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Palash Dutta
Health risk assessments have been carried out worldwide to examine potential health risk due to exposure to toxic contaminants in various environments. In risk assessment, it is most important to know the nature of all available information, data or model parameters. It is observed that available information/data are tainted with uncertainty and variability in the same time, i.e., uncertainty and variability co-exist. In such situation it is important to devise method for processing both uncertainty and variability into same framework and which is an open issue...
2017: MethodsX
Sebastian Ehrhart, Luisa Ickes, Joao Almeida, Antonio Amorim, Peter Barmet, Federico Bianchi, Josef Dommen, Eimear M Dunne, Jonathan Duplissy, Alessandro Franchin, Juha Kangasluoma, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Agnieszka Kupc, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Tuomo Nieminen, Francesco Riccobono, Linda Rondo, Siegfried Schobesberger, Gerhard Steiner, António Tomé, Daniela Wimmer, Urs Baltensperger, Paul E Wagner, Joachim Curtius
Binary nucleation of sulphuric acid-water particles is expected to be an important process in the free troposphere at low temperatures. SAWNUC (Sulphuric Acid Water Nucleation) is a model of binary nucleation that is based on laboratory measurements of the binding energies of sulphuric acid and water in charged and neutral clusters. Predictions of SAWNUC are compared for the first time comprehensively with experimental binary nucleation data from the CLOUD chamber at European Organization for Nuclear Research...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Deborah De Geyter, Lieve Blommaert, Nicole Verbraeken, Mark Sevenois, Luc Huyghens, Helena Martini, Lieve Covens, Denis Piérard, Ingrid Wybo
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are emerging pathogens that represent a major public health threat. In the University Hospital of Brussels, the incidence of new patients with CPE rose from 1 case in 2010 to 35 cases in 2015. Between January and August 2015, five patients became infected/colonized with CPE during their stay in the same room in the intensive care unit (ICU). Since the time period between those patients was relatively short and the strains belonged to different species with different antibiograms and mechanisms of resistance, the hypothesis was that the environment could be a possible source of transmission...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Tsitsi Grace Monera-Penduka, Zvinji Tella Jani, Charles Chiedza Maponga, Josephine Mudzengi, Gene D Morse, Charles Fungai Brian Nhachi
Labeling information and quality of marketed Moringa oleifera products were assessed. Personnel in 60 pharmacies and 11 herbal shops were interviewed about the sources, dosages, indications and counseling information of Moringa oleifera products. Content analysis of written information provided on Moringa oleifera products was also done. Three samples of Moringa from popular sources were acquired to determine heavy metal content and microbial contamination. The results were compared to specified limits in the European and Chinese pharmacopeia, World Health Organization guidelines and Bureau of Indian Standards...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Daniele Marcoccia, Marco Pellegrini, Marco Fiocchetti, Stefano Lorenzetti, Maria Marino
Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual differentiation during development, sperm production beginning from puberty, and maintenance of prostate homeostasis. Several substances present in the environment, now classified as endocrine disruptors (EDCs), strongly interfere with androgen actions in reproductive and non-reproductive tissues...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
Shiv K Verma, Amy R Sweeny, Matthew J Lovallo, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Oliver C Kwok, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su, Michael E Grigg, Jitender P Dubey
Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and feces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats...
February 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Feriel Bouiche, Karine Faure
Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) works with biphasic liquid systems including aqueous two-phase systems. Metallic rotors are able to retain an aqueous stationary phase able to purify proteins. But the adhesion of proteins to solid surface may pose a cross-contamination risk during downstream processes. So it is of utmost importance to ensure the cleanliness of the equipment and detect possible protein contamination in a timely manner. Thereby, a direct method that allows the determination of the effective presence of proteins and the extent of contamination in the metallic CPC rotors was developed...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
D Serpa, J P Nunes, J J Keizer, N Abrantes
Studies that address the potential effects of climate and land use changes on surface water quality are scarce in the Mediterranean region. In the present work, the impacts of climate and land use changes on nutrient and copper exports from a humid Mediterranean catchment (São Lourenço) were evaluated using the SWAT model. SWAT reproduced reasonably well total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP) and copper (Cu) exports in São Lourenço, providing an adequate baseline scenario as well as a suitable model parameterization for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes under the A1B and B1 emission scenarios for the end of the 21st century (2071-2100)...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
G S Dolci, H Z Rosa, L T Vey, C S Pase, R C S Barcelos, V T Dias, L Loebens, P Dalla Vecchia, C A Bizzi, B Baldisserotto, M E Burger
Exposure to hypoxia has shown beneficial adjustments in different species, including silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), especially in situations of aquatic contamination with pollutants such as manganese (Mn). Considering that hypoxia is seasonal in the natural aquatic environment, we decided to assess whether these adaptive mechanisms could be maintained when reoxygenation is established. Silver catfish acclimated to moderate hypoxia (∼3 mg L(-1), 41% O2 saturation) for 10 days and subsequently exposed to Mn (∼8...
February 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Bin Guo, Bo Liu, Jian Yang, Shengen Zhang
Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
N Basavaiah, R D Mohite, P U Singare, A V R Reddy, R K Singhal, U Blaha
A study on vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting PAHs was performed in the reclaimed mudflat sediments adjacent to the Thane Creek of Mumbai. The 5-rings PAHs and ΣC-PAHs were more dominant at 120cm depth contributing 52.23% and 60.19% respectively to ∑PAHs. The average ratio values of LMW/HMW PAHs (0.58); Fla/(Fla+Pyr) (0.50); Ant/(Ant+Phe) (0.50); BaA/(Chry+BaA) (0.48); BaP/BghiP (2.06), Phe/Ant (1.03) and BaA/Chr (0.93) indicate that the PAH contamination might have raised due to inefficient combustion and pyrogenic emissions during the open burning of solid waste in the vicinity...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Megan Willie, Daniel Esler, W Sean Boyd, Philip Molloy, Ronald C Ydenberg
Barrow's goldeneyes are sea ducks that winter throughout coastal British Columbia (BC). Their diet consists primarily of intertidal blue mussels, which can accumulate PAHs; accordingly, goldeneyes may be susceptible to exposure through contaminated prey. In 2014/15, we examined total PAH concentrations in mussels from undeveloped and developed coastal areas of BC. At those same sites, we used EROD to measure hepatic CYP1A induction in goldeneyes. We found higher mussel PAH concentrations at developed coastal sites...
February 23, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Johan A Wiklund, Jane L Kirk, Derek C G Muir, Marlene Evans, Fan Yang, Jonathan Keating, Matthew T Parsons
High-resolution records of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) deposition were constructed from 9 lakes located 5-75km from the Flin Flon, Manitoba smelter (formerly one of North America's largest atmospheric Hg point sources) and 5 lakes in Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario; a region remote from major Hg point sources. Anthropogenic Hg deposition, as both a flux and inventory, was determined after accounting for lake-specific natural Hg background concentrations, changes in sedimentation and sediment focusing...
February 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jose Garcia, Jasmina Markovski, J McKay Gifford, Onur Apul, Kiril D Hristovski
The overarching goal of this study was to ascertain the changes in intraparticle mass transport rates for organic contaminants resulting from nano-enabled hybridization of commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC). Three different nano-enabled hybrid media were fabricated by in-situ synthesizing titanium dioxide nanoparticles inside the pores of GAC sorbent, characterized, and evaluated for removal of two model organic contaminants under realistic conditions to obtain the intraparticle mass transport (pore and surface diffusion) coefficients...
February 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Huan Chen, Kimberly E Carter
Various toxic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids may influence the inherent health risks associated with these operations. This study investigated the possible occupational inhalation exposures and potential risks related to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical storage tanks and flowback pits used in hydraulic fracturing. Potential risks were evaluated based on radial distances between 5 m and 180 m from the wells for 23 contaminants with known inhalation reference concentration (RfC) or inhalation unit risks (IUR)...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jeff Gamlin, Doug Downey, Brad Shearer, Paul Favara
Subgrade biogeochemical reactors (SBGRs), also commonly referred to as in situ bioreactors, are a unique technology for treatment of contaminant source areas and groundwater plume hot spots. SBGRs have most commonly been configured for enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) applications for chlorinated solvent treatment. However, they have also been designed for other contaminant classes using alternative treatment media. The SBGR technology typically consists of removal of contaminated soil via excavation or large-diameter augers, and backfill of the soil void with gravel and treatment amendments tailored to the target contaminant(s)...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Yunho Song, Man Sik Choi
To assess metal contamination in sediments along the entire coastline of South Korea, we estimated the regional background concentrations of metals and assessed the degree of contamination. Major and heavy metal concentrations, grain sizes, and sedimentation rates were analyzed. Regional background concentrations were established by identifying uncontaminated sediments in the cores, using first-order linear regression of background concentration against Cs concentration. The metal contamination of surface sediments was assessed using Korean sediment quality guidelines and a modified geo-accumulation index (Igeo(⁎))...
February 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kevin K Y Ho, Kenneth M Y Leung
Application of organotins in antifouling systems on ship hulls has been globally prohibited by the International Maritime Organization since September 2008. It is, therefore, anticipated that there is a recovery of imposex-affected gastropod populations worldwide. We studied the population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera in six locations around Hong Kong's coastal waters, covering different degrees of organotin contamination for 25months (2011-2013). Abundance and density of R. clavigera were higher in clean sites, while they tended to grow faster in polluted sites...
February 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yovana Sanchis, Vicent Yusà, Clara Coscollà
In this review, we present current approaches in the analysis of food-packaging contaminants. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection have been widely used in the analysis of some relevant families of these compounds such as primary aromatic amines, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and related compounds, UV-ink photoinitiators, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates and non-intentionally added substances. Main applications for sample treatment and different types of food-contact material migration studies have been also discussed...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Amin S M Salehi, Miriam J Shakalli Tang, Mark Thomas Smith, Jeremy M Hunt, Robert A Law, David W Wood, Bradley Charles Bundy
Here we introduce a Rapid Adaptable Portable In-vitro Detection biosensor platform (RAPID) for detecting ligands that interact with NHRs. The RAPID platform can be adapted for field use, allowing rapid evaluation of EDC presence or absence in environmental samples, and could also be applied for drug screening. The biosensor is based on an engineered, allosterically-activated fusion protein, which contains the ligand-binding domain (LBD) from a target NHR (human thyroid receptor in this work). In vitro expression of this protein using cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) technology in the presence of an EDC leads to activation of a reporter enzyme, reported through a straightforward colorimetric assay output...
February 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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