risk to humans, when consumed undercooked. In addition, chickens are regarded as sensitive indicators for environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts and have been used as sentinels. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of commonly used antibody detection methods, i.e. the modified agglutination test (MAT), IFAT and ELISA to detect T...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782684/intelligent-mesoporous-materials-for-selective-adsorption-and-mechanical-release-of-organic-pollutants-from-water
#13
Siying Xie, Shanshan Wu, Sihan Bao, Yanqiu Wang, Yongtai Zheng, Danfeng Deng, Liping Huang, Lingling Zhang, Myongsoo Lee, Zhegang Huang
Despite recent advances in the porous materials for efficient removal of dissolved organic pollutants from water, the regeneration of porous characteristics for reuse with preventing secondary contamination remains a challenge. Here, novel supramolecular absorbents with hydrophobic pore are prepared by the self-assembly of propeller-shaped aromatic amphiphiles. The assembly of folded propeller provides a mesoporous environment within aromatic segments, which is suitable for the removal of organic pollutants from waste water...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782157/the-role-of-marine-snows-in-microplastic-fate-and-bioavailability
#14
Adam Porter, Brett P Lyons, Tamara S Galloway, Ceri N Lewis
Microplastics contaminate global oceans and are accumulating in sediments at levels thought sufficient to leave a permanent layer in the fossil record. Despite this, the processes that vertically transport buoyant polymers from surface waters to the benthos are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that laboratory generated marine snows can transport microplastics of different shapes, sizes and polymers away from the water surface and enhance their bioavailability to benthic organisms. Sinking rates of all tested microplastics increased when incorporated into snows, with large changes observed for the buoyant polymer polyethylene with an increase in sinking rate of 818 m day-1 and for denser polyamide fragments of 916 m day-1...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782021/exploring-the-root-microbiome-extracting-bacterial-community-data-from-the-soil-rhizosphere-and-root-endosphere
#15
Tuesday Simmons, Daniel F Caddell, Siwen Deng, Devin Coleman-Derr
The intimate interaction between plant host and associated microorganisms is crucial in determining plant fitness, and can foster improved tolerance to abiotic stresses and diseases. As the plant microbiome can be highly complex, low-cost, high-throughput methods such as amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene are often preferred for characterizing its microbial composition and diversity. However, the selection of appropriate methodology when conducting such experiments is critical for reducing biases that can make analysis and comparisons between samples and studies difficult...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781552/topical-rifampin-powder-for-orthopaedic-trauma-part-i-rifampin-powder-reduces-recalcitrant-infection-in-a-delayed-treatment-musculoskeletal-trauma-model
#16
Stefanie M Shiels, David J Tennent, Joseph C Wenke
Open fractures become infected despite meticulous debridement and care. Locally applied antibiotics, commonly embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, deliver high doses of drug directly to the fracture site. Direct application of antibiotic powder, which is being applied prophylactically in spine surgery, is a recent interest in the trauma sector, where bacterial biofilms are more prevalent. Traditional antibiotics, such as vancomycin, are poor performers against bacterial biofilms thus are ineffective in delayed treatment...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781542/diversity-of-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius-in-carriage-sites-and-skin-lesions-of-dogs-with-superficial-bacterial-folliculitis-potential-implications-for-diagnostic-testing-and-therapy
#17
Rikke Friis Larsen, Lene Boysen, Lisbeth Rem Jessen, Luca Guardabassi, Peter Damborg
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is genotypically diverse within the canine population and multiple strains may colonize individual dogs at any given time. If multiple strains with distinct antimicrobial resistance profiles are present in superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF), sampling a single skin lesion for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) might be inadequate to select effective therapy. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To investigate S...
May 21, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781418/waterborne-outbreak-of-gastroenteritis-on-the-kwazulu-natal-coast-south-africa-december-2016-january-2017
#18
P G Sekwadi, K G Ravhuhali, A Mosam, V Essel, G M Ntshoe, A M Shonhiwa, K McCarthy, J Mans, M B Taylor, N A Page, N Govender
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens...
May 21, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781364/pet-ct-analysis-of-21-patients-with-breast-cancer-physiological-distribution-of-18-f-choline-and-diagnostic-pitfalls
#19
Fathinul Fikri Ahmad Saad, Mohd Hazeman Zakaria, Bahunu Appanna
Objectives 18 F-choline is a useful tracer for detecting tumours with high lipogenesis. Knowledge of its biodistribution pattern is essential to recognise physiological variants. The aim of this study was to describe the physiologic distribution of 18 F-choline and pitfalls in patients with breast cancer. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients with breast cancer (10 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women; mean age, 52.82 ± 10.71 years) underwent 18 F-choline positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for staging...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781246/determination-of-pesticide-dermal-transfer-to-operators-agricultural-workers-through-contact-with-sprayed-hard-surfaces
#20
Angelos N Tsakirakis, Konstantinos M Kasiotis, Pelagia Anastasiadou, Agathi N Charistou, Rianda Gerritsen-Ebben, C Richard Glass, Kyriaki Machera
BACKGROUND: In the present study, the dermal transfer rate of pesticides to agricultural workers occurring via contact with sprayed hard surfaces was investigated. Cotton gloves were used as dosimeters to collect residues from hard surfaces contaminated by pesticides in greenhouses. Dosimeters, either dry or moistened, were in contact with wood, metal and plastic surfaces previously sprayed. The experimental approach applied mimicked the typical hand contact. Moistened cotton gloves were used to simulate hand moisture from dew/condensation or rainfall...
May 20, 2018: Pest Management Science
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