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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936403/arsenic-accumulation-and-speciation-in-rice-grown-in-arsanilic-acid-elevated-paddy-soil
#1
Anjing Geng, Xu Wang, Lishu Wu, Fuhua Wang, Yan Chen, Hui Yang, Zhan Zhang, Xiaoli Zhao
P-arsanilic acid (AsA) is a emerging but less concerned contaminant used in animal feeding operations, for it can be degraded to more toxic metabolites after being excreted by animals. Rice is the staple food in many parts of the world, and also more efficient in accumulating arsenic (As) compared to other cereals. However, the uptake and transformation of AsA by rice is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential risk of using AsA as a feed additive and using the AsA contaminated animal manure as a fertilizer...
December 6, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936402/influence-of-triethyl-phosphate-on-phosphatase-activity-in-shooting-range-soil-isolation-of-a-zinc-resistant-bacterium-with-an-acid-phosphatase
#2
Sandra Story, Robin L Brigmon
Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments...
December 6, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936351/metal-exposures-at-three-u-s-electronic-scrap-recycling-facilities
#3
Diana Ceballos, Catherine Beaucham, Elena Page
Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936304/continuous-flow-synthesis-and-purification-of-aryldiazomethanes-through-hydrazone-fragmentation
#4
Éric Lévesque, Simon T Laporte, André B Charette
Electron-rich diazo compounds, such as aryldiazomethanes, are powerful reagents for the synthesis of complex structures, but the risks associated with their toxicity and instability often limit their use. Flow chemistry techniques make these issues avoidable, as the hazardous intermediate can be used as it is produced, avoiding accumulation and handling. Unfortunately, the produced stream is often contaminated with other reagents and by-products, making it incompatible with many applications, especially in catalysis...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936152/variety-of-antimicrobial-resistances-and-virulence-factors-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-meat-products-legally-and-illegally-introduced-to-germany
#5
Anja Müller, Diana Seinige, Wiebke Jansen, Günter Klein, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Corinna Kehrenberg
Food products of animal origin can serve as a vehicle for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, a facultative pathogen involved in a variety of diseases. As a result, international trade and illegal transportation of foodstuffs can facilitate the distribution of S. aureus over long distances. In this study, we investigated S. aureus isolates recovered from meat products confiscated from passengers returning from non-EU countries at two German airports and from samples of legally imported meats from non-EU countries. The aim was to characterize isolates in regard to their genetic relatedness as well as their antimicrobial resistance profiles and major virulence factors in order to assess potential risks associated with these products...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936151/osmoregulated-chloride-currents-in-hemocytes-from-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#6
Monica Bregante, Armando Carpaneto, Veronica Piazza, Francesca Sbrana, Massimo Vassalli, Marco Faimali, Franco Gambale
We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935960/hydrological-regime-and-water-shortage-as-drivers-of-the-seasonal-incidence-of-diarrheal-diseases-in-a-tropical-montane-environment
#7
Laurie Boithias, Marc Choisy, Noy Souliyaseng, Marine Jourdren, Fabrice Quet, Yves Buisson, Chanthamousone Thammahacksa, Norbert Silvera, Keooudone Latsachack, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Alain Pierret, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Sylvia Becerra, Olivier Ribolzi
BACKGROUND: The global burden of diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In montane areas of South-East Asia such as northern Laos, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion and in-stream suspended sediment loads, and potential pathogen dissemination. To our knowledge, few studies have related diarrhea incidences to catchment scale hydrological factors such as river discharge, and loads of suspended sediment and of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli, together with sociological factors such as hygiene practices...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935836/the-pas-domain-containing-protein-heur-regulates-heme-uptake-in-campylobacter-jejuni
#8
Jeremiah G Johnson, Jennifer A Gaddy, Victor J DiRita
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterially derived gastroenteritis. A previous mutant screen demonstrated that the heme uptake system (Chu) is required for full colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Subsequent work identified a PAS domain-containing regulator, termed HeuR, as being required for chicken colonization. Here we confirm that both the heme uptake system and HeuR are required for full chicken gastrointestinal tract colonization, with the heuR mutant being particularly affected during competition with wild-type C...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935660/biofilm-formation-in-haas-palatal-expanders-with-and-without-use-of-an-antimicrobial-agent-an-in-situ-study
#9
Cristhiane Ristum Bagatin, Marcela Cristina Damião Andrucioli, José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira, Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da Silva, Fábio Lourenço Romano, Paulo Nelson-Filho
Orthodontic appliances causes specific alterations in oral environment, including reduction of pH, increase of dental biofilm and elevation of salivary microbial levels, causing an increased risk for dental caries. This study evaluated, using microbial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the in situ contamination by mutans streptococci (MS) of different surfaces of Haas palatal expanders with and without use of chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinses (CHX). Thirty-four patients were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 17/group), using placebo (Group I) and 0...
December 9, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935574/europium-doping-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-enables-their-detection-by-fluorescence-microscopy-and-for-quantitative-analytics
#10
Yuske Kobayashi, Ralf Hauptmann, Harald Kratz, Monika Ebert, Susanne Wagner, Matthias Taupitz
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic studies and histological detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) in biomedical research are limited due to a high iron background especially in pathological tissues. OBJECTIVE: The suitability of doping the iron oxide cores of SPIO with europium (Eu) was tested for improved histologic detection and for quantitative analysis without changing their properties as probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A special variant of SPIO, so called very small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP), was used for this approach...
December 2, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935273/are-graphitic-surfaces-hydrophobic
#11
Andrew Kozbial, Feng Zhou, Zhiting Li, Haitao Liu, Lei Li
Graphitic carbons are important solid materials with myriad applications including electrodes, adsorbents, catalyst support, and solid lubricants. Understanding the interaction between water and graphitic carbons is critically important for both fundamental material characterization and practical device fabrication because the water-graphitic interface is essential to many applications. Research interests in graphene and carbon nanotubes over the past decades have brought renewed interest to elucidate wettability of graphitic carbons and understand their interaction with the surrounding environment...
December 9, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934995/the-wetting-behavior-of-aqueous-surfactant-solutions-on-wheat-triticum-aestivum-leaf-surfaces
#12
Chenhui Zhang, Xin Zhao, Jinmei Lei, Yue Ma, Fengpei Du
In this research the wetting behavior of agro-surfactant solutions (Triton X-100, SDS, DTAB) on wheat leaf surfaces have been investigated based on the surface free energy, surface tension, and the contact angle. The results show that the contact angle of those surfactant solutions keeps constant with low adsorption at interfaces below 1 × 10(-5) mol L(-1). With the increase in concentration, the contact angles of Triton X-100 decrease sharply because the adsorption of molecules at solid-liquid interfaces (ΓSL') is several times greater than that at liquid-air interfaces (ΓLV)...
December 9, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934830/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-causing-blood-stream-infection-at-an-indian-tertiary-care-hospital-prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterisation
#13
S Singh, B Dhawan, A Kapil, S K Kabra, A Suri, V Sreenivas, B K Das
INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen a rise of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from common contaminants to agents of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI's). Molecular typing and establishing a correlation with antibiotic resistance is essential particularly in countries like India where genotyping studies for drug-resistant CoNS are sparse. METHODS: A prospective study was done over 18 months, wherein 42,693 blood samples were received, and 59 patients with BSI due to CoNS were evaluated...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934827/flooding-adds-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-to-the-water-sources-in-southern-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan
#14
M S Shah, M Eppinger, S Ahmed, A A Shah, A Hameed, F Hasan
PURPOSE: Seasonal rains in Pakistan result in heavy floods across the country, whereby faecal contaminants will be added to the water bodies and cause numerous food-borne outbreaks. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in the water sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred water samples collected during (2011-2012) were processed for the isolation of E. coli (EC) strains. EC strains were further analysed for antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and pathogroups-specific virulence factors stx1, stx2, stx2c, eae, tir, hlyA, bfpA, estA and eltA were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934578/principles-of-ethical-leadership-illustrated-by-institutional-management-of-prion-contamination-of-neurosurgical-instruments
#15
Tim Lahey, Joseph Pepe, William Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934284/which-molecular-features-affect-the-intrinsic-hepatic-clearance-rate-of-ionizable-organic-chemicals-in-fish
#16
Yi Chen, Joop L M Hermens, Michiel T O Jonker, Jon A Arnot, James M Armitage, Trevor Brown, John W Nichols, Kellie A Fay, Steven T J Droge
Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study, we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a pooled batch of liver S9 fractions isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The IOCs included four types of strongly ionized acids (carboxylates, phenolates, sulfonates, and sulfates), three types of strongly ionized bases (primary, secondary, tertiary amines), and a pair of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934280/predictive-capabilities-of-in-vitro-assays-for-estimating-pb-relative-bioavailability-in-phosphate-amended-soils
#17
Albert L Juhasz, Kirk G Scheckel, Aaron R Betts, Euan Smith
In this study, the in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) of lead (Pb) in phosphate-amended Pb-contaminated soil was assessed using a variety of IVBA assays with an overarching aim of determining whether changes in Pb IVBA were congruent to those observed for Pb relative bioavailability (RBA) determined using an in vivo mouse assay. Amending soil with phosphoric acid or rock phosphate resulted in changes in Pb speciation, however, varying Pb IVBA results were obtained depending on the methodology utilized. In addition, IVBA assays influenced Pb speciation as a consequence of interactions between dissolved Pb and unreacted phosphate arising from the amendment or from assay constituents...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934277/visible-light-responsive-graphitic-carbon-nitride-rational-design-and-photocatalytic-applications-for-water-treatment
#18
Qinmin Zheng, David P Durkin, Justin E Elenewski, Yingxue Sun, Nathan A Banek, Likun Hua, Hanning Chen, Michael J Wagner, Wen Zhang, Danmeng Shuai
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has recently emerged as a promising visible-light-responsive polymeric photocatalyst; however, a molecular-level understanding of material properties and its application for water purification were underexplored. In this study, we rationally designed nonmetal doped, supramolecule-based g-C3N4 with improved surface area and charge separation. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations indicated that carbon-doped g-C3N4 showed a thermodynamically stable structure, promoted charge separation, and had suitable energy levels of conduction and valence bands for photocatalytic oxidation compared to phosphorus-doped g-C3N4...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934274/incorporation-of-technetium-into-spinel-ferrites
#19
Wayne W Lukens, Nicola Magnani, Tolek Tyliszczak, Carolyn I Pearce, David K Shuh
Technetium ((99)Tc) is a problematic fission product for the long-term disposal of nuclear waste due to its long half-life, high fission yield, and to the environmental mobility of pertechnetate, the stable species in aerobic environments. One approach to preventing (99)Tc contamination is using sufficiently durable waste forms. We report the incorporation of technetium into a family of synthetic spinel ferrites that have environmentally durable natural analogs. A combination of X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and chemical analysis reveals that Tc(IV) replaces Fe(III) in octahedral sites and illustrates how the resulting charge mismatch is balanced...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934269/can-chemical-class-approaches-replace-chemical-by-chemical-strategies-lessons-from-recent-u-s-fda-regulatory-action-on-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances
#20
Alissa Cordner, Lauren Richter, Phil Brown
Concern about the toxicity and exposure of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is growing among scientists, regulators, and residents of contaminated communities. In 2016, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed three food contact substances (FCSs) containing perfluorinated chemicals from the list of approved FCSs due to concerns regarding chemical safety. To investigate the significance and limitations of the FDA's regulatory action for environmental health research, advocacy, and regulation, we conducted a media analysis and qualitative interviews with a range of involved stakeholders...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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